▶詳細請看「臺中市政府Covid-19 紓困10方」 全國防疫提升為三級警戒後，南投縣政府推出多項紓困措施，包括建雜照延長建築期限1年、房屋稅主動調降稅率、牌照稅車輛停用免徵、娛樂稅申請核減稅額及繳稅困難可延、分期等。 ▶詳細請看「南投縣政府 – 紓困專區」 彰化縣 彰化縣政府推出8項紓困措施，包括縣內26處公有零售市場6到9月份的市場攤商租金減半 ...
- Market Value
- Standards in Blockchains
- Popular Culture
A non-fungible token (NFT) is a unit of data stored on a digital ledger, called a blockchain, that certifies any digital file to be unique. NFTs function like cryptographic tokens, but unlike cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, are not mutually interchangeable, in other words, not fungible. NFTs are created when blockchains string records of cryptographic hash, a set of characters that verifies a set of data to be unique, onto previous records therefore creating a chain of identifiable data blocks. This cryptographic transaction process ensures the authentication of each digital file by providing a digital signature that is used to track NFT ownership. However, data links that point to details like where the art is stored can die. Also, ownership of an NFT does not inherently grant copyright to whatever digital asset the token represents. While someone may sell an NFT representing their work, the buyer will not necessarily receive copyright privileges when ownership of the NFT is chan...
NFTs of artworks are similar to autographed items. The unique identity and ownership of an NFT is verifiable via the blockchain ledger. NFTs have metadata that is processed through a cryptographic hash function.
The NFT market has seen rapid growth recently with its value tripling to $250 million in 2020. In the first three months of 2021 alone, more than $200 million were spent on NFTs. The economic momentum NFTs have in the cryptomarket has exploded because of a trend towards digital collectibles.NFTs are also accelerating a larger trend of digital economic innovation as the public is increasingly favoring a crypto-economy.
Specific token standards have been created to support various blockchain use-cases. These include the Ethereum ERC-721 standard of CryptoKitties, and the more recent ERC-1155 standard. The FLOW and Bitcoin Cashblockchains support NFTs.
The first one-off NFT was created on May 3, 2014, by Kevin McCoy and Anil Dash, live at the Seven on Seven conference at the New Museum in New York City. This experiment represents the first time a non-fungible, tradable blockchain marker was explicitly, via on-chain metadata (enabled by Namecoin), linked to a unique work of art, standing in stark contrast to the multi-unit, fungible, metadata-less "colored coins" of other blockchains and Counterparty. In October, 2015, the first fully-fledge...
In 2017, the Ethereum blockchain started to gain prominence over bitcoin based token platforms, due to Ethereum having a system for token creation and storage built right into its blockchain thus elminating the need for third-party platforms like Counterparty, and was the company to coin the term non-fungible token. Also in 2017, the American studio Larva Labs released CryptoPunks, a project to trade unique cartoon characters, on the Ethereum blockchain.In late 2017, another project called Cr...
NFT buying frenzy
In 2021 interest in NFT continued to spike, and a number of high-profile sales were made just in the first few months. In February 2021, the musician Grimes sold around $6 million worth of tokens representing digital art on Nifty Gateway. Later that month, an NFT representing the meme animation Nyan Cat was sold in an Internet marketplace for just under $600,000. On February 28, 2021, electronic dance musician 3LAU sold a collection of 33 NFTs for a total of $11.7 million to commemorate the t...
In 2017, NFTs circulated by CryptoKitties, a project developed by Dapper Labs to sell ownership of unique cat avatars, jumped so much in popularity that a surge in demand took up significant transaction space on the Ethereum blockchain and slowed the entire Ethereum network in December of that year. NFTs have become increasingly popular in the early months of 2021 because of recent high-profile sales. Some notable NFT sales in 2021 like NBA Top Shot's video clip of LeBron James selling for $2...
NFTs involving digital art generally do not store the file on the blockchain due to its size. The token functions in a way more similar to a certificate of ownership, with a web address pointing to the piece of art in question, making the art still subject to link rot. A number of approaches have been devised to remedy this situation, such as using a decentralized storage system like IPFS to store the file so that the buyer can host the file themselves.
