龍劭華驟逝消息，令人感傷，4年前曾與他合作偶像劇《我的愛情不平凡》的蔡黃汝，難過在IG寫：「你是那麼霸氣但其實又淘氣，零距離的前輩大哥。人生如戲，說不見，就不見。」 [廣告] 請繼續往下閱讀 龍劭華死...
Mini Tsai Huang-ju (Chinese: 蔡黃汝; born 15 November 1987) is a Taiwanese actress, singer and television host. She made her television debut as a host of the long-running video gaming show GameGX. She has since appeared in several films and ...
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Christian Wolff is diagnosed with autism at Harbor Neuroscience as a child. His father refuses to let him stay over the summer, with this environment being better for his sensory processing disorder and instead believing that he must overcome the hardships of his condition. Chris' overwhelmed mother abandons them. Fearing others will exploit Chris, his father, a US Army PSYOP officer, begins a brutal regimen of stoicismand martial-arts training for Chris and his younger brother, Braxton. In the present, Chris is a forensic accountant with a small office in Plainfield, Illinois. He unmasks insider financial deceptions, often for criminal enterprises. His clients contact him through the Voice, an unidentified woman who calls him "Dreamboat". He exposes himself daily to loud, hard driving Metal Rock and flashing lights to inure himself to any kind of sensory overload. Chris is hired to audit the firm Living Robotics after the company's founder and CEO, Lamar Blackburn, and his sister R...
On November 12, 2014, Variety reported that Anna Kendrick was in early talks to co-star in the film, alongside Affleck. Later that day, J. K. Simmons was also announced as being in talks to join the cast. On November 14, 2014, Jon Bernthal was also in talks. On January 6, 2015, Variety reported that Cynthia Addai-Robinson was added to the cast. On January 14, 2015, Jeffrey Tambor and John Lithgowwere added to the cast of the film.
Principal photography began on January 19, 2015, in Atlanta, Georgia. On March 16–20, filming was taking place at the Georgia Institute of Technology.Filming wrapped on April 2, 2015.
The action sequences in the film featured the Indonesian martial art Pencak silat.
The film was released in the United States on October 14, 2016. Before that, Warner Bros. had scheduled it for January 29, 2016 and October 7, 2016.It held its European premiere in London on October 17, 2016.
The Accountantgrossed $86.3 million in the United States and Canada and $68.9 million in other countries, for a worldwide total of $155.2 million, against a production budget of $44 million. The Accountant was released alongside Max Steel and Kevin Hart: What Now?, and was expected to gross $20–25 million from 3,332 theaters in its opening weekend, although the studio was projecting a conservative $15 million opening. The film made $1.35 million from its Thursday-night previews, more than Aff...
On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 52% based on 282 reviews, with an average rating of 5.67/10. The website's critical consensus reads: "The Accountant writes off a committed performance from Ben Affleck, leaving viewers with a scattershot action thriller beset by an array of ill-advised deductions." On Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating, the film has a weighted average score of 51 out of 100, based on reviews from 45 critics, indicating "mixed or average revi...
In June 2017, a sequel was announced to be in development, with Gavin O'Connor and Bill Dubuque returning in their respective roles as director and writer. Affleck was to return in the starring role.In February 2020, Affleck reiterated his desire for a sequel, also noting the possibility of a television series based on the character. In September 2021, O'Connor announced that deals for the sequel had just been made.The Accountant at IMDbThe Accountant at Rotten TomatoesThe Accountant at AllMovieThe Accountant at the Internet Movie Firearms Database
- Prominent Sakhalin Koreans
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Personal and family names
Korean surnames, when Cyrillized, may be spelled slightly differently from the romanisations used in the US; the resulting common pronunciations also differ, as can be seen in the table at right. Furthermore, Korean naming practices and Russian naming practices conflict in several important ways. While most members of the older generations of Sakhalin Koreans used Korean names, members of the younger generations favor their Russian names. However, with the increasing exposure to South Korean...
Due to their greater population density and expectation that they would one day be allowed to return to Korea, the Sakhalin Koreans have kept something of a sojourner mentality rather than a settler mentality, which influenced their relation to the surrounding society; even today, they tend to speak much better Korean than those who were deported to Central Asia. A weekly Korean language newspaper, the Saegoryeo Shinmun (새고려 신문), has been published since 1949, while Sakhalin Korean Broadcasti...
Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there has been significant growth in religious activities among the Sakhalin Koreans; the establishment of churches was noted in scholarly articles as early as 1990. Christian hymns have become popular listening material, supplementing the more typical Russian, Western, and Korean pop music. Korean churches also broadcast religious content through Sakhalin Korean Broadcasting; a Baptist church run by ethnic Koreans sponsors a journalist there. Howeve...Nellie Kim, world and Olympic champion in artistic gymnastics
- Distribution of Surnames
- Surnames at Present
- Sociological Use of Surnames
- Common Chinese Surnames
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Chinese surnames have a history of over 3,000 years. Chinese mythology, however, reaches back further to the legendary figure Fuxi (with the surname Feng), who was said to have established the system of Chinese surnames to distinguish different families and prevent marriage of people with the same family names. Prior to the Warring States period (fifth century BC), only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. Historically there was a difference between ancestral clan names or xing (姓) and branch lineage names or shi (氏). Xing may be the more ancient surname that referred to the ancestral tribe or clan, while shi denoted a branch of the tribe or clan. For example, the ancestors of the Shang had Zi (子) as xing, but the descendants were subdivided into numerous shi including Yin (殷), Song (宋), Kong (空), Tong (同) and others. The distinction between the two began to be blurred by the Warring States period. During the Qin dynasty, name usage was standardised, commoner...
Chinese surnames or family names are written before the first name or given name. Therefore, someone named Wei (伟) from the Zhang (张) family is called "Zhang Wei" (张伟) and not "Wei Zhang". Chinese women generally retain their maiden name and use their name unchanged after marriage, but in modern times in some communities, some women may choose to attach their husband's surname to the front. Chinese surname is patrilinearwhere the father's surname is passed on to his children, but more recently some people have opted to use both parents' surnames; although this practice has increased in recent times, it is still relatively uncommon in China, with those who adopted both parents' surnames numbering at only 1.1 million in 2018 (up from 118,000 in 1990). Some Chinese outside of mainland China, particularly those from the Chinese immigrant communities around the world and those who have acquired a Christian or Western first name, have adopted the Western convention when giving their name...
Surnames are not evenly distributed throughout China's geography. In northern China, Wáng (王) is the most common surname, being shared by 9.9% of the population. Next are Lǐ (李), Zhāng (张/張) and Liú (刘/劉). In the south, Chén (陈/陳) is the most common, being shared by 10.6% of the population. Next are Lǐ (李), Huáng (黄/黃), Lín (林) and Zhāng (张/張). Around the major crossing points of the Yangzi River, the most common surname is Lĭ (李), taking up 7.7%, followed by Wáng (王), Zhāng (张/張), Chan/Chén (陈/陳) and Liú (刘/劉). A 1987 study showed over 450 family names in common use in Beijing, but there were fewer than 300 family names in Fujian. Furthermore, a 2012 study found that there was the lowest amount of isonymy in surnames among the population around middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River both on the provincial and county levels. Additionally, it was found that counties with the highest values of isonymy were distributed in the provinces with high proportions of ethni...
Of the thousands of surnames which have been identified from historical texts prior to the modern era, most have either been lost (see extinction of family names) or simplified. Historically there are close to 12,000 surnames recorded including those from non-Han Chinese ethnic groups, of which only about 3,100 are in current use, a factor of almost 4:1 (about 75%) reduction. A 2019 figure however put the total number of Chinese family names at 6,150. Of Han Chinese surnames, the largest number ever recorded was 6,363 (3,730 single-character surnames, 2,633 multiple-character surnames), around 2,000 of which are still in use. Chinese Surname extinction is due to various factors, such as people taking the names of their rulers, orthographic simplifications, taboos against using characters from an emperor's name, and others. A recent example of near surname extinction is the rare surname Shan (𢒉).The character may not be displayed on computer systems used by government officials, and...
Throughout most of Chinese history, surnames have served sociological functions. Because of their association with the aristocratic elite in their early developments, surnames were often used as symbols of nobility. Thus nobles would use their surnames to be able to trace their ancestry and compete for seniority in terms of hereditary rank. Examples of early genealogies among the royalty can be found in Sima Qian's Historical Records, which contain tables recording the descent lines of noble houses called shibiao (Chinese: 世表; pinyin: shìbiǎo). Later, during the Han dynasty, these tables were used by prominent families to glorify themselves and sometimes even to legitimize their political power. For example, Cao Pi, who forced the abdication of the last Han emperor in his favor, claimed descent from the Yellow Emperor. Chinese emperors sometimes passed their own surnames to subjects as honors. Unlike European practice in which some surnames are obviously noble, Chinese emperors and...
