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  1. Zoom Video Communications - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Partner Programs Zoom
    • Privacy and Security Issues
    • Censorship
    • Workforce
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Early years

    Zoom was founded by Eric Yuan, a former corporate vice president for Cisco Webex. He left Cisco in April 2011 with 40 engineers to start a new company, originally named Saasbee, Inc. The company had trouble finding investors because many people thought the videotelephony market was already saturated. In June 2011, the company raised $3 million of seed money from WebEx founder Subrah Iyar, former Cisco SVP and General Counsel Dan Scheinman, and venture capitalists Matt Ocko, TSVC, and Bill Tai...


    In July 2013, Zoom established partnerships with B2B collaboration software providers, such as Redbooth (then Teambox), and also created a program named Works with Zoom, which established partnerships with Logitech, Vaddio, and InFocus. In September 2013, the company raised $6.5 million in a Series B round from Horizon Ventures, and existing investors. At that time, it had 3 million users. In April 2020, the app's CEO, Eric Yuan, announced Zoom's daily users have ballooned to more than 200 mi...

    IPO and onward

    On April 18, 2019, the company became a public company via an initial public offering. After pricing at US$36 per share, the share price increased over 72% on the first day of trading. The company was valued at US$16 billion by the end of its first day of trading. Prior to the IPO, Dropboxinvested $5 million in Zoom. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Zoom saw a major increase in usage for remote work, distance education, and online social relations. Thousands of educational institutions switched...

    With the increase in demand for cloud collaboration platforms over the past year due to the pandemic, Zoom has grown the partner program and gained momentum around the world. Partnerships with value-added resellers (VARs), Master Agents, service providers, operators and independent software publishers have enabled Zoom to achieve the following objectives: 1. Multiplication by 7 of sales by our partners compared to the previous year 2. More than 20% of our international business activities were driven by our partner ecosystem during the last quarter 3. Zoom's Master Agent activity has seen the fastest growth in history, notably for Avant and Intelisys

    Zoom has been criticized for "security lapses and poor design choices" that have resulted in heightened scrutiny of its software. The company has also been criticized for its privacy and corporate data sharing policies. Security researchers and reporters have criticized the company for its lack of transparency and poor encryption practices. Zoom initially claimed to use "end-to-end encryption" in its marketing materials, but later clarified it meant "from Zoom end point to Zoom end point" (meaning effectively between Zoom servers and Zoom clients), which The Interceptdescribed as misleading and "dishonest". In March 2020, New York State Attorney General Letitia James launched an inquiry into Zoom's privacy and security practices;the inquiry was closed on May 7, 2020, with Zoom not admitting wrongdoing, but agreeing to take added security measures. On April 1, 2020, Zoom announced a 90-day freeze on releasing new features, to focus on fixing privacy and security issues on Zoom. On Ju...

    In April 2020, Citizen Lab warned that having much of Zoom's research and development in China could "open up Zoom to pressure from Chinese authorities." In June 2020, Zoom was criticized for closing multiple accounts of U.S. and Hong Kong–based groups, including that of Zhou Fengsuo and two other human rights activists, who were commemorating the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests. The accounts were later re-opened, with the company stating that in the future it "will have a new process for handling similar situations." Zoom responded that it has to "comply with local laws," even "the laws of governments opposed to free speech." Zoom subsequently admitted to shutting down activist accounts at the request of the Chinese government. In response, a bi-partisan group of U.S. senators requested clarification of the incident from the company.Partially in response to criticisms of its blocking of the activists accounts as well as expressions of concern by the United States Justice Department,...

    In January 2020, Zoom had over 2,500 employees, with 1,396 in the United States and 1,136 in international locations. It is reported that 700 employees within a subsidiary work in China and develop Zoom software. In May 2020, Zoom announced plans to open new research and development centers in Pittsburgh and Phoenix, with plans to hire up to 500 engineers between the two cities over the next few years. In July 2020, Zoom announced the opening of a new technology center in Bangalore, India, to host engineering, IT, and business operations roles. In August 2020, Zoom opened a new data center in Singapore. The company ranked second place in Glassdoor's 2019 "Best Places to Work" survey. Part of Zoom's product development team is based in China, where an average entry-level tech salary is one-third of American salaries, which is a key driver of its profitability.Zoom's research and development costs are 10 percent of its total revenue and less than half of the median percentage among it...

