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  1. 2001 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth outbreak - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2001_United_Kingdom_foot-and-mouth...
    • Background
    • Start of Crisis
    • End of Outbreak
    • Spread to The Rest of Europe
    • Reports
    • Health and Social Consequences
    • Later Reaction
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Britain's last outbreak had been in 1967, and had been confined to a small area of the country. The Northumberland report issued after the 1967 outbreak had identified that speed was the key to stopping a future outbreak, with the recommendation of identified animals being slaughtered on the spot on the same day as identification, and the carcasses buried in quicklime. In 1980, foot and mouth treatment policy passed from the hands of the UK Government to the European level as a result of European Community (EC) directive, 85/511. This set out procedures, such as protection and "surveillance zones", the confirmation of diagnosis by laboratory testing and that actions had to be consulted with the EC and its Standing Veterinary Committee. An earlier directive, 80/68, on the protection of groundwater gave powers to the Environment Agencyto prohibit farm burials and the use of quicklime unless the site was authorised by the Agency. Since the 1967 outbreak, there had also been significant...

    The first case of the disease to be detected was at Cheale Meats abattoir in Little Warley, Essex on 19 February 2001, in pigs from Buckinghamshire and the Isle of Wight. Over the next four days, several more cases were announced in Essex. On 23 February, a case was confirmed in Heddon-on-the-Wall, Northumberland, from the same location as the pig in the first case; this farm was later confirmed as the source of the outbreak, with the owner, Bobby Waugh of Pallion, found guilty of having failed to inform the authorities of a notifiable disease and banned from keeping farm animals for 15 years. He was later found guilty of feeding his pigs "untreated waste". On 24 February, a case was announced in Highampton in Devon. Later in the week, cases were found in North Wales. By the beginning of March, the disease had spread to Cornwall, southern Scotland and the Lake Districtwhere it took a particularly strong hold. During investigation of the Great Heck rail crash, which took place on 28...

    The final case was reported on Whygill Head Farm near Appleby in Cumbria on 30 September. The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) downgraded to "high risk" the last area to be denoted "infected" on 29 November. The last cull in the UK was performed on 1 January 2002 on 2,000 sheep at Donkley Woods Farm, Bellingham, Northumberland. Restrictions on livestock movement were retained into 2002. The use of a vaccine to halt the spread of the disease was repeatedly considered during the outbreak, but the government never decided to use it after pressure from the National Farmers Union. Although the vaccine was believed to be effective, export rules would prevent the export of British livestock in the future, and it was decided that this was too great a price to pay, although this was controversial because the value of the export industry(£592 million per year; MAFF figures reported by the Guardian) was small compared to losses to tourism resulting from the measures t...

    Several cases of foot and mouth were reported in Irelandand mainland Europe, following unknowing transportation of infected animals from the UK. The cases sparked fears of a continent-wide pandemic, but these proved unfounded. The Netherlandswas the worst affected country outside the UK, suffering 25 cases. Vaccinations were used to halt the spread of the disease. However, the Dutch went on to slaughter all vaccinated animals and in the end 250,000–270,000 cattle were destroyed, resulting in significantly more cattle slaughtered per infected premises than in the UK. Ireland suffered one case in a flock of sheep in Jenkinstown in County Louth in March 2001. A cull of healthy livestock around the farm was ordered. Irish special forces sniped wild animals capable of bearing the disease, such as deer, in the area. The outbreak greatly affected the Irish food and tourism industry. The 2001 Saint Patrick's Day festival was cancelled, but later rescheduled two months later in May. Severe p...

    As the 2001 outbreak seemed to cause as much harm as the previous outbreak in 1967, there was a widespread government and public perception that little had been learnt from the previous epizootic (despite the publication in 1968 of a report, the Northumberland Inquiry, on the previous outbreak). In August 2001 therefore, in an effort to prevent this failure to learn from history from happening again, HM Government launched three inquiries into various aspects of the crisis. They were: 1. Inquiry into the lessons to be learned from the foot and mouth disease outbreak of 2001. This inquiry was devoted specifically to the government's handling of the crisis. It was chaired by Sir Iain Anderson CBE, previously a special adviser to Tony Blair, and reported in July 2002. 2. The Royal Society Inquiry into Infectious Diseases in Livestock. This inquiry examined the scientific aspects of the crisis, for instance the efficacy of vaccinations, the way the virus spreads and so on. It was chaire...

    The Department of Health (DH) sponsored a longitudinal research project investigating the health and social consequences of the 2001 outbreak of FMD. The research team was led by Dr Maggie Mort of Lancaster University and fieldwork took place between 2001 and 2003. Concentrating on Cumbria as the area that was worst hit by the epidemic, data has been collected via interviews, focus groups and individual diaries in order to document the consequences that the FMD outbreak had on people's lives. In 2008, a book based on this study was published, titled Animal Disease and Human Trauma, emotional geographies of disaster. Under the EU systems, compensation could be paid to farmers, but only those whose animals were slaughtered; those who suffered as a result of movement restrictions, albeit due to government action, could not be compensated.