According to a comprehensive survey of residential permits released by the Chinese Ministry of Public Security on 24 April 2007, the ten most common surnames in mainland China are Wang (王), Li (李), Zhang (张), Liu (刘), Chen (陈), Yang (杨), Huang (黄), Zhao (赵), Wu (吴), and Zhou (周). The same names were also found (in slightly different orders) by a fairly comprehensive survey of 296 million people in 2006, and by the 1982 census. The top 100 surnames cover 84.77% of China's population. The top 1...
Names in Taiwan – both among the immigrant ethnic Chinese and Aboriginal Taiwanese people – are similar to those in southeast China but differ somewhat from the distribution of names among all Han Chinese. According to a comprehensive survey of residential permits released by the Taiwanese Ministry of the Interior's Department of Population in February 2005, the ten most common surnames in Taiwan are Chen (陳), Lin (林), Huang (黃), Chang or Zhang (張), Li (李), Wang (王), Wu (吳), Liu (劉), Tsai (蔡)...
- Early Spring and Autumn
- The Five Hegemons
- Late Spring and Autumn
- Important Figures
- Interstate Relations
In 771 BCE, the Quanrong invasion destroyed the Western Zhou and its capital Haojing, forcing the Zhou king to flee to the eastern capital Luoyi (Chinese: 洛邑). The event ushered in the Eastern Zhou dynasty, which is divided into the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods. During the Spring and Autumn period, China's feudal system of fengjian (封建) became largely irrelevant. The Zhou court, having lost its homeland in the Guanzhong region, held nominal power, but had real control over only a small royal demesne centered on Luoyi. During the early part of the Zhou dynasty period, royal relatives and generals had been given control over fiefdoms in an effort to maintain Zhou authority over vast territory. As the power of the Zhou kings waned, these fiefdoms became increasingly independent states. The most important states (known later as the twelve vassals) came together in regular conferences where they decided important matters, such as military expeditions against foreign g...
Court moves east
After the Zhou capital was sacked by the Marquess of Shen and the Quanrong barbarians, the Zhou moved the capital east from the now desolated Zongzhou in Haojing near modern Xi'an to Wangcheng in the Yellow River Valley. The Zhou royalty was then closer to its main supporters, particularly Jin, and Zheng; the Zhou royal family had much weaker authority and relied on lords from these vassal states for protection, especially during their flight to the eastern capital. In Chengzhou, Prince Yijiu...
Zheng falls out with the court
Duke Yin of Lu ascended the throne in 722 BCE. From this year on the state of Lu kept an official chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals, which along with its commentaries is the standard source for the Spring and Autumn period. Corresponding chronicles are known to have existed in other states as well, but all but the Lu chronicle have been lost. In 717 BCE, Duke Zhuang of Zheng went to the capital for an audience with King Huan. During the encounter the duke felt he was not treated with th...
Hegemony of Qi
The first hegemon was Duke Huan of Qi (r. 685–643 BCE). With the help of his prime minister, Guan Zhong, Duke Huan reformed Qi to centralize its power structure. The state consisted of 15 "townships" with the duke and two senior ministers each in charge of five; military functions were also united with civil ones. These and related reforms provided the state, already powerful from control of trade crossroads, with a greater ability to mobilize resources than the more loosely organized states....
Hegemony of Song
Duke Xiang of Song attempted to claim the hegemony in the wake of Qi's decline, perhaps driven by a desire to restore the Shang Dynastyfrom which Song had descended. He hosted peace conferences in the same style as Qi had done, and conducted aggressive military campaigns against his rivals. Duke Xiang however met his end when, against the advice of his staff, he attacked the much larger state of Chu. The Song forces were defeated at the battle of Hong in 638 BCE, and the duke himself died in...
Hegemony of Jin
When Duke Wen of Jin came to power in 636 BCE, he capitalized on the reforms of his father, Duke Xian (r. 676–651 BCE), who had centralized the state, killed off relatives who might threaten his authority, conquered sixteen smaller states, and even absorbed some Rong and Di peoples to make Jin much more powerful than it had been previously. When he assisted King Xiangin a succession struggle in 635 BCE, Xiang awarded Jin with strategically valuable territory near Chengzhou. Duke Wen of Jin th...
