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  1. Changhua County - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Changhua_County
    • History
    • Geography
    • Administration
    • Electoral Politics
    • Culture
    • Economy
    • Education
    • Energy
    • Tourism
    • Transportation

    Early history

    There are prehistoric burial sites in Changhua that date back 5000 years. The number of burials tally to 32. The original name of the area was Poasoa (Chinese: 半線; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Pòaⁿ-sòaⁿ; lit. 'half line'), so-named by the local indigenous tribes. Poasoa used to be inhabited primarily by the Babuza people, who have since been mostly assimilated by the Han people.

    Qing dynasty

    Qing rule in Taiwan began in 1683, and in 1684, Taiwan Prefecture was established to administer Taiwan under Fujian Province. The prefecture consisted of three counties: Taiwan County[zh], Fongshan District (Formosa)[zh] and Zhuluo. Poasoa and modern-day Changhua County were under the jurisdiction of Zhuluo, but the Changhua area was spread over three counties. In 1723, after the Zhu Yigui rebellion, an inspector official in Taiwan requested to the Qing Emperor to designate Changhua to anothe...

    Japanese rule

    During early Japanese rule, the island was subdivided into three ken(県): Taihoku, Taiwan, and Tainan. Changhua was ruled under Taiwan Ken. In 1920, after several administrative changes, Taichū Prefecture was established, covering modern-day Changhua County, Nantou County and Taichung City. By 1930, the population in Changhua already exceeded one million.

    Changhua county is located on the west coast of Taiwan, bordering Taichung City on the north separated by Dadu River, so Changhua County and Taichung City are often referred to as the Taichung–Changhua metropolitan area. Changhua County is bordered by Yunlin County to the south by the Zhuoshui River. To the east, Changhua County is separated from Nantou County and southern Taichung City by Bagua Plateau. To the west, Changhua County faces the Taiwan Strait. The County's total area is 1,074 km2 (415 sq mi), being Taiwan's smallest county. It owns a 60 km (37 mi) of coastline. The landscape of Changhua can be roughly divided into two parts, one being the western flat land, and the other being the Changhua Plain. This two combines together measures up to 88% of Changhua county's total area. The highest elevation in Changhua is "Hen Shan", at 443 m (1,453 ft).

    Changhua County is divided into 2 cities, 6 urban townships and 18 rural townships. Changhua City is the seat of the county which houses the Changhua County Government and Changhua County Council. Changhua County has the highest number of urban townships of all counties in Taiwan. It also has the second highest number of rural townships after Pingtung County. The current Magistrate of Changhua County is Wang Huei-mei of the Kuomintang.

    Changhua County, an electoral bellwether, is seen as a political battleground between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Democratic Progressive Party(DPP). While it has historically favored the KMT, recent elections have swung in the direction of the DPP.

    Changhua County in films

    1. You Are the Apple of My Eye

    Lukang used to be the economic hub of central Taiwan in its early years where it was a commercially prosperous area. It was an important trading port during the Qing Dynasty.

    Changhua County is home to Taiwan's two gas-fired power plants, Hsingyuan Power Plant and Hsingneng Power Plant, with a capacity of 490 MW each. Both power plants are located in Lukang Township. In August 2016, the Changhua County Government signed an agreement with Canada's Northland Power and Singapore's Yushan Energy to develop "Hai Long", a 1,200 MW-capacity offshore wind generation project spread over 2,300 km2(890 sq mi) off the coast of the county. With an installed capacity of 188.5 MW from 83 onshore wind turbine, Changhua County has the largest wind energy capacity of any county, municipality or city in Taiwan. As of 2015, there were 21 offshore wind farms located in the water offshore of the county.

    Changhua was one of the cultural centers of Taiwan, with a lot of ancient monuments and structures left from the Qing Dynasty, including the Confucian Temple, Tian Ho Gung, built in Lukangin 1647. There are currently 6 National Certified Historical Monuments, 42 County Certified Historical Monuments, 67 Historical Infrastructures, and 1 Cultural Center in Changhua County.

