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  1. Dynasties in Chinese history - Wikipedia

    Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history.From the inauguration of dynastic rule by Yu the Great in circa 2070 BC to the abdication of the Xuantong ...

  2. Chinese surname - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Usage
    • Distribution of Surnames
    • Surnames at Present
    • Sociological Use of Surnames
    • Common Chinese Surnames
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Chinese surnames have a history of over 3,000 years. Chinese mythology, however, reaches back further to the legendary figure Fuxi (with the surname Feng), who was said to have established the system of Chinese surnames to distinguish different families and prevent marriage of people with the same family names. Prior to the Warring States period (fifth century BC), only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. Historically there was a difference between ancestral clan names or xing (姓) and branch lineage names or shi (氏). Xing may be the more ancient surname that referred to the ancestral tribe or clan, while shi denoted a branch of the tribe or clan. For example, the ancestors of the Shang had Zi (子) as xing, but the descendants were subdivided into numerous shi including Yin (殷), Song (宋), Kong (空), Tong (同) and others. The distinction between the two began to be blurred by the Warring States period. During the Qin dynasty, name usage was standardised, commoner...

    Chinese surnames or family names are written before the first name or given name. Therefore, someone named Wei (伟) from the Zhang (张) family is called "Zhang Wei" (张伟) and not "Wei Zhang". Chinese women generally retain their maiden name and use their name unchanged after marriage, but in modern times in some communities, some women may choose to attach their husband's surname to the front. Chinese surname is patrilinearwhere the father's surname is passed on to his children, but more recently some people have opted to use both parents' surnames; although this practice has increased in recent times, it is still relatively uncommon in China, with those who adopted both parents' surnames numbering at only 1.1 million in 2018 (up from 118,000 in 1990). Some Chinese outside of mainland China, particularly those from the Chinese immigrant communities around the world and those who have acquired a Christian or Western first name, have adopted the Western convention when giving their name...

    Surnames are not evenly distributed throughout China's geography. In northern China, Wáng (王) is the most common surname, being shared by 9.9% of the population. Next are Lǐ (李), Zhāng (张/張) and Liú (刘/劉). In the south, Chén (陈/陳) is the most common, being shared by 10.6% of the population. Next are Lǐ (李), Huáng (黄/黃), Lín (林) and Zhāng (张/張). Around the major crossing points of the Yangzi River, the most common surname is Lĭ (李), taking up 7.7%, followed by Wáng (王), Zhāng (张/張), Chan/Chén (陈/陳) and Liú (刘/劉). A 1987 study showed over 450 family names in common use in Beijing, but there were fewer than 300 family names in Fujian.[citation needed] Furthermore, a 2012 study found that there was the lowest amount of isonymy in surnames among the population around middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River both on the provincial and county levels. Additionally, it was found that counties with the highest values of isonymy were distributed in the provinces with high proportions of ethni...

    Of the thousands of surnames which have been identified from historical texts prior to the modern era, most have either been lost (see extinction of family names) or simplified. Historically there are close to 12,000 surnames recorded including those from non-Han Chinese ethnic groups, of which only about 3,100 are in current use, a factor of almost 4:1 (about 75%) reduction. A 2019 figure however put the total number of Chinese family names at 6,150. Of Han Chinese surnames, the largest number ever recorded was 6,363 (3,730 single-character surnames, 2,633 multiple-character surnames), around 2,000 of which are still in use. Chinese Surname extinction is due to various factors, such as people taking the names of their rulers, orthographic simplifications, taboos against using characters from an emperor's name, and others. A recent example of near surname extinction is the rare surname Shan (𢒉).The character may not be displayed on computer systems used by government officials, and...

    Throughout most of Chinese history, surnames have served sociological functions. Because of their association with the aristocratic elite in their early developments, surnames were often used as symbols of nobility. Thus nobles would use their surnames to be able to trace their ancestry and compete for seniority in terms of hereditary rank. Examples of early genealogies among the royalty can be found in Sima Qian's Historical Records, which contain tables recording the descent lines of noble houses called shibiao (Chinese: 世表; pinyin: shìbiǎo). Later, during the Han dynasty, these tables were used by prominent families to glorify themselves and sometimes even to legitimize their political power. For example, Cao Pi, who forced the abdication of the last Han emperor in his favor, claimed descent from the Yellow Emperor. Chinese emperors sometimes passed their own surnames to subjects as honors. Unlike European practice in which some surnames are obviously noble, Chinese emperors and...