The Six Ministers
In addition to interstate conflict, internal conflicts between state leaders and local aristocrats also occurred. Eventually the dukes of Lu, Jin, Zheng, Wey and Qi would all become figureheads to powerful aristocratic families. In the case of Jin, the shift happened in 588 BCE when the army was split into six independent divisions, each dominated by a separate noble family: the Zhao, Wei, Han, Fan, Zhi and Zhongxing. The heads of the six families were conferred the titles of viscounts and ma...
Rise of Wu
Wu was a "barbarian" state in modern Jiangsu, where the inhabitants sported short hair and tattoos. Although legend ascribed a Chinese origin to the ruling dynasty, Wu did not participate in the politics and wars of China until the last third of the Spring and Autumn period. Their first documented interaction with the Spring and Autumn states was in 584 BCE, when a Wu force attacked the small border state of Tan, causing some alarm in the various Chinese courts. Jin was quick to dispatch an a...
Attempts at peace
After a period of increasingly exhausting warfare, Qi, Qin, Jin and Chu met at a disarmament conference in 579 BCE and agreed to declare a truce to limit their military strength. This peace didn't last very long and it soon became apparent that the bàrole had become outdated; the four major states had each acquired their own spheres of control and the notion of protecting Zhou territory had become less cogent as the control over (and the resulting cultural assimilation of) non-Zhou peoples, a...
The Five Hegemons(春秋五霸): Traditional history lists five hegemons during the Spring and Autumn period: 1. Duke Huan of Qi 2. Duke Xiang of Song 3. Duke Wen of Jin 4. Duke Mu of Qin 5. King Zhuang of Chu Alternatively: 1. Duke Huan of Qi 2. Duke Wen of Jin 3. King Zhuang of Chu 4. King Fuchai of Wu 5. King Goujian of Yue Bureaucrats or Officers 1. Guan Zhong, advisor of Duke Huan of Qi 2. Baili Xi, prime minister of Qin. 3. Wu Zixu, (Wu Yun), Duke of Shen and important adviser of King Helü 4. Bo Pi, bureaucrat under King Helüwho played an important diplomatic role in Wu-Yue relations. 5. Fan Li and Wen Zhong, two advisors of King Goujian of Yuein his war against Wu 6. Zi Chan, leader of self-strengthening movements in Zheng Influential scholars 1. Confucius or Kongzi, leading figure in Confucianism 2. Lao-tse or Laozi, teacher of Taoism 3. Mo-tse, Mozi, or Micius, founder of Mohism 4. Sun Tzu or Sunzi, author of The Art of War Other people 1. Lu Ban 2. Yao Li, sent by King Helü to kil...
Ancient sources such as the Zuo Zhuan and the eponymous Chunqiu record the various diplomatic activities, such as court visits paid by one ruler to another (Chinese: 朝; pinyin: cháo), meetings of officials or nobles of different states (simplified Chinese: 会; traditional Chinese: 會; pinyin: huì), missions of friendly inquiries sent by the ruler of one state to another (Chinese: 聘; pinyin: pìn), emissaries sent from one state to another (Chinese: 使; pinyin: shǐ), and hunting parties attended by representatives of different states (Chinese: 狩; pinyin: shou). Because of Chu's non-Zhou origin, the state was considered semi-barbarian and its rulers—beginning with King Wu in 704 BCE—proclaimed themselves kings in their own right. Chu intrusion into Zhou territory was checked several times by the other states, particularly in the major battles of Chengpu (632 BCE), Bi (595 BCE) and Yanling (575 BCE), which restored the states of Chen and Cai.
King Wuabolished the Shang dynasty title "emperor" (di), making the king the highest office of the Zhou dynasty. Below the king were five ranks of vassals, which from top to bottom rank were: 1. duke – gōng公(爵) 2. marquis or marquess – hóu侯(爵) 3. count or earl – bó伯(爵) 4. viscount – zǐ子(爵) 5. baron – nán男(爵) The ranks had been assigned by King Wu upon the foundation of the dynasty and were usually not revised to reflect changing levels of military strength. In the Spring and Autumn Period this led to contradictory situations such as the relatively insignificant state of Song being a duchy while a great power like Chuwas only a viscounty.