    Business data for Zoom Video Communications, Inc.:
  2. V-mail - Wikipedia
    • Operation and Function
    • British 'Airgraph'
    • Historical Antecedents
    • in Literature
    • See Also
    • Bibliography
    • External Links

    V-mail correspondence was on small letter sheets, 17.8 by 23.2 cm (7 by 91⁄8 in), that would go through mail censors before being photographed and transported as thumbnail-sized image in negative microfilm. Upon arrival to their destination, the negatives would be printed. The final print was 60% of the original document's size, creating a sheet 10.7 by 13.2 cm (41⁄4 by 51⁄4in). According to the National Postal Museum, "V-mail ensured that thousands of tons of shipping space could be reserved for war materials. The 37 mail bags required to carry 150,000 one-page letters could be replaced by a single mail sack. The weight of that same amount of mail was reduced dramatically from 2,575 pounds to a mere 45." This saved considerable weight and bulk in a time in which both were hard to manage in a combat zone. In addition to postal censorship, V-mail also deterred espionage communications by foiling the use of invisible ink, microdots, and microprinting, none of which would be reproduced...

    The airgraph was invented in the 1930s by the Eastman Kodak Company in conjunction with Imperial Airways (now British Airways) and Pan-American Airways as a means of reducing the weight and bulk of mail carried by air. The airgraph forms, upon which the letter was written, were photographed and then sent as negatives on rolls of microfilm. A General Post Office (GPO) poster of the time claimed that 1,600 letters on film weighed just 5oz, while 1,600 ordinary letters weighed 50 lbs. At their destination, the negatives were printed on photographic paper and delivered as airgraph letters through the normal Royal Engineers(Postal Section) - also known as the Army Postal Services (APS) - systems. In 1940, the British Minister of Transport, Lieutenant Colonel John Moore-Brabazon, 1st Baron Brabazon of Tara, put forward the idea that airgraphs be used to reduce both the bulk and weight of mail travelling between the Middle East Force (MEF) and the UK. The matter was referred to the APS and...

    The U.S. military's V-mail was based on British Airgraphs, which were based on Eastman Kodak's patent obtained from New York City banker George McCarthy. Prior to that, a similar system was deployed during the Franco-Prussian War which used carrier pigeons to send primitive microfilm strips across German lines, developed from French optician René Dagron's first patent granted for microfilm in 1859. Dagron's microfilm patent was additionally based on British scientist John Benjamin Dancer, who created microfilm in 1839.

    The narrator of Breakfast at Tiffany'stakes to going through the trash-basket outside his neighbour Holly Golightly's door: 1. The same source made it evident that she received V-letters by the bale. They were always torn into strips like bookmarks. I used occasionally to pluck myself a bookmark in passing. Remember and miss you and rain and please write and damn and goddamn were the words that recurred most often on these slips; those, and lonesome and love.

    Fletcher, Julius and Hartwig Danesch. The civilian airgraph service in Palestine, 1941-1945. Rickmansworth: British Association of Palestine-Israel Philatelists, 1983 ISBN 095055713776p.
    Keeton, E.H. Airgraph: A Detailed Handbook on the Airgraph with Indications of the Value. King's Lynn: E. Keeton, 1987 263p.
    Smithsonian Magazine, March, 1994, Around the Mall, vol 24:12 pg 16
    Smithsonian Magazine, May, 2004, "V - as in Victory Mail", pg 38
  3. LTE frequency bands - Wikipedia
    • Frequency Bands
    • Deployments by Region
    • See Also
    • External Links

    From Tables 5.5-1 "E-UTRA Operating Bands" and 5.6.1-1 "E-UTRA Channel Bandwidth" of the latest published version of the 3GPP TS 36.101, the following table lists the specified frequency bands of LTEand the channel bandwidths each band supports.