    Rail

    There are 8 stations in Changhua County of the Taiwan Railways Administration (TRA), with the largest being Changhua Station located in Changhua City. The rest are: Huatan Station, Dacun Station, Yuanlin Station, Yongjing Station, Shetou Station, Tianzhong Station and Ershui Station. Taiwan High Speed Rail has also one station in the county, which is Changhua Station.

    Road

    National Highway 1 and National Highway 3 both pass through Changhua County. In addition, there are plenty of provincial highways as well. The Xiluo Bridge, with a span over 1,900 meters and opened in 1953, links Changhua County with neighboring Yunlin County.

    • 1,074.396 km² (414.827 sq mi)
    • Western Taiwan
  2. Bruno Mars - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruno_Mars

    Peter Gene Hernandez (born October 8, 1985), known professionally as Bruno Mars, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, musician, and dancer.He is known for his stage performances, retro showmanship, and for performing in a wide ...

  3. Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demi-Gods_and_Semi-Devils
    • Background
    • Plot
    • Adaptations

    The main thematic element of the novel concerns the complex, troubled relationships between the great multitude of characters from various empires and martial arts sects, and the inherent bond that underlies the struggles of each. The novel examines the cause and effect that forms and breaks these bonds on five uniquely corresponding levels: self, family, society, ethnic group, and country (dominion). The novel is primarily set in the Northern Song dynasty (960–1127) of China, but its setting also covers the non-Han empires of Liao, Dali, Western Xia and Tibet.

    The plot is made up of separate yet intertwining story lines revolving around three protagonists – Qiao Feng, Duan Yu and Xuzhu – who become sworn brothersin chapter 41. The complex narrative switches from the initial perspective of Duan Yu to those of the other main characters and back.

    Video games

    1. Demi-Gods and Semi-Devils is a single player RPG released in 2002. The player takes on the role of an unrelated protagonist (default name Lei Zhen) and meets characters from the novel. His choices and actions will affect how the story progresses.[citation needed] 2. Dragon Oath, also known as TLBB in China, is a MMORPG developed by Changyou and Sohu, and was launched in 2007. 3. Tian Long Ba Bu: Shen Bing Hai Yu (天龙八部:神兵海域) is a MMORPG developed by Changyou and Sohu, and was launched in Ch...

  4. Dynasties in Chinese history - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Chinese_monarchies

    Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history.From the inauguration of dynastic rule by Yu the Great in circa 2070 BC to the abdication of the Xuantong ...

  5. National Dong Hwa University - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Dong_Hwa_University
    • History
    • Academic Organization
    • Reputation and Rankings
    • Alumni
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Foundation

    National Dong Hwa University was established in 1994 in Shoufeng. As the first university established after the full democratization of Taiwan, NDHU set "Freedom, Democracy, Creativity, Excellence" as its founding spirit to reflect the notable timing the university was established. The establishment of NDHU attracted many notable Taiwanese scholars as professor, chair of department or vice-chancellor in universities in United States to work at NDHU, such as Yang Mu, Distinguished Professor of...

    National Hualien University of Education

    The National Hualien University of Education (Commonly known as Hua-Shih; 花師) was established in 1947 in Hualien City, Hualien, as Taiwan Provincial Hualien Normal School (TPHNS). In 1949, Hua-Shih established Affiliated Primary School of Taiwan Provincial Hualien Normal School to provide a training ground for the School's students. Followed the rapidly arising demand for teachers serving for compulsory education purpose, the school was renamed Taiwan Provincial Hualien Junior Teachers' Colle...

    National Dong Hwa University

    In 2008, with 2.5 billion support from Ministry of Education, National Dong Hwa University merged with the National Hualien University of Education into the university with 5th widest range of disciplines in Taiwan, and renamed the newly integrated College of Education into Hua-Shih College of Educationin memory of sixty-year dedication of education by National Hualien University of Education. Meanwhile, NDHU established College of The Arts as the first art school in Eastern Taiwan and Colleg...