    Mainland China

    According to a comprehensive survey of residential permits released by the Chinese Ministry of Public Security on 24 April 2007, the ten most common surnames in mainland China are Wang (王), Li (李), Zhang (张), Liu (刘), Chen (陈), Yang (杨), Huang (黄), Zhao (赵), Wu (吴), and Zhou (周). The same names were also found (in slightly different orders) by a fairly comprehensive survey of 296 million people in 2006, and by the 1982 census. The top 100 surnames cover 84.77% of China's population. The top 1...


    Names in Taiwan – both among the immigrant ethnic Chinese and Taiwanese aborigines – are similar to those in southeast China but differ somewhat from the distribution of names among all Han Chinese. According to a comprehensive survey of residential permits released by the Taiwanese Ministry of the Interior's Department of Population in February 2005, the ten most common surnames in Taiwan are Chen (陳), Lin (林), Huang (黃), Chang (張), Li (李), Wang (王), Wu (吳), Liu (劉), Tsai (蔡), and Yang(楊). T...

  3. Kt/V - Wikipedia
    • Rationale For Kt/V as A Marker of Dialysis Adequacy
    • Relation to Urr
    • Peritoneal Dialysis
    • Reason For Adoption
    • Criticisms/Disadvantages of Kt/V
    • External Links

    K (clearance) multiplied by t (time) is a volume (since mL/min × min = mL, or L/h × h = L), and (K × t) can be thought of as the mL or L of fluid (blood in this case) cleared of urea (or any other solute) during the course of a single treatment. V also is a volume, expressed in mL or L. So the ratio of K × t / Vis a so-called "dimensionless ratio" and can be thought of as a multiple of the volume of plasma cleared of urea divided by the distribution volume of urea. When Kt/V = 1.0, a volume of blood equal to the distribution volume of urea has been completely cleared of urea. The relationship between Kt/V and the concentration of urea C at the end of dialysis can be derived from the first-order differential equation that describes exponential decayand models the clearance of any substance from the body where the concentration of that substance decreases in an exponential fashion: where 1. C is the concentration [mol/m3] 2. tis the time [s] 3. K is the clearance [m3/s] 4. V is the vo...

    The URR or Urea reduction ratio is simply the fractional reduction of urea during dialysis. So by definition, URR = 1 -C/C0. So 1-URR = C/C0. So by algebra, substituting into equation (4) above, since ln C/C0 = – ln C0/C, we get:

    Kt/V (in the context of peritoneal dialysis) was developed by Michael J. Lysaghtin a series of articles on peritoneal dialysis. The steady-state solution of a simplified mass transfer equation that is used to describe the mass exchange over a semi-permeable membrane and models peritoneal dialysisis where 1. CB is the concentration in the blood [ mol/m3] 2. KD is the clearance [ m3/s ] 3. m ˙ {\\displaystyle {\\dot {m}}} is the urea mass generation [ mol/s ] This can also be written as: The mass generation (of urea), in steady state, can be expressed as the mass (of urea) in the effluent per time: where 1. CE is the concentration of urea in effluent [ mol/m3] 2. VE is the volume of effluent [ m3] 3. tis the time [ s ] Lysaght, motivated by Equations 6b and 6c, defined the value KD: Lysaght uses "ml/min" for the clearance. In order to convert the above clearance (which is in m3/s) to ml/min one has to multiply by 60 × 1000 × 1000. Once KD is defined the following equation is used to cal...

    Kt/V has been widely adopted because it was correlated with survival. Before Kt/V nephrologists measured the serum urea concentration (specifically thetime-averaged concentration of urea (TAC of urea)), which was found not to be correlated with survival (due to its strong dependence on proteinintake) and thus deemed an unreliable marker of dialysis adequacy.