    The following table shows the standardized LTE bands and their regional use. The main LTE bands are in bold print. Not yet deployed are not available (N/A). Partial deployments varies from country to country and the details are available at List of LTE networks. 1. Networks on LTE bands 7, 28 (LTE-FDD) are suitable for global roaming in ITU Regions1, 2 and 3. 2. Networks on LTE bands 1, 3 (LTE-FDD) are suitable for roaming in ITU Regions 1, 3 and partially Region 2 (e.g. Costa Rica, Venezuela, Brazil and some Caribbean countries or territories. 3. Networks on LTE band 20 (LTE-FDD) are suitable for roaming in ITU Region 1 only. 4. Networks on LTE band 5 (LTE-FDD) are suitable for roaming in ITU Regions 2 and 3. 5. Networks on LTE bands 38, 40 (LTE-TDD) may allow global roaming in the future (ITU Regions 1, 2 and 3). 6. Networks on LTE band 8 (LTE-FDD) may allow roaming suitable for roaming in ITU Regions 1, 3 and partially Region 2 (e.g. Peru, El Salvador, Brazil and some Caribbean c...

  4. Line (software) - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Creation
    • Market Share
    • Features
    • Line Lite
    • Limitations
    • Security
    • Censorship
    • in Popular Culture
    • Related Products

    LINE was originally developed as a mobile application for Android and iOS smartphones. The service has since expanded to BlackBerry OS (August 2012), Nokia Asha (Asia and Oceania, March 2013), Windows Phone (July 2013), Firefox OS (February 2014), iOS tablets (October 2014), and as a Chrome Browser Application (via the Chrome Web Store). The application also exists in versions for laptop and desktop computers using the Microsoft Windows and macOS platforms.[citation needed]. The application proved hugely popular, and by late October, LINE experienced an unexpected server overload. After concluding that the scalability process needed to be improved, NHN Japan chose to adopt HBase as the primary storage for user profiles, contacts, and groups. Within eighteen months of its release, LINE reached 100 million users; six months later, it reached 200 millionand by November 25, 2013, was used by 300 million users. On July 3, 2012, NHN Japan announced the new LINE features Home and Timeline....

    As its competitor Kakao dominated the South Korean messaging market, Naver Corporation launched a messenger application NAVER Talk in February 2011 in South Korea. However, because the South Korean messaging market was dominated by Kakao, the business of NAVER Talk was suppressed. Naver Corporation was expanding their messaging application and targeted other countries' messaging markets which had not been developed yet. Naver Corporation released their messaging application, which changed its name to 'LINE', to the Japanese messaging market in 2011. As LINE became a huge success, finally NAVER combined NAVER Talk and LINE in March 2012. They changed NAVER's Japanese branch name from NHN JAPAN to LINE Corporation. LINE reached 100 million users within eighteen months and 200 million users only six months later. LINE became Japan's largest social network in 2013. In October 2014, LINE announced that it had attracted 560 million users worldwide with 170 million active user accounts. In...

    Line began in Spring 2011 as a communication system for NHN Japan employees. It then saw explosive growth when released to the public in June of that year. By 18 January 2013, Line had been downloaded 100 million times worldwide. The number expanded to 140 million by early July 2013 and to 200 million by July 21. As of June 2016, Japan claimed 68 million users while Thailand had 33 million. As of February 2014, Indonesia had 20 million users, Taiwan 17 million, while India and Spain had 16 million each. NHN representatives announced plans to reach 300 million by further expansion in East Asia, Spain, and Chile. In April 2014, Naver announced that Line had reached 400 million worldwide users,and by 2017 this had grown to 700 million.

    Line is an application that works on multiple platforms and has access via multiple personal computers (Windows or macOS). The application will also give an option of address book syncing. This application also has a feature to add friends through the use of QR codes, by Line ID, and by shaking phones simultaneously. The application has a direct pop-out message box for reading and replying to make it easy for users to communicate. It also can share photos, videos and music with other users, send the current or any specific location, voice audio, emojis, stickers and emoticons to friends. Users can see a real-time confirmation when messages are sent and received or use a hidden chat feature, which can hide and delete a chat history (from both involved devices and Line servers) after a time set by the user.The application also makes free voice and video calls. Users can also chat and share media in a group by creating and joining groups that have up to 500 people. Chats also provide b...

    In 2015, a lower-overhead Android app was released for emerging markets called Line Lite. This supports messages and calls but not themes or timeline.It became available worldwide in August 2015.