Some version of the Five Classics existed in Spring and Autumn period, as characters in the Zuo Commentary and Analects frequently quote the Book of Poetry and Book of Documents. On the other hand, the Zuo Commentary depicts some characters actually composing poems that would later be included in the received text of the Book of Poetry. In the Analects there are frequent references to "The Rites", but as Classical Chinese does not distinguish book titles from regular nouns it is not possible to know if what is meant is the Etiquette and Ceremonial (known then as the Book of Rites) or just the concept of ritual in general. The existence of the Book of Changeson the other hand is well-attested in the Zuo Commentary, as multiple characters use it for divination and correctly quote the received text. Sima Qian claims that it was Confucius who, towards the close of the Spring and Autumn period, edited the received versions of the Book of Poetry, Book of Documents and Book of Rites, wrote...
While sources such as the Book of Poetry contain passing references to "The Emperor Above" (Shang Di), there is no proper mythology around supernatural entities preserved in the Confucian Classics. The mythology is instead focused around the founders of the dynasty, kings Wen and Wu, who were worshipped as gods. The various states also worshipped their respective founders as local patron deities. As such the rulers of Qi worshipped Yu the Great and Song worshipped Tanglong after the Xia and Shang dynasties had ceased to exist on a national level.
1. Blakeley, Barry B (1977), "Functional disparities in the socio-political traditions of Spring and Autumn China: Part I: Lu and Ch'i", Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 20 (2): 208–43, doi:10.2307/3631778 2. Chinn, Ann-ping (2007), The Authentic Confucius, Scribner, ISBN 0-7432-4618-7 3. Higham, Charles (2004), Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations, Infobase 4. Hsu, Cho-yun (1990), "The Spring and Autumn Period", in Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L (eds.),...
The Hundred Family Surnames (Chinese: 百家姓), commonly known as Bai Jia Xing, also translated as Hundreds of Chinese Surnames, is a classic Chinese text composed of common Chinese surnames. The book was composed in the early Song ...
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The word Koryo in "Koryo-saram" originated from the name of the Goryeo (Koryŏ) Dynasty from which "Korea" was also derived. The name Soviet Korean was also used, more frequently before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Russians may also lump Koryo-saram under the general label koreytsy (корейцы); however, this usage makes no distinctions between ethnic Koreans of the local nationality and the Korean nationals (citizens of North Korea or South Korea). In Standard Korean, the term "Koryo-saram" is typically used to refer to historical figures from the Goryeo dynasty; to avoid ambiguity, Korean speakers use a word Goryeoin (Korean: 고려인, Hanja: 高麗人, meaning the same as "Koryo-saram") to refer to ethnic Koreans in the post-Soviet states. However, the Sino-Korean morpheme "-in" (인) is not productive in Koryo-mal, the dialect spoken by Koryo-saram and as a result, only a few (mainly those who have studied Standard Korean) refer to themselves by this name; instead, "Koryo-saram" has come to...
Immigration to the Russian Far East and Siberia
The early 19th century saw the decline of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. A small population of wealthy elite owned the farmlands in the country, and poor peasants found it difficult to survive. Koreans leaving the country in this period were obliged to move toward Russia, as the border with China was sealed by the Qing Dynasty. However, the first Koreans in the Russian Empire, 761 families totalling 5,310 people, had actually migrated to Qing territory; the land they had settled on was ceded to...
Deportation to Central Asia
In 1937, facing reports from the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) that there were possibilities that Japanese would have infiltrate the Russian Far East by means of ethnic Korean spies, Joseph Stalin and Vyacheslav Molotov signed Resolution 1428-326 ss, "On the Exile of the Korean Population from border Raions of the Far East Kray", on 21 August. According to the report of Nikolai Yezhov, 36,442 Korean families totalling 171,781 persons were deported by 25 October. The deport...
Scholars estimated that, roughly 470,000 Koryo-saram were living in the Commonwealth of Independent States.