    In the light of the reports' extensive recommendations, in June 2004, Defra held a simulation exercise in five areas around the country to test new procedures to be employed in the event of a future outbreak. Unlike the outbreak in the 1960s, the main reason[citation needed]that MAFF failed to respond quickly enough was the high level of cattle movement in the modern-day market: by the 21st century, cattle were being moved quickly up and down the country without tests for disease. However, the government was accused by the NFU of acting too slowly in the early stages of the outbreak, and the Agriculture Minister attempted at least as late as 11 March to claim incorrectly that the outbreak was under control.

  2. 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1854_Broad_Street_cholera_outbreak
    • Background
    • Competing Theories of Cholera
    • Investigation by John Snow
    • Broad Street Outbreak
    • Snow's Post-Outbreak Evaluation
    • Involvement of Henry Whitehead
    • Board of Health
    • Dr Edwin Lankester's Evaluation
    • Broadwick Street Pump in The 21st Century
    • Gallery

    In the mid-19th century, the Soho district of London had a serious problem with filth due to the large influx of people and a lack of proper sanitary services: the London sewer system had not reached Soho. Cowsheds, slaughter houses and grease-boiling dens lined the streets and contributed animal droppings, rotting fluids and other contaminants to the primitive Soho sewer system. Many cellars had cesspools underneath their floorboards, which formed from the sewers and filth seeping in from the outside. Since the cesspools were overrunning, the London government decided to dump the waste into the River Thames, contaminating the water supply. London had already suffered from a "series of debilitating cholera outbreaks".These included outbreaks in 1832 and 1849 which killed a total of 14,137 people.

    Preceding the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak, physicians and scientists held two competing theories on the causes of cholera in the human body: miasma theory and germ theory. The London medical community debated between these causes for the persistent cholera outbreaks in the city. The cholera-causing bacterium Vibrio choleraewas isolated in 1854, but the finding did not become well known and accepted until decades later.

    The Broad Street outbreak was an effect rather than a cause of the epidemic. Snow's conclusions were not predominantly based on the Broad Street outbreak, as he noted that he hesitated to come to a conclusion based on a population that had predominantly fled the neighborhood and redistributed itself. He feared throwing off results of the study. From a mathematics perspective, John Snow's innovation was focusing on death rates in districts served by two water companies which drew water from the River Thames, rather than basing it on data from victims of the Broad Street pump (which drew water from a well). Snow's work also led to a far greater health and safety impact than the removal of the Broad Street pump handle. Deactivating the pump "hardly made a dent in the citywide cholera epidemic, which went on to claim nearly 3,000 lives". Snow was skeptical of the prevailing miasma theory, which held that diseases such as cholera or the Black Death were caused by pollution or a noxious f...

    On 31 August 1854, after several other outbreaks had occurred elsewhere in the city, a major outbreak of cholera occurred in Soho. Snow, the physician who eventually linked the outbreak to contaminated water, later called it "the most terrible outbreak of cholera which ever occurred in this kingdom." Over the next three days, 127 people on or near Broad Street died. During the next week, three quarters of the residents had fled the area. By 10 September, 500 people had died and the mortality rate was 12.8 percent in some parts of the city. By the end of the outbreak, 616 people had died.[citation needed] Many of the victims were taken to the Middlesex Hospital, where their treatment was superintended by Florence Nightingale, who briefly joined the hospital in early September in order to help with the outbreak. According to a letter from Elizabeth Gaskell, "She herself [Nightingale] was up night and day from Friday afternoon (Sept. 1) to Sunday afternoon, receiving the poor creatures...

    Snow's analysis of cholera and cholera outbreaks extended past the closure of the Broad Street pump. He concluded that cholera was transmitted through and affected the alimentary canal within the human body. Cholera did not affect either the circulatory or the nervous system and there was no "poison in the blood...in the consecutive fever...the blood became poisoned from urea getting into the circulation".According to Snow, this "urea" entered the blood through kidney failure. (Acute kidney failure is a complication of cholera.) Therefore, the fever was caused by kidney failure, not by a poison already present in the subject's bloodstream. Popular medical practices, such as bloodletting, could not be effective in such a case. Snow also argued that cholera was not a product of Miasma. "There was nothing in the air to account for the spread of cholera". According to Snow, cholera was spread by persons ingesting a substance, not through atmospheric transmittal. Snow cited a case of two...