    For Asian countries.Line accounts can be accessed on only one mobile device (running the app version), plus one personal computer (running the version for those). Additional mobile devices can install the app but require different mobile numbers or e-mail addresses for the Line account. If "LINE Lite" for Android is installed and activated, the user is told they will be "logged out of the normal LINE". This message does not make clear that it is impossible to log back in to the normal LINE, and the normal LINE will delete all history data when next launched.

    In August 2013, it was possible to intercept a Line chat session at the network level using packet capture software and to reconstruct it on a PC. Messages were sent in clear text to Line's server when on cellular data but encrypted when using Wi-Fi most of the time. Until February 2016, it was also possible to "clone" an iPhone from a backup, and then use the "cloned" iPhone to access the same Line account as used by the original iPhone. This loophole was widely rumored (but never proven) to have been used to intercept Line messages between the popular Japanese television personality Becky and her married romantic partner Enon Kawatani; the intercepted messages were published in the magazine Shukan Bunshunand led to the temporary suspension of Becky's television career. In July 2016, Line Corporation turned on end-to-end encryption by default for all Line users. It had earlier been available as an opt-in feature since October 2015. The app uses the ECDH protocol for client-to-clien...

    Line suppressed content in China to conform with government censorship. Analysis by Citizen Labshowed that accounts registered with Chinese phone numbers download a list of banned words that cannot be sent or received through Line. Line publicly confirmed the practice in December 2013. However, by 2014, access to Line chat servers has been entirely blocked by the Great Firewall, while the company still makes revenue in China from brick-and-mortar stores. In Indonesia, Line has responded to pressure from the Indonesian Communication and Information Ministryto remove emojis and stickers it believes make reference to homosexuality, for example the emoji "two men holding hands". Line issued a public statement on the issue: "Line regrets the incidents of some stickers which are considered sensitive by many people. We ask for your understanding because at the moment we are working on this issue to remove the stickers". In Thailand, Line is suspected of responding to pressure from the Thai...

    On November 20, 2012, Line was shown in Far East Movement's music video, featuring Sidney Samson, for the song "Change Your Life". DJ Virman is seen chatting with Sidney Samson at the middle of the music video. On December 16, 2012, the Line application was shown in American rap artist Big Sean's music video for the song "Guap". On May 16, 2014, Warner Music Italy released the music video for Italian singer Annalisa's "Sento solo il presente", in which the recording artist is seen using the Line application at the beginning of the video. In 2014, the LINE app was featured in Cycle 21 of America's Next Top Model. The app had a significant presence in the popular Korean TV drama My Love from the Star. The app is heavily featured in the visual novel Steins;Gate 0under the name "Rine". Naver Corporation and Mages also partnered during the Steins;Gate 5th Anniversary Goods Project. In the 2017 anime Tsuki ga Kirei, the Line app is the protagonists' main way of communication. The 2017 ori...

    Line Friends

    Line Friendsare featured characters that are shown in stickers of the application. They include Brown, Cony, Sally, James, Moon, Boss, Jessica, Edward, Leonard, Choco, Pangyo and Rangers. Two anime series, LINE OFFLINE and LINE TOWN, were produced in 2013, picturing the Line Friends as employees for the fictional Line Corporation.

    Line Man

    On-demand assistant for food and messenger delivery services in Bangkok.

    Line TV

    A video on demand service operating in Taiwan and Thailand.

  5. General Services Administration - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Organization
    • Operations
    • External Links

    In 1947, President Harry Truman asked former president Herbert Hoover to lead what became known as the Hoover Commission to make recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the establishment of an "Office of the General Services". This proposed office would combine the responsibilities of the following organizations:[citation needed] 1. U.S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply 2. U.S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement 3. National Archives Establishment 4. All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration 5. War Assets Administration GSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act. General Jess Larson, administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named GSA's first administrator.[citation needed] The first job awaiting Admini...


    The administrator is the chief executive of the General Services Administration. Emily W. Murphy was sworn in as administrator on December 12, 2017, after being unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate on December 5, 2017; she served until January 2021. On April 12, 2021, President Joe Biden nominated Robin Carnahanto serve as administrator. GSA consists of two major services: the Federal Acquisition Service (FAS), and the Public Buildings Service (PBS). In addition to these two major service...