NFT purchases and sales are enmeshed in a controversy regarding the high energy use, and consequent greenhouse gas emissions, associated with blockchain transactions. A major aspect of this is the proof-of-work protocol required to regulate and verify blockchain transactions on public networks, which consumes a large amount of electricity. Estimating the carbon footprint of a given NFT transaction involves a variety of assumptions about the manner in which that transaction is set up on the bl...
A small, reddish-brown carnivore, Salanoia durrelli is characterized by broad feet with prominent pads, reddish- buff underparts, and broad, robust teeth, among other differences from the brown-tailed mongoose. In the only two weighed specimens, ...
- Platform Sharing with Chevrolet
- See Also
- External Links
GMC traces its history to the 1902 founding of the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company in Pontiac, Michigan. In 1909 William C. Durant gained control of Rapid Motor Vehicle Company and made it a subsidiary of his General Motors Company. In 1908 Durant gained control of Reliance Motor Car Company, another early commercial vehicle manufacturer. In 1911 General Motors formed the General Motors Truck Company and folded Rapid and Reliance into it. In 1912 the Rapid and Reliance names were dropped in favor of “GMC.” All General Motors truck production was consolidated at the former Rapid Motor Plant 1in Pontiac, Michigan. GMC maintained three manufacturing locations in Pontiac, Michigan, Oakland, California, and St. Louis, Missouri. In 1916, a GMC Truck crossed the country from Seattle to New York City in thirty days, and in 1926, a 2-ton GMC truck was driven from New York to San Francisco in five days and 30 minutes. During the First World War, the company provided the Model 16 3/4-ton truck, an...
Beginning in 1920, GMC and Chevrolet trucks became largely similar, built as variants of the same platform, sharing much the same body sheetwork, except for nameplates and grilles – though their differences, especially engines, have varied over the years. GMC advertising marketed its trucks to commercial buyers and businesses, whereas Chevrolet's advertising was directed towards private owners. Beginning in 1928, GMCs used Pontiac's 186 cu in six-cylinder engines in their lighter trucks. Medium-duty trucks relied on Oldsmobile straight-6 engines, while the heaviest trucks used GMC's own "Standard Big Brute" engine. From 1939 to 1974 GMC had its own line of six-cylinder engines, first the inline sixes known as "Jimmy's" from 1939 to 1959, and then their own V6from 1960 until 1974, of which a V8 and a V12 version also existed. Additionally, from 1955 through 1959, the less than 2-ton, domestic GMC gasoline trucks were equipped with Pontiac, Buick, and Oldsmobile V8s—whereas the Canadi...
- Technical Standards
- SAE Foundation
- External Links
In the early 1900s there were dozens of automobile manufacturers in the United States, and many more worldwide. Auto manufacturers and parts companies joined trade groupsthat promoted business. A desire to solve common technical design problems and develop engineering standards was emerging. Engineers in the automobile business expressed a desire to have "free exchange of ideas" to expand their technical knowledge base. Two magazine publishers, Peter Heldt of The Horseless Age, and Horace Swetland of The Automobilewere advocates of the concepts for SAE. Heldt wrote an editorial in June 1902 in which he said, "Now there is a noticeable tendency for automobile manufacturers to follow certain accepted lines of construction, technical questions constantly arise which seek a solution from the cooperation of the technical men connected with the industry. These questions could best be dealt with by a technical society. The field of activity for this society would be the purely technical si...
SAE International provides a forum for companies, government agencies, research institutions and consultants to devise technical standards and recommended practices for the design, construction, and characteristics of motor vehicle components. SAE documents do not carry any legal force, but are in some cases referenced by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Transport Canada.
SAE International has been publishing technical information since 1906. Industry magazines published monthly include: Automotive Engineering International, Aerospace Engineering and Manufacturing, Off Highway Engineering, Truck & Bus Engineering, SAE Vehicle Engineering, e-newsletters, Momentum magazine for student members, and various journals. SAE also produces the monthly Updatenewsletter for its members and publishes more than 100 books a year in print and electronic formats. Ranging from compilations on various technical subjects, to textbooks, to historical and enthusiast-oriented books, SAE's titles cater to a variety of readers. In April 2007, MIT canceled its subscription to SAE because of required Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology implemented on SAE web-based database of technical papers. SAE International removed the DRM restrictions for colleges, universities, and other academic institutions.[better source needed]
In 1986, SAE International established the SAE Foundation to support science and technology education. One of the most pressing issues facing industry today is the decline of students enrolling in science and technology programs.This decline and its impact threaten the ability to meet future workforce demands. The SAE Foundation encourages and supports the development of skills related to mathematics, technology, engineering and science.