After their arrival in Central Asia, the Koryo-saram quickly established a way of life different from that of neighbouring peoples. They set up irrigation works and became known throughout the region as rice farmers. They interacted little with the nomadic peoples around them and focused on education. Although they soon ceased to wear traditional Korean clothing, they adapted Western-style dress rather than the clothing worn by the Central Asian peoples. The ritual life of the Koryo-saram community has changed in various respects. Marriages have taken on the Russian style. At Korean traditional funerals, the coffin is taken out of the house either through the window or a single door threshold; however, if there is more than one door threshold on the way out (e.g. in modern multi-stories buildings), three notches are made on each threshold. The name of the dead is traditionally written in hanja; however, as hardly anyone is left among the Koryo-saram who can write in hanja, the name...Alekseenko, Aleksandr Nikolaevich (2000). Республика в зеркале переписей населения [Republic in the Mirror of the Population Censuses] (PDF). Population and Society: Newsletter of the Centre for De...Back, Tae-Hyun (2004). "The social reality faced by ethnic Koreans in Central Asia". Korean and Korean American Studies Bulletin. 12(2–3): 45–88.Chang, Jon (February 2005). "Central Asia or Bust". KoreAm Journal. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2009.Dong, Xiaoyang; Su, Chang (August 2005), "Strategic Adjustments and Countermeasures against Extremist Forces of Central Asian Countries after 9/11", in Charles Hawkins; Robert Love (eds.), Proceedi...(in Russian) Association of Scientific and Technological Societies Koreans (ANTOK)(in Russian) CIS Koreans Information Web-Site of ARIRANG.RU(in Russian) Lib.Ru: the Koreans(in Russian) Tashkent Representation of the Institute of Asian Culture and Development (TP IAKR) — an Association of Koreans in Karakalpakstan.
Huang 黃,皇 used in MandarinHwang 황,黃,皇 used in KoreanHuỳnh or Hoàng, used in Vietnamese. Huỳnh is the cognate adopted in Southern and most parts of Central Vietnam because of a naming taboo decree which banned the surname Hoàng, due to similarity bet...Vong, anglicized from Hakka, used in Vietnamese
- Fictional Characters with Surname Huang
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Huang is an ancient surname. According to tradition, there are several different sources of Huang surname origin, for example as descendants of Bo Yi, Lu Zhong (陸終) or Tai Tai (臺駘). There were also at least three Huang Kingdoms 黃國 during Xia 夏朝, Shang 商朝 and Zhou 周朝 dynasties. Most of the people with surname Huang could track back their ancestors to one of the Huang Kingdoms.
Huang is the 7th most common surname in China, and the 3rd most common surname in Taiwan. It is also one of the common surnames among Zhuang People, the largest ethnic minority in China, and is also the most common surname in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. 19% of People from China with Surname Huang live in Guangdong Province. The population of people named Huang in China was approximately 29 million and in Taiwanabout 1.4 million.In 2019 Huang was again the seventh most common surname in Mainland China. A 2013 study found that it was the seventh-most common surname, shared by 32,600,000 people or 2.450% of the population, with the province having the most people being Guangdong.
The Vietnamese versions of this surname are Hoàng and Huỳnh. According to Lê Trung Hoa, a Vietnamese scholar, approximately 5.1 percent of Vietnamese people have this surname. The original form of this surname was Hoàng. But in southern Vietnam, Hoàng was ordered to be changed (excluding the Hoàng Trọng family) to Huỳnh due to a naming taboo with the name of Lord Nguyễn Hoàng.Huang Feihu 黃飛虎, General of Shang dynasty and later of Zhou dynasty, Prince of Wu'cheng 國武成王 and Great Emperor of the Mount Tai "Dongyue Taishan Tianqi Rensheng Dadi" 東嶽泰山天齊仁聖大帝 who oversees the fo...Huang Gun 黃滾, General of Shang dynasty and later of Zhou dynasty in Chinese classic novel Fengshen Yanyi (The Investiture of the Gods)Huang Rong 黃蓉, Daughter of Huang Yaoshi and Beggars' Sect's chief in Jin Yong's wuxia novel The Legend of the Condor Heroes and its sequel The Return of the Condor HeroesHuang Xin 黃信, Nickname: "Guardian of the Three Mountains", Scouting general of the Liangshan cavalry, 38th of the 108 Liangshan heroes and Deity of Di'sha Star 地煞星 in Water Margin, one of the Four...
- Electoral Constituencies
- Other Structures and Facilities
Tai Wai occupies the southwestern end of the Sha Tin Valley. The Sha Tin area is located directly northeast of Tai Wai. Hill ranges separate Tai Wai from New Kowloon in the south, and from Tsuen Wan in the west. The Tai Wai Nullah, sometimes referred to as the upper stream of Shing Mun River, flows through Tai Wai, where it joins the Shing Mun River. The Shing Mun River then flows in a southwest–northeast direction across the Sha Tin Valley towards Tolo Harbour.