    NDHU serves over 10,000 students and confers undergraduate, master's and doctoral degrees in a comprehensive range of fields. It has 8 colleges, 38 departments, 56 graduate institutes, and over 70 research centers. 1. National Dong Hwa University Library 2. Dong Lake Bridge 3. Lakeside Restaurant

    Research

    National Dong Hwa University is considered one of top research impact institutions of Taiwan. In 2020, according to CNCI Index a research impact evaluation undertaken by Ministry of Education (MOE), NDHU is ranked 7th greatest research impact university in Taiwan. According to Times Higher Education, NDHU holds largest research impact in Computer Science (1st Citations in Taiwan, 149th in the world), and Engineering (3rd Citations in Taiwan). In 2020, NDHU Master’s Program in Ethnic Relations...

    Rankings

    NDHU is commonly regarded as Top 10% University in Taiwan by Times Higher Education World University Rankings & QS Asia University Rankings. 1. Top 5 High Potential University in Taiwan by THE Young University Ranking 1. In 2020, NDHU is awarded as Top 5 high development potential University in Taiwan & 201–250th in the world by Times Higher Education Young University Rankings. 1. Top 10 University in Taiwan by THE World University Ranking 1. In 2020, NDHU is apprised 10th in Taiwan by Times...

    T.H. Tung (Honorary Doctorate Degree), Incumbent chairman of Pegatron, co-founder of ASUS Computer Inc.and its former vice chairman.
    Fu Kun-chi, Legislator and former Magistrate of Hualien County.
    Media related to National Dong Hwa Universityat Wikimedia Commons
    National Dong Hwa University on Facebook
    National Dong Hwa University Student Association on Facebook
  6. MediaTek - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MediaTek
    • Corporate History
    • Acquisitions
    • Financial Performance
    • Product Announcements
    • Controversy
    • Product List
    • See Also
    • External Links

    MediaTek was originally a unit of the Taiwanese firm, United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC), tasked with designing chipsets for home entertainment products. On May 28, 1997, the unit was spun off and incorporated. MediaTek Inc. was listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange(TSEC) under the "2454" code on July 23, 2001. The company started out designing chipsets for optical drives and subsequently expanded into chips for DVD players, digital TVs, mobile phones, smartphones and tablets.In general MediaTek has had a strong record of gaining market share and displacing competitors after entering new markets. The company launched a division to design products for mobile devices in 2004. Seven years later, it was taking orders for more than 500 million mobile system-on-chip units per annum, which included products for both feature phones and smart devices.By providing extensive system engineering assistance the company allowed many smaller companies and new entrants to enter a mobile phone m...

    In 2005, MediaTek acquired Inprocomm, a wireless semiconductor design company producing 802.11a, b and a/g chips. On September 10, 2007, MediaTek announced its intention to buy Analog Devices cellular radio and baseband chipset divisions for US$350 million.The acquisition was finalised by January 11, 2008. On May 5, 2011, MediaTek acquired Ralink Technology Corporation, gaining products and expertise for Wi-Fi technology for mobile and non-mobile applications, as well as for wired DSL and Ethernetconnectivity. On April 11, 2012, MediaTek acquired Coresonic, a global producer of digital signal processing products based in Linköping, Sweden. Coresonic became a wholly owned subsidiary of MediaTek in Europe. On June 22, 2012, MediaTek announced it would acquire rival Taiwanese chipset designer MStar Semiconductor Inc., which held a strong market share position in digital television chips. The initial phase of the deal saw MediaTek taking a 48 percent stake, with an option to purchase th...