- Historical Background
- Contents of The Specification
Many suppliers (OEMs) were asked by the car manufacturers to build and certify their quality management system according to the rules and regulations of their own country organizations, such as: 1. VDA(Germany) 2. AIAG(North America) 3. AVSQ (Italy) 4. FIEV (France) 5. SMMT(UK) But due to this regulation a supplier needed to provide two different certificates for Daimler and Chrysler (VDA 6.1 for Germany and QS 9000 America), even though the supplier delivered only to a single company. These complexities accelerated the need for harmonization.
The aim of the standard is to improve the system and process quality to increase customer satisfaction, to identify problems and risks in the production process and supply chain, to eliminate their causes and to examine and take corrective and preventive measures for their effectiveness.The focus is not on the discovery, but on the avoidance of errors. The eight main chapters of the standards are: 1. Chapters 1-3: Introduction and Preface 2. Chapter 4: Quality Management System (general requirements, control of documents and records) 1. 1.1. 4.1 General 1.2. 4.2 Documentation Requirements 1.1. 1.1.1. 4.2.1 General 1.1.2. 4.2.2 Quality Manual 1.1.3. 4.2.3 Control of documents 1.1.1. 188.8.131.52. 184.108.40.206 Engineering Specification 1.1.1. 4.2.4 Control of records 1.1.1. 220.127.116.11. 18.104.22.168 Records retention 1. Chapter 5: Responsibility of the management 2. Chapter 6: Management of resources 3. Chapter 7: Product realization 4. Chapter 8: Measurement, Analysis and Improvement The process-orient...
The ISO/TS 16949 can be applied throughout the supply chain in the automotive industry. Certification takes place on the basis of the certification rules issued by the International Automotive Task Force(IATF). The certificate is valid for three years and must be confirmed annually (as a minimum) by an IATF certified auditor (3rd Party Auditor) of an IATF recognized certification body. Re-certification is required at the expiry of the three-year period. Certification pursuant to ISO/TS 16949 is intended to build up or enforce the confidence of a (potential) customer towards the system and process quality of a (potential) supplier. Today, a supplier without a valid certificate has little chance of supplying a Tier 1 supplier and certainly no chance of supplying a car manufacturer with standard parts, if indeed that OEM is a participating member of the IATF (most Japan OEM are members of JAMA and not members of the IATF) . Certification bodies include: 1. ENCONA (Germany) 2. ENCONA (U...
1. ISO/TS 16949:2009Quality management systems—Particular requirements for the application of ISO 9001:2008 for automotive production and relevant service part organizations
- History of Atlases
- Types of Atlases
- Selected Atlases
The concept of atlas in its modern sense and the genre of atlas in its own right were the brainchild and among the pioneering contributions of early modern Netherlandish cartographers, geographers and cosmographers; most notably Gerardus Mercator (who first used the term 'atlas' for a collection of maps) and Abraham Ortelius (who is often recognized as the creator of the first true atlas in the modern sense). The use of the word "atlas" in a geographical context dates from 1595 when the German-Flemish geographer Gerardus Mercator published Atlas Sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi et Fabricati Figura (Atlas or cosmographical meditations upon the creation of the universe, and the universe as created). This title provides Mercator's definition of the word as a description of the creation and form of the whole universe, not simply as a collection of maps. The volume that was published posthumously one year after his death is a wide-ranging text but, as the editions evolve...
The first work that contained systematically arranged maps of uniform size representing the first modern atlas was prepared by Italian cartographer Pietro Coppo in early 16th century, however it wasn't published at the time so is conventionally not considered the first atlas. Rather, this title is awarded to the collection of maps Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by the Brabantian cartographer Abraham Orteliusprinted in 1570.There is, however, quite a difference in the way atlases were published in the 16th-19th centuries and nowadays. Unlike now most atlases were not bound and ready for the customer to buy, but their possible components were shelved separately. The client could change the contents to their liking, have the maps coloured/gilded or not and after publisher and customer agreed the atlas was bound. Therefore it is possible that early printed atlases with the same title page can be different in contents.