    GSA conducts its business activities through 11 offices (known as GSA Regions) throughout the United States. These regional offices are located in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Fort Worth, Kansas City (Missouri), New York City, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Seattle (Auburn), and Washington, D.C.

    Procurement and the GSA Schedule

    The Federal Acquisition Service (FAS) provides comprehensive solutions for products and services across the government. GSA assists with procurement work for other government agencies. As part of this effort, it maintains the large GSA Schedules, which other agencies can use to buy goods and services. The GSA Schedule can be thought of as a collection of pre-negotiated contracts.Procurement managers from government agencies can view these agreements and make purchases from the GSA Schedule kn...

    Federal property and buildings

    The Public Buildings Service (PBS) acquires and manages thousands of federal properties. In accordance with Title 40 of the United States Code, GSA is charged with promulgating regulations governing the acquisition, use, and disposal of real property (real estate and land) and personal property (essentially all other property). This activity is centered in GSA's Office of Governmentwide Policy. Policies promulgated by GSA are developed in collaboration with federal agencies, and are typically...

    Federal vehicle fleet management

    GSA contributes to the management of U.S. Federal property, including a 215,000 vehicle motor pool. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (stimulus bill) included $300 million to acquire energy-efficient motor vehicles for the federal fleet. President Barack Obama announced that GSA was to support the U.S. auto industry with orders for about 17,600 new fuel-efficient vehicles by June 1, 2009, on an accelerated schedule, with money from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act....

    General Services Administration in the Federal Register
    GSA Schedule Contract in the Top 100 Contractors of the U.S. federal government
  6. KKBox - Wikipedia

    KKBOX[1] is a music streaming service developed in 2005 by KKBOX Inc., a software company in Taipei, Taiwan. It is a part of Japanese Telecom Group, KDDI. The service mainly targets the music markets of East and Southeast Asia, focusing on ...

  7. Ons Jabeur - Wikipedia
    • Early Life and Background
    • Junior Career
    • Professional Career
    • National Representation
    • Playing Style
    • Coaches
    • Personal Life
    • External Links

    Ons Jabeur was born 28 August 1994 to Samira and Ridha Jabeur in Ksar Hellal, a small town in Tunisia. She grew up in the larger nearby coastal town of Sousse. Jabeur has two older brothers Hatem and Marwen and an older sister Yasmine. Her mother played tennis recreationally and introduced her to the sport at the age of three. Jabeur trained under coach Nabil Mlika for ten years from ages four to thirteen, originally starting to work with him at a tennis promotion centre at her school. When she was ten years old, her club did not have their own tennis courts and she could only train on courts at nearby hotels. At twelve years old, Jabeur moved to the capital city of Tunis to train at the Lycée Sportif El Menzah, a national sport high school for the country's up-and-coming athletes where she stayed for several years. She also later trained in Belgium and France starting at the age of 16.Jabeur credits her parents for the sacrifices they made when she was growing up, saying, "My paren...

    Jabeur began playing on the ITF Junior Circuit in August 2007 on the week of her 13th birthday. With compatriot Nour Abbès, she won the doubles event of her debut tournament, the Grade 5 Al Fatah ITF Junior Tournament in Lebanon. She defeated Abbès to win her first Grade 5 singles event in January 2009 at the Fujairah ITF Junior Tennis Championships in the United Arab Emirates, where she also won the doubles event with Abbès. Later in the year, she started to have more success at higher-level tournaments, finishing runner-up at the Grade 2 International Junior Championships of Morocco and winning the Grade 2 Smash International Junior Championships in Egypt, both in singles. She made her junior Grand Slam debut at the 2009 US Open, losing her opening match to Laura Robson. Jabeur started to produce strong results at the junior Grand Slam and other Grade A events in May 2010. In the doubles event at the Trofeo Bonfiglio, she partnered with Charlène Seateun to reach the semifinals. Tw...