    MediaTek's financial results have been subject to variation as the financial success of different product lines fluctuated. MediaTek's relatively strong sales in 2009/2010 was based on its strong market position for feature phone chipsets. Smartphone and tablet products contributed to MediaTek's sales and income increase in 2013, while revenue recognition from the acquisition of MStar Semiconductor, which became effective in February 2014, as well as a continuing strong position for smartphone and tablet solutions, were the main reasons for the sales growth seen in 2014.In 2014 smartphone chips accounted for approximately 50–55% of revenue, followed by digital home products (25–30%, includes digital television chips), tablet chips (5–10%), feature phone chips (5–10%) and Wi-Fi products (5–10%). MediaTek started shipping chips with integrated 4G LTE baseband in volume in the second half of 2014, later than its largest competitor Qualcomm. The additional cost of the separate baseband...

    The MT8135 system-on-chip (SoC) for tablets announced in July, 2013 was the industry's first chip to implement the new ARM big.LITTLE technology for heterogeneous multi-processing. A variant of the MT8135 was used by Amazon in its Kindle Fire HD tablet models. Also on November 20, 2013, MediaTek launched the MT6592 SoC, the first system-on-chip (SoC) with eight CPU cores which could be used simultaneously,in contrast to competing SoCs with eight physical cores of which only a subset could be active at any given time. The "True Octa-Core" trademark was registered to emphasize the difference in marketing materials. On January 7, 2014, MediaTek announced the development of the world's first "multimode receiver" for wireless charging. In contrast to existing implementations it is compatible with both inductive and resonant charging. The resulting MT3188 wireless charging chip, certified by both the Power Matters Alliance and the Wireless Power Consortiumwas announced on February 24, 201...

    Benchmark cheating

    On April 8, 2020, MediaTek published a post titled "Why MediaTek Stands Behind Our Benchmarking Practices", and later that day AnandTech published an article on MediaTek's Sports Mode. MediaTek said Sports Mode is designed to show full capabilities during benchmarks, that it is standard practice in the industry, and their device makers can choose to enable it or not. AnandTech pointed out Sports Mode was also being applied to benchmarks intended on measuring user experience benchmarks, provid...

    GNSS modules

    Global navigation satellite system(GNSS) modules. 1. MT6628 (GPS) WLAN 802.11b/g/n, WIFI Direct, Bluetooth 4.0 LE, GPS/QZSS, FM 2. MT6620 (GPS) 3. MT3339 (2011) (GPS, QZSS, SBAS) 4. MT3337 (GPS) 5. MT3336 (GPS) 6. MT3333/MT3332 (2013) GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/BEIDOU/QZSS, is the world's first five-in-one multi-GNSS that supports the Beidou navigation satellite system. 7. MT3329 (GPS) 8. MT3328 (GPS) 9. MT3318 (GPS)

    IEEE 802.11

    As a result of the merger with Ralink, MediaTek has added wireless network interface controllers for IEEE 802.11-standards, and SoCs with MIPSCPUs to its product portfolio. 1. RT3883 includes a MIPS 74KEc CPU and an IEEE 802.11n-conformant WNIC. 2. RT6856 includes a MIPS 34KEc CPU and an IEEE 802.11ac-conformant WNIC.

  7. Chinese surname - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_surname
    • History
    • Usage
    • Distribution of Surnames
    • Surnames at Present
    • Sociological Use of Surnames
    • Common Chinese Surnames
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Chinese surnames have a history of over 3,000 years. Chinese mythology, however, reaches back further to the legendary figure Fuxi (with the surname Feng), who was said to have established the system of Chinese surnames to distinguish different families and prevent marriage of people with the same family names. Prior to the Warring States period (fifth century BC), only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. Historically there was a difference between ancestral clan names or xing (姓) and branch lineage names or shi (氏). Xing may be the more ancient surname that referred to the ancestral tribe or clan, while shi denoted a branch of the tribe or clan. For example, the ancestors of the Shang had Zi (子) as xing, but the descendants were subdivided into numerous shi including Yin (殷), Song (宋), Kong (空), Tong (同) and others. The distinction between the two began to be blurred by the Warring States period. During the Qin dynasty, name usage was standardised, commoner...