A travel atlas is made for easy use during travel, and often has spiral bindings so it may be folded flat (for example Geographers' A-Z Map Company famous A–Z atlases). It has maps at a large zoom so the maps can be reviewed easily. A travel atlas may also be referred to as a road map. A desk atlasis made similar to a reference book. It may be in hardback or paperback form. There are atlases of the other planets (and their satellites) in the Solar System. Atlases of anatomyexist, mapping out organs of the human body or other organisms.
Some cartographically or commercially important atlases include the following: 17th century and earlier 1. Atlas Sive Cosmographicae(Mercator, Duisburg, in present-day Germany, 1595) 2. Atlas Novus(Blaeu, Netherlands, 1635–1658) 3. Atlas Maior(Blaeu, Netherlands, 1662–1667) 4. Cartes générales de toutes les parties du monde(France, 1658–1676) 5. Dell'Arcano del Mare(England/Italy, 1645–1661) 6. Piri Reis map(Ottoman Empire, 1570–1612) 7. Theatrum Orbis Terrarum(Ortelius, Netherlands, 1570–1612) 8. Klencke Atlas(1660; one of the world's largest books) 9. The Brittania (John Ogilby, 1670–1676) 18th century 1. Atlas Nouveau(Amsterdam, 1742) 2. Britannia Depicta(London, 1720) 3. Cary's New and Correct English Atlas(London, 1787) 19th century 1. Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas (Germany, 1881–1939; in the UK as Times Atlas of the World, 1895) 2. Rand McNally Atlas(United States, 1881–present) 3. Stielers Handatlas(Germany, 1817–1944) 4. Times Atlas of the World(United Kingdom, 1895–present)...
- Administrative Divisions
- Culture and Recreation
The Atayal Taiwanese aborigines as well as several Taiwanese Plains Aboriginal tribes (including the Taokas, Papora, Pazeh, Hoanya and Babuza people) populated the plains that make up modern Taichung. They were originally hunter gatherers who later lived by cultivating millet and taro. In the 17th century, the Papora, Babuza, Pazeh, and Hoanya established the Kingdom of Middag, occupying the western part of present-day Taichung.
In 1682, the Qing dynasty wrested control of western Taiwan from the Cheng family (Kingdom of Tungning). In 1684, Zhuluo County was established, encompassing the underdeveloped northern two-thirds of Taiwan. Modern-day Taichung traces its beginnings to a settlement named Toatun (Chinese: 大墩; pinyin: Dàdūn; Wade–Giles: Ta4-tun1; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Toā-tun; lit. 'large mound') in 1705. To strengthen Qing control, a garrison was established in 1721 near the site of present-day Taichung Parkby Lan Ting-...
Empire of Japan
After the Qing dynasty lost the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Taiwan was ceded to Japan by the Treaty of Shimonoseki, and the name of the city was changed to Taichū(Japanese: 臺中). The Japanese sought to develop the city to make it the first "modern" area of Taiwan and invested in roads, dams, and levees. In 1901, Taichū Chō(臺中廳)was established as one of twenty local administrative districts on the island. In 1904, the town of Taichū had a population of 6,423, and Taichū District had more than 20...
Taichung City is located in the Taichung Basin along the main western coastal plain that stretches along the west coast from northern Taiwan almost to the southern tip. The city borders Changhua County, Nantou County, Hualien County, Yilan County, Hsinchu County and Miaoli County. The Central Mountain Range lies just to the east of the city. Rolling hills run to the north leading to Miaoli County, while flat coastal plains dominate the landscape to the south leading to Changhua County and the Taiwan Straitto the west.
Taichung's population was estimated to be 2,816,667 in March 2020. There are slightly more females in the city (50.97%) than males. 24.32% of residents are children, while 16.63% are young people, 52.68% are middle-age, and 6.73% are elderly. According to Ministry of Interiorstatistics, the fertility rate in Taichung City in 2007 was 1.165 for each woman. The city surpassed Kaohsiung to become the second largest city in Taiwan in July 2017, growing at the 2nd fastest rate in Taiwan from 2012 to 2017. Recent population increases have been attributed to natural population growth, more people moving to the city, and subsidized housing.
