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On 11 March 2011, Tsai Ing-wen officially announced her run for the presidential nomination of the Democratic Progressive Party.  On 27 April 2011, Tsai became the first female presidential candidate in Taiwan after she defeated former Premier Su Tseng-chang by a small margin in a nationwide phone poll (of more than 15,000 samples) that served as the party's primary. 
- Structure and Content
- Judicial Use
- in Popular Culture
- See Also
- General and Cited References
- Further Reading
- External Links
The Federal Convention (Constitutional Convention) sent the proposed Constitution to the Confederation Congress, which in turn submitted it to the states for ratification at the end of September 1787. On September 27, 1787, "Cato" first appeared in the New York press criticizing the proposition; "Brutus" followed on October 18, 1787. These and other articles and public letters critical of the new Constitution would eventually become known as the "Anti-Federalist Papers". In response, Alexande...
At the time of publication, the authors of The Federalist Papers attempted to hide their identities due to Hamilton and Madison having attended the convention. Astute observers, however, correctly discerned the identities of Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Establishing authorial authenticity of the essays that constitute The Federalist Papers has not always been clear. After Alexander Hamilton died in 1804, a list emerged, claiming that he alone had written two-thirds of The Federalist essays. So...
The Federalist articles appeared in three New York newspapers: The Independent Journal, the New-York Packet, and the Daily Advertiser, beginning on October 27, 1787. Although written and published with haste, The Federalist articles were widely read and greatly influenced the shape of American political institutions. Hamilton, Madison and Jay published the essays at a rapid pace. At times, three to four new essays by Publius appeared in the papers in a single week. Garry Wills observes that t...
In Federalist No. 1, Hamilton listed six topics to be covered in the subsequent articles: 1. "The utility of the UNION to your political prosperity"—covered in No. 2 through No. 14 2. "The insufficiency of the present Confederation to preserve that Union"—covered in No. 15 through No. 22 3. "The necessity of a government at least equally energetic ...
Federal judges, when interpreting the Constitution, frequently use The Federalist Papers as a contemporary account of the intentions of the framers and ratifiers. They have been applied on issues ranging from the power of the federal government in foreign affairs (in Hines v. Davidowitz) to the validity of ex post facto laws (in the 1798 decision C...
The purposes and authorship of The Federalist Papers were prominently highlighted in the lyrics of "Non-Stop", the finale of Act One in the 2015 Broadway musical Hamilton, written by Lin-Manuel Miranda.Adair, Douglass (1974). "The Disputed Federalist Papers". Fame and the Founding Fathers. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.Mosteller, Frederick; Wallace, David L. (2012). Applied Bayesian and Classical Inference: The Case of The FederalistPapers. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4612-5256-6. Updated 2nd ed...Furtwangler, Albert (1984). The Authority of Publius: A Reading of the Federalist Papers. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-9339-3.Wills, Gary. Explaining America: The Federalist. Garden City, NJ: 1981.Bradley, Harold W. (November 1945). "The Political Thinking of George Washington". The Journal of Southern History. Southern Historical Association. 11 (4): 469–486. doi:10.2307/2198308. JSTOR 2198...Dietze, Gottfried. The Federalist: A Classic on Federalism and Free Government. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1960.Epstein, David F. The Political Theory of the Federalist. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1984.Everdell, William R. (2000). The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- United States
- October 27, 1787 – May 28, 1788
- The Federalist
- The Independent Journal, New York Packet, The Daily Advertiser, J. & A. McLean
- Usage and Number Agreement
- See Also
Although the everyday meaning of plural is "more than one", the grammatical term has a slightly different technical meaning. In the English system of grammatical number, singular means "one (or minus one)", and plural means "not singular." In other words, plural means not just "more than one" but also "less than one." This less-than aspect can be s...
The plural morpheme in English is a sibilant suffixedto the end of most nouns. Regular English plurals fall into three classes, depending upon the sound that ends the singular form:
In Old and Middle English, voiceless fricatives /f/ and /θ/ mutated to voiced fricatives /v/ and /ð/ respectively before a voiced ending. In some words this voicing survives in the modern English plural. In the case of /f/ changing to /v/, the mutation is indicated in the orthography as well; also, a silent e is added in this case if the singular does not already end with -e: In addition, there is one word where /s/is voiced in the plural: Many nouns ending in /f/ or /θ/ (including all words...
There are many other less regular ways of forming plurals, usually stemming from older forms of English or from foreign borrowings.
Nouns used attributively
Nouns used attributively to qualify other nouns are generally in the singular, even though for example, a dog catcher catches more than one dog, and a department store has more than one department. This is true even for some binary nouns where the singular form is not found in isolation, such as a trouser mangle or the scissor kick. This is also true where the attribute noun is itself qualified with a number, such as a twenty-dollar bill, a ten-foot pole or a two-man tent. The plural is used...