    Chinese surnames or family names are written before the first name or given name. Therefore, someone named Wei (伟) from the Zhang (张) family is called "Zhang Wei" (张伟) and not "Wei Zhang". Chinese women generally retain their maiden name and use their name unchanged after marriage, but in modern times in some communities, some women may choose to attach their husband's surname to the front. Chinese surname is patrilinearwhere the father's surname is passed on to his children, but more recently some people have opted to use both parents' surnames; although this practice has increased in recent times, it is still relatively uncommon in China, with those who adopted both parents' surnames numbering at only 1.1 million in 2018 (up from 118,000 in 1990). Some Chinese outside of mainland China, particularly those from the Chinese immigrant communities around the world and those who have acquired a Christian or Western first name, have adopted the Western convention when giving their name...

    Surnames are not evenly distributed throughout China's geography. In northern China, Wáng (王) is the most common surname, being shared by 9.9% of the population. Next are Lǐ (李), Zhāng (张/張) and Liú (刘/劉). In the south, Chén (陈/陳) is the most common, being shared by 10.6% of the population. Next are Lǐ (李), Huáng (黄/黃), Lín (林) and Zhāng (张/張). Around the major crossing points of the Yangzi River, the most common surname is Lĭ (李), taking up 7.7%, followed by Wáng (王), Zhāng (张/張), Chan/Chén (陈/陳) and Liú (刘/劉). A 1987 study showed over 450 family names in common use in Beijing, but there were fewer than 300 family names in Fujian.[citation needed] Furthermore, a 2012 study found that there was the lowest amount of isonymy in surnames among the population around middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River both on the provincial and county levels. Additionally, it was found that counties with the highest values of isonymy were distributed in the provinces with high proportions of ethni...

    Of the thousands of surnames which have been identified from historical texts prior to the modern era, most have either been lost (see extinction of family names) or simplified. Historically there are close to 12,000 surnames recorded including those from non-Han Chinese ethnic groups, of which only about 3,100 are in current use, a factor of almost 4:1 (about 75%) reduction. A 2019 figure however put the total number of Chinese family names at 6,150. Of Han Chinese surnames, the largest number ever recorded was 6,363 (3,730 single-character surnames, 2,633 multiple-character surnames), around 2,000 of which are still in use. Chinese Surname extinction is due to various factors, such as people taking the names of their rulers, orthographic simplifications, taboos against using characters from an emperor's name, and others. A recent example of near surname extinction is the rare surname Shan (𢒉).The character may not be displayed on computer systems used by government officials, and...

    Throughout most of Chinese history, surnames have served sociological functions. Because of their association with the aristocratic elite in their early developments, surnames were often used as symbols of nobility. Thus nobles would use their surnames to be able to trace their ancestry and compete for seniority in terms of hereditary rank. Examples of early genealogies among the royalty can be found in Sima Qian's Historical Records, which contain tables recording the descent lines of noble houses called shibiao (Chinese: 世表; pinyin: shìbiǎo). Later, during the Han dynasty, these tables were used by prominent families to glorify themselves and sometimes even to legitimize their political power. For example, Cao Pi, who forced the abdication of the last Han emperor in his favor, claimed descent from the Yellow Emperor. Chinese emperors sometimes passed their own surnames to subjects as honors. Unlike European practice in which some surnames are obviously noble, Chinese emperors and...

    Mainland China

    According to a comprehensive survey of residential permits released by the Chinese Ministry of Public Security on 24 April 2007, the ten most common surnames in mainland China are Wang (王), Li (李), Zhang (张), Liu (刘), Chen (陈), Yang (杨), Huang (黄), Zhao (赵), Wu (吴), and Zhou (周). The same names were also found (in slightly different orders) by a fairly comprehensive survey of 296 million people in 2006, and by the 1982 census. The top 100 surnames cover 84.77% of China's population. The top 1...