Unlike Taipei in the north, which is solidly in the Pan-Blue political camp, and the southern cities of Kaohsiung and Tainan that are solidly Pan-Green, Taichung is more balanced, with the urban city center area leaning Blue and the suburban and rural areas leaning Green. In fact, both major political parties have won a mayoral election among the last four with at least 49 percent of the vote (Democratic Progressive Party in 1997 and 2014 and the Kuomintang in 2001 and 2005). Similarly, the K...
Taichung City's executive branch is headed by mayor Lu Shiow-yen of the Kuomintang.Taichung's legislative branch is a unicameral 46-member City Council. Each member is elected from one of six member districts where each voter has only one vote.
Taichung consists of 29 districts, 28 districtsand 1 mountain indigenous district. Inner Taichung refers to the eight former districts of Taichung City before the merger with Taichung County on December 25, 2010. Colors indicate statutory language status of Hakka language in the respective subdivisions. Note that Heping District is also an indigenous area of the Atayal people.
Taichung is home to many industries. Taichung's Industrial Zone, located in Xitun District, is home to many factories, while nearby World Trade Center Taichung hosts many industrial conventions every year. Taichung is also home to the Central Taiwan Science Park, known for the many semiconductor factories located there, most notably TSMC. Taichung is also known for its bicycle manufacturing. Notable business located in Taichung include Giant Bicycles, SRAM, and TRP Brakes. Merida Bicycles is also located in nearby Dacun, Changhua. Taichung is most famous for its suncakes. Taichung's Chun Shui Tang teahouse (春水堂) is where bubble teawas invented. The recent surge in population resulted in the growth of the retail sector,with the opening of large department stores in Xitun District.
Two railways run parallel to each other in Taichung: the Taichung Line, which passes through the urban areas in the interior, and the West Coast Line, which passes through rural areas closer to the coastal shore. Taichung railway station is located in the heart of the city in Central District and numerous bus companies provide connections to other towns by bus. The THSR Taichung Station is located in Wuriand is served both by local trains as well as free shuttle buses into the city.
Taichung Port, located on the coast in Taichung City, is the second largest cargo facility on the island capable of handling container shipping. Despite being the second largest port on the island of Taiwan, there are no passenger ferry services available and the port is closed to unauthorized personnel.
Taichung City generally follows a radial road layout, with its center at Taichung railway station. Major roads start in Central District and run outwards, including Taiwan Boulevard, Xiangshang Road, Zhongqing Road, and Zhongshan Road. Freeway 1 runs along the Fazi River on the outskirts of the city, while Freeway 3 runs along the Dadu River to the coastal plains on the west, where it then runs parallel to the coastline. Freeway 4 begins in Qingshui District and terminates in Fengyuan Distric...
Taichung City is in the process of implementing Hanyu Pinyin on road signs throughout the city. However, there are still signs displaying spellings from previously used romanization systems, as well as Tongyong Pinyin and systems that do not conform to any standard system. Unlike Taipei, which uses a capital letter at the beginning of every syllable, Taichung City uses the standard form of Hanyu Pinyin on street signs erected in recent years. However, the municipal website uses the Taipei system. Most major intersections have at least one sign containing some form of romanization. Nearly every intersection in the downtown area has signs in Hanyu Pinyin. However, outside of the downtown area, while coverage by Hanyu Pinyin signs is improving, many intersections have signs in other romanization systems (especially Wade–Giles and MPS2) or no Romanized signs at all.
Museums and cultural centers
1. The National Taiwan Museum of Fine Artshouses the world's largest collection of Taiwanese art. 2. National Museum of Natural Science together with National Palace Museum in Taipei and the National Science and Technology Museum in Kaohsiung are called "the Museums of Taiwan". Across 22 acres (89,000 m2), the Museum is a six-venue complex housing the Space IMAX Theater, Science Center, Life Science Hall, Chinese Science Hall, Global Environment Hall and the Botanical Garden, excluding the Ea...
Taichung has a large number of temples, many of which hold historic and cultural value. According to a 2018 survey by the city government, Taichung is home to 1,012 registered temples, of which 774 are Taoist and 208 are Buddhist. The sea goddess Mazu is a commonly-worshipped deity. Jenn Lann Temple is the starting point of the annual Dajia Mazu Pilgrimage, one of two largest such pilgrimages in Taiwan (along with the Baishatun Mazu Pilgrimage). Each year, worshippers carry a litter containin...