Teams and their members
In the names of sports teams, sometimes a noun will be given a regular plural in -s even though that noun in normal use has an irregular plural form (a particular case of headless nouns as described above). For example, there are teams called the Miami Marlins and the Toronto Maple Leafs, even though the word marlin normally has its plural identical to the singular and the plural of leaf is leaves. (This does not always apply; for example, there is the Minnesota Lynx, not *Lynxes.) Some teams...
Adjectives as collective plurals
Certain adjectives can be used, uninflected, as plurals denoting people of the designated type. For example, unemployed and homeless can be used to mean "unemployed people" and "homeless people", as in There are two million unemployed. Such usage is common with the definite article, to denote people of a certain type generally: the unemployed, the homeless. This is common with certain nationalities: the British, the Dutch, the English, the French, the Irish, the Spanish, the Welsh, and those...
- The Theses
- External Links
The February Revolution had resulted in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the collapse of Imperial Russia, and the establishment of the liberal Provisional Government under Georgy Lvov and later Alexander Kerensky. The Provisional Government was dominated mainly by liberals and moderate socialists who wanted to instigate political reform, creatin...
The April Theses were first announced in a speech in two meetings on 17 April 1917 (4 April according to the old Russian Calendar). Some believe he based this on Leon Trotsky's Theory of Permanent Revolution. They were subsequently published in the Bolshevik newspaper Pravda. In the Theses, Lenin: 1. Condemns the Provisional Government as bourgeois...
After the February Revolution, Bolshevik leaders returning from exile (such as Lev Kamenev) were arguing a much more moderate line, that Russian involvement in the war could be justified and that there should be cooperation with the liberals in the Provisional Government. However, Lenin's arguments reflected those made by the leading Bolsheviks in ...
- Death and Legacy
- External Links
Cai was born in Shanghai to Cantonese parents, but raised in Chaoyang, Guangdong. He only had four years of formal education, and was home-schooled after he had spoken up for his class about the misbehavior of a teacher. While home-schooled, he studied Confucianism and practiced calligraphy and painting. Cai Chusheng initially worked in low-level positions in several small studios during the 1920s, before eventually joining Mingxing Film Company as a director's assistant to Zheng Zhengqiu, an...
Hong Kong and wartime
During the war, Cai fled first to Hong Kong, where he helped launch Mandarin-language cinema with Situ Huimin. In Hong Kong, Cai would also direct two films, including an anti-Japanese thriller. Cai was also a pioneer in making films in local dialects, and the first to make movies in Cantonese. He also made movies in Chaozhou dialect. When Hong Kong fell to the Japanese, Cai fled to Chongqing, China's wartime capital, where he joined the government-run Nationalist Central Film Studio.
Cai's post-war career saw him returning to Shanghai and becoming a leading member of the Lianhua Film Society (later incorporated as the Kunlun Film Company). His collaboration with Zheng Junli The Spring River Flows East (1947) also proved to be a major film and popular success in the brief "Second Golden Age" of Cinema that followed the end of the Second World War. Following the Communist revolution, Cai worked mainly in major government administrative tasks. He was also actively involved i...
As the Cultural Revolutionbegan to gain momentum in the late 1960s, Cai Chusheng, like many artists and intellectuals, became the target of persecution. Cai was forced to self-criticize and admit his mistakes in writing. Cai passed away in 1968. His ashes are now placed at the Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemetery. The house where Cai spent his youth is...Pang, Laikwan. Chinese National Cinema. Routledge (2002). ISBN 0-415-17290-X.Pickowicz, Paul. "Victory as Defeat: Postwar Visualizations of China's War of Resistance." Becoming Chinese: Passages to Modernity and Beyond, ed. Wen-Hsin Yeh. University of California Press (2000...Shen, Vivian. The Origins of Left-Wing Cinema in China: 1932-1937. Routledge (2005). ISBN 0-415-97183-7.Xiao, Zhiwei. "Shi Dongshan" in Encyclopedia of Chinese Film, ed. by Yingjin Zhang and Zhiwei Xiao. Taylor & Francis (1998). ISBN 0-415-15168-6.
Is Tsai's real name 蔡瀛文?
Is Tsai Ing-wen Taiwan's quiet revolutionary?
What did Tsai question Ma's stance on Taiwan?
As of April 2020, the world's largest low-cost carrier is Southwest Airlines, which operates primarily in the United States, as well as in some surrounding areas. Airbus A319 of Germanwings and an Airbus A320 of Air Berlin at Zurich Airport in 2013. Both carriers were among the largest budget airlines in Germany at the time the picture was taken.
Joseph Tsai (born January 1964)  is a businessman, lawyer, and philanthropist.  He is a co-founder and executive vice chairman of the Chinese multinational technology company Alibaba Group and owns the Brooklyn Nets of the American National Basketball Association (NBA), the New York Liberty of the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA), the San Diego Seals of the National ...