    Taiwan

    Names in Taiwan – both among the immigrant ethnic Chinese and Taiwanese aborigines – are similar to those in southeast China but differ somewhat from the distribution of names among all Han Chinese. According to a comprehensive survey of residential permits released by the Taiwanese Ministry of the Interior's Department of Population in February 2005, the ten most common surnames in Taiwan are Chen (陳), Lin (林), Huang (黃), Chang (張), Li (李), Wang (王), Wu (吳), Liu (劉), Tsai (蔡), and Yang(楊). T...

  8. Hundred Family Surnames - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hundred_Family_Surnames
    • Form
    • Complete Text
    • Prevalence in Modern Times
    • See Also
    • References

    The work is a rhyming poem in lines of eight characters. The surnames are not listed in order of commonality. According to Song dynasty scholar Wang Mingqing (王明清), the first four surnames listed represent the most important families in the empire at the time: 1. 1st: Zhao (趙) is the surname of the Song dynastyemperors. 2. 2nd: Qian (錢) is the surname of the kings of Wuyue. 3. 3rd: Sun (孫) is the surname of the queen Sun Taizhen of Wuyue king Qian Chu. 4. 4th: Li (李) is the surname of the kings of Southern Tang. The next four, Zhou 周, Wu 吳, Zheng 鄭, and Wang 王, were the surnames of the other wives of Qian Chu, the last king of Wuyue.

    This text is written in Traditional Chinese. Note that several of these characters may link to the same article.

    Under 300th most common

    1. Yōng 雍 - 339th 2. 平 - Ping - 315 3. 米 316th 4. 湛 369th

    Under 400th most common

    The following surnames are not among the 400 most common surnames according to a 2013 study[citation needed]:

    Rawski, Evelyn Sakakida (1979). Education and Popular Literacy in Ch'ing China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08753-3.

  9. Kt/V - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kt/V
    • Rationale For Kt/V as A Marker of Dialysis Adequacy
    • Relation to Urr
    • Peritoneal Dialysis
    • Reason For Adoption
    • Criticisms/Disadvantages of Kt/V
    • External Links

    K (clearance) multiplied by t (time) is a volume (since mL/min × min = mL, or L/h × h = L), and (K × t) can be thought of as the mL or L of fluid (blood in this case) cleared of urea (or any other solute) during the course of a single treatment. V also is a volume, expressed in mL or L. So the ratio of K × t / Vis a so-called "dimensionless ratio" and can be thought of as a multiple of the volume of plasma cleared of urea divided by the distribution volume of urea. When Kt/V = 1.0, a volume of blood equal to the distribution volume of urea has been completely cleared of urea. The relationship between Kt/V and the concentration of urea C at the end of dialysis can be derived from the first-order differential equation that describes exponential decayand models the clearance of any substance from the body where the concentration of that substance decreases in an exponential fashion: where 1. C is the concentration [mol/m3] 2. tis the time [s] 3. K is the clearance [m3/s] 4. V is the vo...

    The URR or Urea reduction ratio is simply the fractional reduction of urea during dialysis. So by definition, URR = 1 − C/C0. So 1−URR = C/C0. So by algebra, substituting into equation (4) above, since ln C/C0 = − ln C0/C, we get:

    Kt/V (in the context of peritoneal dialysis) was developed by Michael J. Lysaghtin a series of articles on peritoneal dialysis. The steady-state solution of a simplified mass transfer equation that is used to describe the mass exchange over a semi-permeable membrane and models peritoneal dialysisis where 1. CB is the concentration in the blood [ mol/m3] 2. KD is the clearance [ m3/s ] 3. m ˙ {\\displaystyle {\\dot {m}}} is the urea mass generation [ mol/s ] This can also be written as: The mass generation (of urea), in steady state, can be expressed as the mass (of urea) in the effluent per time: where 1. CE is the concentration of urea in effluent [ mol/m3] 2. VE is the volume of effluent [ m3] 3. tis the time [ s ] Lysaght, motivated by equations 6b and 6c, defined the value KD: Lysaght uses "ml/min" for the clearance. In order to convert the above clearance (which is in m3/s) to ml/min one has to multiply by 60 × 1000 × 1000. Once KD is defined the following equation is used to cal...