Taichung has several open-air night marketsthat feature local food and diversions: 1. Fengjia Night Market - located adjacent to Feng Chia University. It has been considered as the best night market in Taiwan. 2. Yizhong Street - located at North District, close to Taichung Park. One of the most popular night market in Taichung. 3. Zhonghua Night Market - located in the heart of Central District, along ZhongHua Road. 4. Zhongxiao Night Market - located south of the Taichung Railroad Station a...
The Sinon Bulls were a professional baseball team playing in the four-team Chinese Professional Baseball League. While they were identified with Taichung City, many of their “home games” were played outside of the city due to the inadequacies of the old Taichung Baseball Field. The team was expected to move into the newly completed Taichung Intercontinental Baseball Stadium in 2008, but never did. At the end of the 2012 season, Sinon Corporation announced its intention to sell the team. By la...
Other sporting activities
Taichung hosts two road races annually. The ING Marathon preparation 10K race is held every September in the Metropolitan Park. The Supau Cup Marathon is held on the city's streets every autumn, either in October or November.
- in Community Organizations
- Limitations and Alternatives
- SWOT Analysis in Popular Culture
SWOT assumes that strengths and weaknesses are frequently internal, while opportunities and threats are more commonly external.The name is an acronym for the four parameters the technique examines: 1. Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over others. 2. Weaknesses: characteristics that place the business or project at a disadvantage relative to others. 3. Opportunities: elements in the environment that the business or project could exploit to its advantage. 4. Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project. The degree to which the internal environment of the firm matches with the external environment is expressed by the concept of strategic fit. Identification of SWOTs is important because they can inform later steps in planning to achieve the objective. First, decision-makers should consider whether the objective is attainable, given the SWOTs. If the objective is notattainable, they must select a...
SWOT analysis can be used in any decision-making situation when a desired end-state (objective) is defined, not just profit-seeking organizations. Examples include non-profit organizations, governmental units, and individuals. SWOT analysis may also be used in pre-crisis planning and preventive crisis management. SWOT analysis may also be used in creating a recommendation during a viability study/survey.
The SWOT analysis has been used in community work as a tool to identify positive and negative factors within organizations, communities, and the broader society that promote or inhibit successful implementation of social services and social change efforts.It is used as a preliminary resource, assessing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats in a community served by a nonprofit or community organization. Although SWOT analysis is a part of the planning, it will not provide a strategic plan if used by itself, but a SWOT list can becomes a series of recommendations. Strengths and weaknesses (internal factors within an organization): 1. Human resources—staff, volunteers, board members, target population 2. Physical resources—your location, building, equipment 3. Financial—grants, funding agencies, other sources of income 4. Activities and processes—programs you run, systems you employ 5. Past experiences—building blocks for learning and success, your reputation in the communi...
SWOT is intended as a starting point for discussion and cannot, in itself, show managers how to achieve a competitive advantage,particularly in a rapidly changing environment. Menon et al. (1999) and Hill and Westbrook (1997) suggested "no-one subsequently used the outputs within the later stages of the strategy". Others have critiqued hastily designed SWOT lists. Preoccupation with a single strength, such as cost control, they can neglect their weaknesses, such as product quality.Domineering by one or two community workers devalues the possible contributions of community members. Michael Porter developed the five forces framework as a reaction to SWOT, which he found lacking in rigor and ad hoc. Other names include WOTS-UP (Gray and Smeltzer, 1989) and TOWS(reversing the emphasis, with external first).Ads: Coca-Cola has used SWOT analysisin targeting television adsTelevision shows: In the Silicon Valley episode "Homicide" (Season 2, Episode 6), Jared Dunn (Zach Woods) introduces the Pied Piper team to SWOT analysis. Later in that episode Dinesh (Kumail Nanji...
Dag Øivind Madsen, "SWOT Analysis: A Management Fashion Perspective", International Journal of Business Research 16:1:39–56 (2016) full text
- Related Concepts
Yama (Sanskrit: यम:), is the Hindu god of Death and Justice, and is responsible for the dispensation of law and punishment of sinners in his abode, Yamaloka. Yama is also one of the oldest deities in the pantheon and some of his earliest appearances are found in the Rigveda. From there, he has remained a significant deity, appearing in some of the most important texts of Hinduism which include the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas. Yama is also one of the Lokapalas (guardians of the directions), appointed as the protector of the southern direction. He is often depicted as a dark complexioned man, riding a buffalo and carrying a noose or mace to capture dead souls. Legends describe him as the twin of Yamuna, a river goddess associated with life, and the son of the Sun god Surya and Saranyu. Other than Yamuna, he also has many siblings, such as the Ashvins, Shani, Shraddhadeva Manu, Revanta and Tapati. Some of his major appearances include in the tales of the Pandavas, Savitri...