Sprouting from traditional farming villages growing rice, vegetables and fruits, such as choy sum, Chinese broccoli, bamboo, banana, peach, and lychee, Tai Wai area once functioned as a light suburban industrial park in the 1970s. Few factory buildings are still in use, mostly as warehouses. The current urbanization of the area is the consequence of the development of Sha Tin New Townthat started in the 1970s. Tai Wai Village, where the name of the area came from, was the largest and oldest walled village in Sha Tin. It was built in 1574 during the Ming Dynasty, and was called Chik Chuen Wai (Chinese: 積存圍) at the time. It was originally made up of 16 families, Wai (韋), Chan (陳), Ng (吳), Yeung (楊), Wong (黃), Lee (李), Hui (許), Cheng (鄭), Tong (唐), Yuen (袁), Yau (游), Lam (林), Lok (駱), Tam (譚), Mok (莫) and Choy (蔡). The Wai family, being the largest family, is thought to be the direct descendants of the famous founder general of the Han Dynasty, Han Xin, who purportedly fled there to es...
Tai Wai covers 11 of the 38 constituencies in Sha Tin District, as defined at the time of the 2015 Hong Kong District Council elections.[needs update] They are: Chun Fung (秦豐, R10), Sun Tin Wai (新田圍, R11), Chui Tin (翠田, R12), Hin Ka (顯嘉, R13), Lower Shing Mun (下城門, R14), Wan Shing (雲城, R15), Keng Hau (徑口, R16), Tin Sum (田心, R17), Chui Ka (翠嘉, R18), Tai Wai (大圍, R19), Chung Tin (松田, R20).
Tai Wai is composed largely of low to medium income households of different ethnic backgrounds ranging from local Chinese to Westerners. According to the 2016 Population By-census, the number of persons living in Tai Wai was as follows:
A large part of the population of Tai Wai lives in public housing estates. Privately owned apartment blocksare also common and higher income luxury housing is also available in various parts of Tai Wai. Hundreds of three storey village houses (some western styled, others more traditional) can be found in the villages of the area.
Several public housing estates have a shopping centre. The only private shopping centre is Grandeur Shopping Arcade (金禧商場), located within Grandeur Garden, along Tai Wai Road (大圍道).
There are two public sport centres in Tai Wai, making up 40% of the total number of centres in Sha Tin. They are both located in major estates in Tai Wai, namely Mei Lam Estate and Hin Keng Estate. The two sport centres offer a wide range of facilities including a fitness centre with weight training and cardiovascular equipment, squash courts as well as badminton courts. These sport centres are owned and operated by the Leisure and Cultural Services Department, however the facilities are char...
The Tai Wai Cycling Park, where beginners could practice their cycling skills, was demolished in 2001 to make way for the railway terminus of the Ma On Shan Line. A number of bicycle rental shops can be found in Tai Wai and bicycle lanes run along the Shing Mun River and link Tai Wai to Tai Po, Ma On Shan and Plover Cove Reservoir.
Hiking is also a popular activity in Tai Wai. Situated at the end of a valley, Tai Wai is surrounded by country parks: Shing Mun (north), Kam Shan (west), Lion Rock (south) and Ma On Shan (southeast). Sections of the Wilson Trail and the MacLehose Trailrun across the hills near Tai Wai.
Tai Wai has tens of primary and secondary schools, mostly public, some with religious background. They include:
1. Che Kung Temple: Hundreds of thousands flock to the Taoist Che Kung Temple on the 2nd day of each Chinese New Year to worship Che Kung - a general of the Song Dynasty, and queue up to turn the wheel which symbolizes both the cosmic movement in the turning of the year and the hope of each wheel spinner for a good turn of fortune in the forthcoming year. 2. Chi Hong Ching Yuen, also Tze Hong Monastery (慈航靜苑). Located next to Che Kung Temple. It is a Buddhist nunnery established in the early...