    Kt/V has been widely adopted because it was correlated with survival. Before Kt/V nephrologists measured the serum urea concentration (specifically thetime-averaged concentration of urea (TAC of urea)), which was found not to be correlated with survival (due to its strong dependence on proteinintake) and thus deemed an unreliable marker of dialysis adequacy.

    It is complex and tedious to calculate. Many nephrologists have difficulty understanding it.
    Kt/V only measures a change in the concentration of urea and implicitly assumes the clearance of urea is comparable to other toxins. (It ignores molecules larger than urea having diffusion-limited...
    Kt/V does not take into account the role of ultrafiltration.

    Hemodialysis

    1. Hemodialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse. 2. Kt/V and the adequacy of hemodialysis– UpToDate.com

    Peritoneal dialysis

    1. Advisory on Peritoneal Dialysis– American Association of Kidney Patients 2. Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse.

    Calculators

    1. spKt/V,eKt/V,URR,nPCR,GNRI etc. dialysis calculation– hdtool.net. 2. free Kt/V calculators, single pool and equilibrated HD, PD, no login needed, site used by dozens of dialysis centers around the world for over 10 years– kt-v.net 3. Web/javascript program that does formal 2-pool urea kinetics in multiple patients– ureakinetics.org 4. Kt/V calculator– medindia.com 5. Kt/V– HDCN

  10. Vietnamese name - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnamese_name
    • Family Name
    • Middle Name
    • Given Name
    • Saints' Names
    • Near-Homonyms Distinguished by Vowel Or Tones
    • Indexing and Sorting in English
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The family name is positioned first and is passed on by the father to his children. It is estimated that there are around 100 family names in common use, but some are far more common than others. The name Nguyễn is estimated to be the most common (40%).The top three names are so common as people tended to take family names of emperors to show loyalty. Over many generations, family names became permanent. The most common family names among the Vietnamese are the following with their respective Chữ Quốc Ngữ which is commonly in use, and their corresponding Hán tự (Han Character).Altogether, these 14 names account for around 90% of the Vietnamese population (2005). 1. Nguyễn阮 (39%) 2. Trần陳 (11%) 3. Lê黎 (9.5%) 4. Phạm范 (7.1%) 5. Huỳnh-Hoàng黃 (5.1%) 6. Phan潘 (4.5%) 7. Vũ-Võ武 (3.9%) 8. Đặng鄧(2.1%) 9. Bùi裴 (2%) 10. Đỗ杜 (1.4%) 11. Hồ胡 (1.3%) 12. Ngô吳 (1.3%) 13. Dương楊 (1%) 14. Lý李 (0.5%) The following list includes less-common surnames in alphabetical order which make up the rest of the 10...

    Most Vietnamese have one middle name, but it is quite common to have two or more or to have no middle name at all. In the past, the middle name was selected by parents from a fairly narrow range of options. Almost all women had Thị (氏) as their middle name, and many men had Văn (文). More recently, a broader range of names has been used, and people named Thịsometimes omit their middle name. Thị is a most common female middle name, and most common amongst pre-1975 generation but less common amongst younger generations. Thị is an archaic Vietnamese suffix meaning surname of the husband for a married woman, but now is used to simply indicate the female gender. For example, "Trần Thị Mai Loan" is a person who has the given name "Mai Loan" and the surname "Trần". Altogether, the name means "Mai Loan, a female person of the Trần family". Some traditional male middle names may include Văn (文), Hữu (友), Đức (德), Thành (誠), Công (公), Minh (明), and Quang (光). The middle name can have several u...