    The Reverend Henry Whitehead was an assistant curate at St. Luke's church in Soho during the 1854 cholera outbreak.[citation needed] A former believer in the miasma theory of disease, Whitehead worked to disprove false theories. He was influenced by Snow's theory that cholera spreads by consumption of water contaminated by human waste. Snow's work, particularly his maps of the Soho area cholera victims, convinced Whitehead that the Broad Street pump was the source of the local infections. Whitehead joined Snow in tracking the contamination to a faulty cesspool and the outbreak's index case(the baby with cholera). Whitehead's work with Snow combined demographicstudy with scientific observation, setting an important precedent for epidemiology.

    The Board of Health in London had several committees, of which the Committee for Scientific Inquiries was placed in charge of investigating the cholera outbreak. They were to study the atmospheric environment in London; however, they were also to examine samples of water from several water companies in London. The committee found that the most contaminated water supply came from the South London water companies, Southwark and Vauxhall. As part of the Committee for Scientific Inquiries, Richard Dundas Thomson and Arthur Hill Hassall examined what Thomson referred to as "vibriones". Thomson examined the occurrence of vibriones in air samples from various cholera wards and Hassall observed vibriones in water samples. Neither identified vibriones as the cause of cholera. As part of their investigation of the cholera epidemic, the Board of Health sent physicians to examine in detail the conditions of the Golden Square neighbourhood and its inhabitants. The Board of Health ultimately attr...

    Dr Edwin Lankesterwas a physician on the local research conglomerate that studied the 1854 Broad Street Cholera Epidemic. In 1866, Lankester wrote about Snow's conclusion that the pump itself was the cause of the cholera outbreak. He agreed with Snow at the time; however, his opinion, like Snow's, was not publicly supported. Lankester subsequently closed the pump due to Snow's theory and data on the pattern of infection, and infection rates dropped significantly. Lankester eventually was named the first medical officer of health for the St. James District in London, the same area where the pump was located.

    A replica pump was installed in 1992 at the site of the 1854 pump. Every year the John Snow Society holds "Pumphandle Lectures" on subjects of public health. Until August 2015, when the pump was removed due to redevelopment, they also held a ceremony here in which they removed and reattached the pump handle to pay tribute to Snow's historic discovery. The original location of the historic pump is marked by a red granite paver. In addition, plaques on the John Snow pub at the corner describe the significance of Snow's findings at this site.

    The pub, close by to the new location of the pump, named after John Snow.
    A wider image of the pubnamed after John Snow with the pump centre-right
    The new location of the pump whose handle John Snow removed.
    A wider image of the pump, with the red granite slab in view in the bottom-left corner.
    • Cholera present within the pumping water.
    • 616
  3. Leeds - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leeds

    Leeds attained City status in 1893. Leeds (with a 474,632 population) is the largest subdivision of the West Yorkshire Built-up Area ( 2011 census classification) and the Yorkshire and Humber region's most populous. West Yorkshire BUA is the ...

  4. Hampshire - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hampshire

    Hampshire (/ ˈ h æ m p ʃ ər /, /-ʃ ɪər / (listen); abbreviated to Hants) [a] is a county in South East England on the English Channel coast. The county town is Winchester, England's former capital city.Its two largest cities, Southampton and ...

  5. Israel - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel

    Israel (/ ˈ ɪ z r i ə l, ˈ ɪ z r eɪ ə l /; Hebrew: י ש ר א ל , romanized: Yisra'el; Arabic: إ س ر ائ يل , romanized: ʾIsrāʾīl), officially known as the State of Israel (Hebrew: מ ד ינ ת י ש ר א ל , Medinat Yisra'el), is a country in ...

  6. Bulgaria - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgaria

    Bulgaria (/ b ʌ l ˈ ɡ ɛər i ə, b ʊ l-/ (listen); Bulgarian: България, romanized: Bǎlgarija), officially the Republic of Bulgaria, [a] is a country in Southeast Europe.It lies on the eastern flank of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the ...

  7. Belarus - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus

    The name Belarus is closely related with the term Belaya Rus ', i.e., White Rus'.There are several claims to the origin of the name White Rus'. [21] An ethno-religious theory suggests that the name used to describe the part of old ...

  8. Sri Lanka - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_lanka

    The pre-history of Sri Lanka goes back 125,000 years and possibly even as far back as 500,000 years. [34] The era spans the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, and early Iron Ages.Among the Paleolithic human settlements discovered in Sri Lanka, ...

  9. GLOBALG.A.P - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GLOBALG.A.P

    GLOBALG.A.P. is a farm assurance program, translating consumer requirements into Good Agricultural Practice. EurepGAP is a common standard for farm management practice created in the late 1990s by several European supermarket chains and their ...

  10. Morocco - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morocco

    Morocco, officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is the northwesternmost country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and has land borders with Algeria to the east, ...

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