    It is complex and tedious to calculate. Many nephrologists have difficulty understanding it.
    Kt/V only measures a change in the concentration of urea and implicitly assumes the clearance of urea is comparable to other toxins. (It ignores molecules larger than urea having diffusion-limited...
    Kt/V does not take into account the role of ultrafiltration.


    1. Hemodialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse. 2. Kt/V and the adequacy of hemodialysis–

    Peritoneal dialysis

    1. Advisory on Peritoneal Dialysis– American Association of Kidney Patients 2. Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse.


    1. spKt/V,eKt/V,URR,nPCR,GNRI etc. dialysis calculation– 2. free Kt/V calculators, single pool and equilibrated HD, PD, no login needed, site used by dozens of dialysis centers around the world for over 10 years– 3. Web/javascript program that does formal 2-pool urea kinetics in multiple patients– 4. Kt/V calculator– 5. Kt/V– HDCN

  4. Hundred Family Surnames - Wikipedia
    • Form
    • Complete Text
    • Prevalence in Modern Times
    • See Also
    • References

    The work is a rhyming poem in lines of eight characters. The surnames are not listed in order of commonality. According to Song dynasty scholar Wang Mingqing (王明清), the first four surnames listed represent the most important families in the empire at the time: 1. 1st: Zhao (趙) is the surname of the Song dynastyemperors. 2. 2nd: Qian (錢) is the surname of the kings of Wuyue. 3. 3rd: Sun (孫) is the surname of the queen Sun Taizhen of Wuyue king Qian Chu. 4. 4th: Li (李) is the surname of the kings of Southern Tang. The next four, Zhou 周, Wu 吳, Zheng 鄭, and Wang 王, were the surnames of the other wives of Qian Chu, the last king of Wuyue.

    This text is written in Traditional Chinese. Note that several of these characters may link to the same article.

    Under 300th most common

    1. Yōng 雍 - 339th 2. 平 - Ping - 315 3. 米 316th 4. 湛 369th

    Under 400th most common

    The following surnames are not among the 400 most common surnames according to a 2013 study[citation needed]:

    Rawski, Evelyn Sakakida (1979). Education and Popular Literacy in Ch'ing China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08753-3.

  5. Vietnamese name - Wikipedia
    • Family Name
    • Middle Name
    • Given Name
    • Saints' Names
    • Near-Homonyms Distinguished by Vowel Or Tones
    • Indexing and Sorting in English
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The family name is positioned first and is passed on by the father to his children. It is estimated that there are around 100 family names in common use, but some are far more common than others. The name Nguyễn is estimated to be the most common (40%).The top three names are so common as people tended to take family names of emperors to show loyalty. Over many generations, family names became permanent. The most common family names among the Vietnamese are the following with their respective Chữ Quốc Ngữ which is commonly in use, and their corresponding Hán tự (Han Character).Altogether, these 14 names account for around 90% of the Vietnamese population (2005). 1. Nguyễn阮 (39%) 2. Trần陳 (11%) 3. Lê黎 (9.5%) 4. Phạm范 (7.1%) 5. Huỳnh-Hoàng黃 (5.1%) 6. Phan潘 (4.5%) 7. Vũ-Võ武 (3.9%) 8. Đặng鄧(2.1%) 9. Bùi裴 (2%) 10. Đỗ杜 (1.4%) 11. Hồ胡 (1.3%) 12. Ngô吳 (1.3%) 13. Dương楊 (1%) 14. Lý李 (0.5%) The following list includes less-common surnames in alphabetical order which make up the rest of the 10...

    Most Vietnamese have one middle name, but it is quite common to have two or more or to have no middle name at all. In the past, the middle name was selected by parents from a fairly narrow range of options. Almost all women had Thị (氏) as their middle name, and many men had Văn (文). More recently, a broader range of names has been used, and people named Thịsometimes omit their middle name. Thị is a most common female middle name, and most common amongst pre-1975 generation but less common amongst younger generations. Thị is an archaic Vietnamese word meaning woman. For example, "Trần Thị Mai Loan" is a person who has the given name "Mai Loan" and the surname "Trần". Alltogether, the name means "Mai Loan, a female person of the Trần family." Some traditional male middle names may include Văn (文), Hữu (友), Đức (德), Thành (誠), Công (公), Minh (明), and Quang (光). The middle name can have several uses, with the fourth being most common nowadays: 1. To indicate a person's generation. Broth...