    In most cases, the middle name is formally part of the given name. For example, the name "Đinh Quang Dũng" is separated into the surname "Đinh" and the given name "Quang Dũng". In a normal name list, those two parts of the full name are put in two different columns. However, in daily conversation, the last word in a given name with a title before it is used to call or address a person: "Ông Dũng", "Anh Dũng", etc., with "Ông" and "Anh" being words to address the person and depend on age, social position, etc. The given name is the primary form of address for Vietnamese. It is chosen by parents and usually has a literal meaning in the Vietnamese language. Names often represent beauty, such as bird or flower names, or attributes and characteristics that the parents want in their child, such as modesty (Khiêm, 謙). Typically, Vietnamese will be addressed with their given name, even in formal situations, although an honorific equivalent to "Mr.", "Mrs.", etc. will be added when necessary...

    Vietnamese Catholics are given a saint's name at baptism (Vietnamese: tên thánh or tên rửa tội). Boys are given male saints' names, while girls are given female saints' names. This name appears first, before the family name, in formal religious contexts. Out of respect, clergy are usually referred to by saints' name. The saint's name also functions as a posthumous name, used instead of an individual's given name in prayers after their death. The most common saints' names are taken from the New Testament, such as Phêrô (Peter, or Pierre in French), Phaolô (Paul), Gioan (John), Maria (Mary), and Anna. Saints' names are respelled phonetically according to the Vietnamese alphabet. Some more well-known saints' names are derived further into names that sound more Vietnamese.

    Some names may appear the same if simplified into a basic ASCIIscript, as for example on websites, but are different names: 1. Emperor Lê Hiến Tông (Han Tu: 黎憲宗, 1461–1504), vs. emperor Lê Hiển Tông(黎顯宗, 1717–1786) 2. Trịnh Căn (鄭根, 1633–1709) reformist warlord, vs. Trịnh Cán(鄭檊, 1777–1782) infant heir of warlord Trịnh Sâm 3. Nguyễn Du (1765–1820) writer, vs. Nguyễn Dữ(c.1550) writer 4. Hoàng Tích Chu (1897–1933) journalist, vs.Hoàng Tích Chù(1912–2003) painter 5. Nguyễn Văn Tỵ (1917–1992) painter and poet, vs. Nguyễn Văn Tý(1925–2019), composer 6. Phan Thanh Hùng (1960) football manager, vs. Phan Thanh Hưng(1987), footballer 7. Nguyễn Bình (1906–1951), vs. Nguyễn Bính(1918–1966) 8. Nguyễn Văn Hưng (1958–) representative of the Vietnam National Assembly, vs. Nguyễn Văn Hùng(1980), martial artist, Typically, as in the above examples, it is middle or the last personal given name which varies, as almost any Sino-Vietnamese character may be used. The number of family names is limited. F...

    According to the English-language Chicago Manual of Style, Vietnamese names in are indexed according to the "given name, then surname + middle name", with a cross-reference placed in regards to the family name. Ngô Đình Diệm would be listed as "Diệm, Ngô Đình" and Võ Nguyên Giápwould be listed as "Giáp, Võ Nguyên". But at the present, Vietnamese names are commontly indexed according "middle name + given name, then surname" in Western name order (or "SURNAME middle-name given-name" in Eastern name order), to determine exactly the part of surname. For example: 1. Nguyễn Văn Toàn has his family name is Nguyễn, his middle name is Văn and his given name is Toàn, it's should be indexed or written as "Văn Toàn, Nguyễn" (NGUYEN Van Toan), to determine exactly his surname is Nguyễn, not Nguyễn Văn (wrong surname). The similar is Nquyễn Ngọc Trường Sơn, it's should be indexed or written as "Ngọc Trường Sơn, Nguyễn" (NGUYEN Ngoc Truong Son). 2. In the cases of compound family name like as Tôn...

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