    2008–12: WTA debut

    Jabeur began playing on the ITF Women's Circuit in 2008 at the age of 14. In October 2009, she finished runner-up in both singles and doubles at an ITF $10K tournament in Monastir near her hometown, losing to Elise Tamaëla in both events. She won her first title at the $10K level in singles in May 2010 in Antalya, Turkey. She then won the singles and doubles events at another $10K tournament in Casablanca, Morocco two months later. After having left wrist surgery at the end of the year and wi...

    2013–16: Steady in the top 200 at the ITF level

    After a slow start to 2013, Jabeur won her first ITF $25K title in April 2013 in Tunis. She then won back-to-back $50K titles over An-Sophie Mestach in Japan in May to bring her into the top 200 for the first time. In July, Jabeur played in her second WTA main draw at the Baku Cup. She upset top seed, defending champion, and world No. 37 Bojana Jovanovski in the second round before losing in the quarterfinals to Magda Linette. She entered the qualifying competitions at Wimbledon and the US Op...

    2017–18: Top 100 debut, and then first WTA final

    Jabeur participated in all four Grand Slam singles events in 2017 for the first time. After losing in the last round of qualifying at the Australian Open, she reached the French Open main draw as a lucky loser, the Wimbledon main draw as a qualifier, and the US Open main draw as a direct acceptance. She began to rise back up the rankings at the Premier-level Dubai Tennis Championships, where she qualified for the main draw and upset world No. 22 Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova in the first round. Th...

    Fed Cup

    Jabeur represented Tunisia at the Junior Fed Cup in 2009 alongside Nour Abbès and Sonia Daggou. The team finished third place in their round robin group that also included Mexico, China, and Germany. Although Jabeur lost all three of her singles rubbers, Tunisia won their tie against Mexico after Abbès won her singles match and Jabeur teamed up with Abbès to win the decisive doubles rubber. Tunisia's finished in 11th place out of 16 teams overall, losing their first 9th-to-12th place tie to I...


    As a junior, Jabeur also represented Tunisia at the 2010 Youth Olympic Games in Singapore, winning two singles matches and one doubles match, the latter with Romanian Cristina Dinu. She was eliminated in the quarterfinals by Chinese player Zheng Saisai in both competitions. Jabeur also represented Tunisia in singles at the London Olympic Games in 2012 and the Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games in 2016. She lost her 2012 opening round match to Sabine Lisicki in three sets. She also lost her 2016 ope...

    Jabeur builds her style of play around variety and hitting what she refers to as "crazy shots". She tries to employ difficult shots because that is how she enjoys to play tennis. She likes to utilize slice and drop shots in particular. Jabeur can hit winners in a variety of ways, including backhand drop shots from the baseline or forehands up the line.She likes to play on any surface.

    As a junior, Jabeur was coached by Nabil Mlika until she was thirteen years old. Jabeur began working with Bertrand Perret in February 2018. She viewed Perret as being more supportive of her style of play than her past coaches, saying, "I think he understands my game. He tries to improve my good shots, not change what I do. I've worked with a lot of coaches who tried to change my game... Bertrand encourages me to do dropshots and also corrects my dropshots, instead of other coaches who told me not to do dropshots at all." In early 2020, Jabeur switched coaches to Issam Jellali, a former Tunisian Davis Cupplayer with whom she had already been working with for about three years.

    Jabeur is married to Karim Kamoun, a Russian-Tunisian former fencer who has also served as her fitness coach since mid-2017. She is fluent in Arabic, English, and French, and is learning Russian because her husband speaks the language. Her favorite tennis player as a child was Andy Roddick. She plays football recreationally, and is a fan of Étoile Sportive du Sahel and Real Madrid CF. Jabeur was one of twelve players who received an International Player Grand Slam Grant from the Grand Slam Development Fund in 2017 immediately before the French Open, where she won her first two career Grand Slam main draw matches. She became endorsed by Qatar Airwaysin 2020. Jabeur won a 2019 Arab Women of the Year award in the sport category, having reached the third round of the US Open and established herself as a permanent fixture in the top 100 that year.