1. Tao Fung Shan: 1.1. Tao Fong Shan Christian Centre 1.2. Tao Fong Shan Christ Temple 1.3. Lutheran Theological Seminary 1.4. ELCHK Living Spirit Lutheran Church 2. High Rock Centre (基督教靈基營暨中心). Built in 1924 as Shatin Police Station, it became High Rock Christian Camp in 1980. 3. St. Alfred's Church (聖歐爾發堂) 4. Shatin Assembly of God Church (沙田神召會)
Other historic or otherwise notable buildings and structures in Tai Wai include: 1. Former Kowloon-Canton Railway (KCR) Beacon Hill Tunnel (前畢架山隧道). Completed in 1910, now disused as a rail transport tunnel. 2. Fu Shan Public Mortuary (富山公眾殮房) 3. Hong Kong Heritage Museum, located at the border between Tai Wai and Sha Tin 4. Lower Shing Mun Reservoir 5. Po Fook Memorial Hall (寶福紀念館) 6. Tai Wai Bunker Complex (大圍地堡), a former military structure along Gin Drinkers Line, located at the foothill of Tai Wai. 7. Tai Wai Maintenance Centre (港鐵大圍車廠), a maintenance depot of the MTR, supporting the Tuen Ma line 8. Union Hospital (Hong Kong) 9. Wai Bun Castle (博雅山莊 or 渭濱城)
- Syllable Formation
- Typographic Forms
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
ʼPhags-pa script: ꡏꡡꡃ ꡣꡡꡙ ꡐꡜꡞ mongxol tshi, "Mongolian script"; Mongolian: дөрвөлжин үсэг dörvöljin üseg, "square script"; Tibetan: ཧོར་ཡིག་གསར་པ་, Wylie: hor yig gsar ba"new Mongolian script"; Yuan dynasty Chinese: 蒙古新字; pinyin: měnggǔ xīnzì"new Mongolian script"; Modern Chinese: 八思巴文; pinyin: bāsībā wén"ʼPhags-pa script"
During the Mongol Empire, the Mongols wanted a universal script to write down the languages of the people they subjugated. The Uyghur-based Mongolian alphabet is not a perfect fit for the Middle Mongol language, and it would be impractical to extend it to a language with a very different phonology like Chinese. Therefore, during the Yuan dynasty (c. 1269), Kublai Khan asked the Tibetan monk ʼPhags-pa to design a new alphabet for use by the whole empire. ʼPhags-pa extended his native Tibetan alphabet to encompass Mongol and Chinese, evidently Central Plains Mandarin. The resulting 38 letters have been known by several descriptive names, such as "square script" based on their shape, but today are primarily known as the ʼPhags-pa alphabet. Descending from Tibetan script it is part of the Brahmic family of scripts, which includes Devanagari and scripts used throughout Southeast Asia and Central Asia. It is unique among Brahmic scripts in that it is writ...
Although it is an alphabet, phagspa is written like a syllabary or abugida, with letters forming a single syllable glued or 'ligated' together. Unlike the ancestral Tibetan script, all ʼPhags-pa letters are written in temporal order (that is, /CV/ is written in the order C–V for all vowels) and in-line (that is, the vowels are not diacritics). However, vowel letters retain distinct initial forms, and short /a/ is not written except initially, making ʼPhags-pa transitional between an abugida, a syllabary, and a full alphabet. The letters of a ʼPhags-pa syllable are linked together so that they form syllabic blocks.
ʼPhags-pa was written in a variety of graphic forms. The standard form (top, at right) was blocky, but a "Tibetan" form (bottom) was even more so, consisting almost entirely of straight orthogonal lines and right angles. A "seal script" form (Chinese 蒙古篆字 měnggǔ zhuànzì "Mongolian Seal Script"), used for imperial seals and the like, was more elaborate, with squared sinusoidal lines and spirals. Korean records state that hangul was based on an "Old Seal Script" (古篆字), which may be ʼPhags-pa and a reference to its Chinese name 蒙古篆字 měnggǔ zhuànzì (see origin of hangul). However, it is the simpler standard form of ʼPhags-pa that is the closer graphic match to hangul.
Following are the initials of the ʼPhags-pa script as presented in Menggu Ziyun. They are ordered according to the Chinese philological tradition of the 36 initials.
ʼPhags-pa script was added to the UnicodeStandard in July 2006 with the release of version 5.0. The Unicode block for ʼPhags-pa is U+A840–U+A877: U+A856 ꡖ PHAGS-PA LETTER SMALL A is transliterated using U+A78F ꞏ LATIN LETTER SINOLOGICAL DOT from the Latin Extended-DUnicode block.Coblin, W. South (2006). A Handbook of ʼPhags-pa Chinese. ABC Dictionary Series. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3000-7. Retrieved 24 April 2014.Denlinger, Paul. B. (1963). Chinese in Hp'ags-pa Script. Retrieved 24 April 2014.Everding, Karl-Heinz (2006). Herrscherurkunden aus der Zeit des mongolischen Großreiches für tibetische Adelshäuser, Geistliche und Klöster. Teil 1: Diplomata Mongolica. Mittelmongolische Urkunden...