    In most cases, the middle name is formally part of the given name. For example, the name "Đinh Quang Dũng" is separated into the surname "Đinh" and the given name "Quang Dũng". In a normal name list, those two parts of the full name are put in two different columns. However, in daily conversation, the last word in a given name with a title before it is used to address a person: "Ông Dũng", "Anh Dũng", etc., with "Ông" and "Anh" being words to address the person and depend on age, social position, etc. The given name is the primary form of address for Vietnamese. It is chosen by parents and usually has a literal meaning in the Vietnamese language. Names often represent beauty, such as bird or flower names, or attributes and characteristics that the parents want in their child, such as modesty (Khiêm, 謙). Typically, Vietnamese will be addressed with their given name, even in formal situations, although an honorific equivalent to "Mr.", "Mrs.", etc. will be added when necessary. That c...

    Vietnamese Catholics are given a saint's name at baptism (Vietnamese: tên thánh or tên rửa tội). Boys are given male saints' names, while girls are given female saints' names. This name appears first, before the family name, in formal religious contexts. Out of respect, clergy are usually referred to by saints' name. The saint's name also functions as a posthumous name, used instead of an individual's given name in prayers after their death. The most common saints' names are taken from the New Testament, such as Phêrô (Peter, or Pierre in French), Phaolô (Paul), Gioan (John), Maria (Mary), and Anna. Saints' names are respelled phonetically according to the Vietnamese alphabet. Some more well-known saints' names are derived further into names that sound more Vietnamese.

    Some names may appear the same if simplified into a basic ASCIIscript, as for example on websites, but are different names: 1. Emperor Lê Hiến Tông (Han Tu: 黎憲宗, 1461–1504), vs. emperor Lê Hiển Tông(黎顯宗, 1717–1786) 2. Trịnh Căn (鄭根, 1633–1709) reformist warlord, vs. Trịnh Cán(鄭檊, 1777–1782) infant heir of warlord Trịnh Sâm 3. Nguyễn Du (1765–1820) writer, vs. Nguyễn Dữ(c.1550) writer 4. Hoàng Tích Chu (1897–1933) journalist, vs.Hoàng Tích Chù(1912–2003) painter 5. Nguyễn Văn Tỵ (1917–1992) painter and poet, vs. Nguyễn Văn Tý(1925–2019), composer 6. Phan Thanh Hùng (1960) football manager, vs. Phan Thanh Hưng(1987), footballer 7. Nguyễn Bình (1906–1951), vs. Nguyễn Bính(1918–1966) 8. Nguyễn Văn Hưng (1958–) representative of the Vietnam National Assembly, vs. Nguyễn Văn Hùng(1980), martial artist, Typically, as in the above examples, it is middle or the last personal given name which varies, as almost any Sino-Vietnamese character may be used. The number of family names is limited. F...

    According to the English-language Chicago Manual of Style, Vietnamese names are indexed according to the given name, surname, then middle name, with a cross-reference placed in regards to the family name. Ngô Đình Diệm would be listed as "Diem, Ngô Dinh" and Võ Nguyên Giápwould be listed as "Giáp, Võ Nguyên". In Vietnamese, Vietnamese names are also typically sorted using the same order.

  6. List of Korean surnames - Wikipedia

    This is a list of Korean surnames, in Hangul alphabetical order. Note: (S) denotes South Korea. (N) denotes North Korea. The most common Korean family name (particularly in South Korea) is Kim, followed by Lee and Park. These three family names ...

  7. List of common Chinese surnames - Wikipedia

    China This list of the 100 most common Chinese surnames derives from China's Ministry of Public Security's annual report on the top 100 surnames in China, with the latest report release in January 2020 for the year 2019. When the 1982 ...

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