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  1. Los Angeles Wolves (1) The United Soccer Association was a professional soccer league featuring teams based in the United States and Canada. The league survived only one season before merging with the National Professional Soccer League to form the North American Soccer League. Every team in the league was actually an imported European or South ...

    • United States
    • Canada
    • 1966
    • merged with NPSL, to form NASL in 1968
  2. 15 March 1980; 42 years ago () in Adelaide, Australia (as News Corp Limited) 12 December 2004; 17 years ago () in Wilmington, Delaware, United States (as News Corporation) [1] [2] The original incarnation of News Corporation (abbreviated News Corp.), also variously known as News Corporation Limited, was an American multinational mass media corporation operated and owned by media mogul Rupert ...

  3. United Artists Corporation (UA), currently doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American digital production company.Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, and Douglas Fairbanks, the studio was premised on allowing actors to control their own interests, rather than being dependent upon commercial studios. [2]

  4. › wiki › CogenerationCogeneration - Wikipedia

    • Overview
    • Types of Plants
    • Cogeneration Using Biomass
    • Comparison with A Heat Pump
    • Distributed Generation
    • Thermal Efficiency
    • Costs
    • History
    • Applications in Power Generation Systems

    Many process industries, such as chemical plants, oil refineries and pulp and paper mills, require large amounts of process heat for such operations as chemical reactors, distillation columns, steam driers and other uses. This heat, which is usually used in the form of steam, can be generated at the typically low pressures used in heating, or can b...

    Topping cycle plants primarily produce electricity from a steam turbine. Partly expanded steam is then condensed in a heating condensor at a temperature level that is suitable e.g. district heating or water desalination. Bottoming cycle plants produce high temperature heat for industrial processes, then a waste heat recoveryboiler feeds an electric...

    Biomass refers to any plant or animal matter in which it is possible to be reused as a source of heat or electricity, such as sugarcane, vegetable oils, wood, organic waste and residues from the food or agriculturalindustries. Brazil is now considered a world reference in terms of energy generation from biomass. A growing sector in the use of bioma...

    A heat pump may be compared with a CHP unit as follows. If, to supply thermal energy, the exhaust steam from the turbo-generator must be taken at a higher temperature than the system would produce most electricity at, the lost electrical generation is as if a heat pump were used to provide the same heat by taking electrical power from the generator...

    Most industrial countries generate the majority of their electrical power needs in large centralized facilities with capacity for large electrical power output. These plants benefit from economy of scale, but may need to transmit electricity across long distances causing transmission losses. Cogeneration or trigeneration production is subject to li...

    Every heat engine is subject to the theoretical efficiency limits of the Carnot cycle or subset Rankine cycle in the case of steam turbine power plants or Brayton cycle in gas turbine with steam turbine plants. Most of the efficiency loss with steam power generation is associated with the latent heat of vaporization of steam that is not recovered w...

    Typically, for a gas-fired plant the fully installed cost per kW electrical is around £400/kW (US$577), which is comparable with large central power stations.

    Cogeneration in Europe

    The EU has actively incorporated cogeneration into its energy policy via the CHP Directive. In September 2008 at a hearing of the European Parliament's Urban Lodgment Intergroup, Energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs is quoted as saying, “security of supply really starts with energy efficiency.”Energy efficiency and cogeneration are recognized in the opening paragraphs of the European Union's Cogeneration Directive 2004/08/EC. This directive intends to support cogeneration and establish a metho...

    Cogeneration in the United Kingdom

    In the United Kingdom, the Combined Heat and Power Quality Assurancescheme regulates the combined production of heat and power. It was introduced in 1996. It defines, through calculation of inputs and outputs, "Good Quality CHP" in terms of the achievement of primary energy savings against conventional separate generation of heat and electricity. Compliance with Combined Heat and Power Quality Assurance is required for cogeneration installations to be eligible for government subsidies and tax...

    Cogeneration in the United States

    Perhaps the first modern use of energy recycling was done by Thomas Edison. His 1882 Pearl Street Station, the world's first commercial power plant, was a combined heat and power plant, producing both electricity and thermal energy while using waste heat to warm neighboring buildings.Recycling allowed Edison's plant to achieve approximately 50 percent efficiency. By the early 1900s, regulations emerged to promote rural electrification through the construction of centralized plants managed by...


    Any of the following conventional power plants may be converted to a combined cooling, heat and power system: 1. Coal 2. Microturbine 3. Natural gas 4. Oil 5. Small gas turbine


    1. Nuclear power 2. Geothermal power / geothermal heating 3. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators often double as Radioisotope heater unitspartially offsetting their low (single digit percent) efficiency in converting thermal to electric energy


    1. Solar thermal 2. Biomass 3. Hydrogen fuel cell (using green hydrogen) 4. Any type of compressor or turboexpander, such as in compressed air energy storage

    • Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics
    • Quantum Mechanics
    • Electronic Circuits
    • Computational Neuroscience
    • See Also

    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of physics that studies the dynamics of statistical ensembles of molecules via unstable states. Being "stuck" in a thermodynamic trough without being at the lowest energy state is known as having kinetic stability or being kinetically persistent. The particular motion or kineticsof the atoms involved has r...

    Aggregated systems of subatomic particles described by quantum mechanics (quarks inside nucleons, nucleons inside atomic nuclei, electrons inside atoms, molecules, or atomic clusters) are found to have many distinguishable states. Of these, one (or a small degenerate set) is indefinitely stable: the ground state or global minimum. All other states ...

    A digital circuit is supposed to be found in a small number of stable digital states within a certain amount of time after an input change. However if an input changes at the wrong moment a digital circuit which employs feedback (even a simple circuit such as a flip-flop) can enter a metastable stateand take an unbounded length of time to finally s...

    Metastability in the brain is a phenomenon studied in computational neuroscienceto elucidate how the human brain recognizes patterns. Here, the term metastability is used rather loosely. There is no lower-energy state, but there are semi-transient signals in the brain that persist for a while and are different than the usual equilibrium state.

  5. › wiki › UnionPayUnionPay - Wikipedia

    UnionPay ( Chinese: 银联; pinyin: Yínlián ), also known as China UnionPay ( Chinese: 中国银联; pinyin: Zhōngguó Yínlián) or by its abbreviation, CUP or UPI internationally, is a Chinese financial services corporation headquartered in Shanghai, China. It provides bank card services and a major card scheme in mainland China.

  6. › wiki › QuasicrystalQuasicrystal - Wikipedia

    A quasiperiodic crystal, or quasicrystal, is a structure that is ordered but not periodic. A quasicrystalline pattern can continuously fill all available space, but it lacks translational symmetry. [2] While crystals, according to the classical crystallographic restriction theorem, can possess only two-, three-, four-, and six-fold rotational ...

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