In Buddhism, Yama (Sanskrit: यम) is a dharmapala, a wrathful god or the Enlightened Protector of Buddhism that is considered worldly, said to judge the dead and preside over the Narakas ("Hell" or "Purgatory") and the cycle of rebirth. The Buddhist Yama has, however, developed different myths and different functions from the Hindu deity. In Pali Canon Buddhist myths, Yama takes those who have mistreated elders, holy spirits, or their parents when they die. Contrary though, in the Majjhima Nikaya commentary by Buddhagosa, Yama is a vimānapeta – a pretawith occasional suffering. In other parts of Buddhism, Yama's main duty is to watch over purgatorial aspects of Hell (the underworld), and has no relation to rebirth. His sole purpose is to maintain the relationships between spirits that pass through the ten courts, similar to Yama's representation in several Chinese religions. He has also spread widely and is known in every country where Buddhism is practiced, including China, Korea, V...
Naraka is the Hindu equivalent of Hell, where sinners are tormented after death. In Hindu mythology, Naraka holds many hells, and Yama directs departed souls to the appropriate one. Even elevated Mukti-yogyas and Nitya-samsarins can experience Naraka for expiationof sins. Although Yama is the lord of Naraka, he may also direct the soul to a Swarga (heaven) or return it to Bhoomi (earth). As good and bad deeds are not considered to cancel each other out, the same soul may spend time in both a...
East Asian mythology
Mandarin Diyu, Japanese Jigoku, Korean Jiok, Vietnamese Địa ngục literally "earth prison", is the realm of the dead or "hell" in Chinese mythology and Japanese mythology. It is based upon the Buddhist concept of Naraka combined with local afterlife beliefs. Incorporating ideas from Taoism and Buddhism as well as traditional religion in China, Di Yu is a kind of purgatory place which serves not only to punish but also to renew spirits ready for their next incarnation. This is interchangeable w...
In Iranian mythology
In the Zend-Avesta of Zoroastrianism, a parallel character is called "Yima".The pronunciation "Yima" is peculiar to the Avestan dialect; in most Iranian dialects, including Old Persian, the name would have been "Yama". In the Avesta, the emphasis is on Yima's character as one of the first mortals and as a great king of men. Over time, *Yamaxšaita was transformed into Jamšēd or Jamshid, celebrated as the greatest of the early shahsof the world.Both Yamas in Zoroastrian and Hindu myth guard hel...
In Javanese culture
There is a door-god Yamadipati in Javanese culture, preserved especially in wayang. The word adipati means ruler or commander. When Hinduism first came to Java, Yama was still the same as Yama in Hindu myth. Later, as Islam replaced Hinduism as the majority religion of Java, Yama was demystified by Walisanga, who ruled at that time. So, in Javanese, Yama became a new character. He is the son of Sanghyang Ismaya and Dewi Sanggani. In the Wayanglegend, Yamadipati married Dewi Mumpuni. Unfortuna...
In Buddhist temples
In the Buddhism of the Far East, Yama is one of the twelve Devas, as guardian deities, who are found in or around Buddhist shrines (Jūni-ten, 十二天). In Japan, he has been called "Enma-Ten".He joins these other eleven Devas of Buddhism, found in Japan and other parts of southeast Asia: Indra (Taishaku-ten), Agni (Ka-ten), Yama (Emma-ten), Nirrti (Rasetsu-ten), Vayu (Fu-ten), Ishana (Ishana-ten), Kubera (Tamon-ten), Varuna (Sui-ten) Brahma (Bon-ten), Prithvi (Chi-ten), Surya (Nit-ten), Chandra (...
Hokkien is reportedly the native language of up to 80% of the Chinese people in the Philippines, among which is known locally as Lan-nang or Lán-lâng-oē ("Our people's language"). Hokkien speakers form the largest group of overseas ...