    Ons Jabeur at the Women's Tennis Association
    Ons Jabeur at the International Tennis Federation
    Ons Jabeur at the Billie Jean King Cup
  8. YouTube Premium - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Features
    • Content
    • Reception

    The service was first unveiled in November 2014 as Music Key, serving as a collaboration between YouTube and Google Play Music, and meant to succeed the former's own subscription service. Music Key offered ad-free playback of music videos from participating labels hosted on YouTube, as well as background and offline playback of music videos on mobile devices from within the YouTube app. The service also included access to Google Play Music All Access, which provides ad-free audio streaming of a library of music. Alongside Music Key, Google also introduced tighter integration between Play Music and YouTube's apps, including the sharing of music recommendations, and access to YouTube's music videos from within the Play Music app. Music Key was not YouTube's first foray into premium content, having launched film rentals in 2010,and premium, subscription-based channels in 2013. During its invite-only beta, Music Key faced mixed reception due to the limited scope of the offering; YouTube...

    A YouTube Premium subscription allows users to watch videos on YouTube without advertisements across the website and its mobile apps, including the dedicated YouTube Music, YouTube Gaming, and YouTube Kids apps. Through the apps, users can also save videos to their device for offline viewing, play their audio in the background, and in picture-in-picture mode on Android Oreo and newer. YouTube Premium also offers original content that is exclusive to subscribers, which is created and published by YouTube's largest creators.The service also offers ad-free music streaming for YouTube Music.

    YouTube Premium offers original films and series produced in collaboration with professional studios and YouTube personalities, under the banner YouTube Originals. For multi-episode series, the first episode of a YouTube Originals series is available free. In selected countries where the service is not yet available, individual episodes can also be purchased through YouTube or Google TV. Access to YouTube Originals is also included in YouTube's separate streaming television service YouTube TV, but a YouTube Premium subscription is still required for the service's other benefits. In November 2018, it was reported that YouTubewas planning to offer some of its premium shows available for free on an ad-supported basis by 2020. The Premium subscription would still cover ad-free access, timed exclusivity windows for original content, and content that is not made freely-available.

    Licensing terms for channels

    In May 2014, prior to the official unveiling of the Music Key service, the independent music trade organization Worldwide Independent Network alleged that YouTube was using non-negotiable contracts with independent labels that were "undervalued" in comparison to other streaming services, and stated that YouTube threatened to block a label's videos from public access if they did not agree to the new terms. In a statement to the Financial Times in June 2014, Robert Kyncl confirmed that these me...

  9. Hentaigana - Wikipedia
    • Standardized Hentaigana
    • Sources of Hentaigana
    • in Unicode
    • Development of The Hiragana Syllabic N
    • Modern Usage
    • Gallery
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Prior to the proposal which led to the inclusion of hentaigana in Unicode10.0, they were already Standardized into a list by Mojikiban, part of the Japanese Information-technology Promotion Agency (IPA). To view hentaigana, special fonts need to be installed that support Hentaigana such as 1. BabelStone Han 2. IPA MJ MinchoVersion 5.01 and later 3. Hanazono Mincho 4. Hanazono Mincho ADFKO 5. UniHentaikana

    Hentaigana are adapted from the reduced and cursive forms of the following man’yōgana (kanji) characters.Source characters for the kana are not repeated below for hentaigana even when there are alternative glyphs; some uncertain.

    286 hentaigana characters are included in the Unicode Standard in the Kana Supplement and Kana Extended-A blocks. One character was added to Unicode version 6.0 in 2010, 𛀁 (U+1B001 HIRAGANA LETTER ARCHAIC YE which has the formal alias HENTAIGANA LETTER E-1), and the remaining 285 hentaiganacharacters were added in Unicode version 10.0 in June 2017. The Unicode block for Kana Supplement is U+1B000–U+1B0FF: The Unicode block for Kana Extended-A is U+1B100–U+1B12F:

    The hiragana syllabic n (ん) derives from a cursive form of the character 无, and originally signified /mu͍/, the same as む. The spelling reform of 1900 separated the two uses, declaring that む could only be used for /mu͍/ and ん could only be used for syllable-final /ɴ/. Previously, in the absence of a character for the syllable-final /ɴ/, the sound was spelled (but not pronounced) identically to /mu͍/, and readers had to rely on context to determine what was intended. This ambiguity has led to some modern expressions based on what are, in effect, spelling pronunciations.[example needed]

    Hentaigana are considered obsolete, but a few marginal uses remain. For example, otemoto (chopsticks), is written in hentaigana on some wrappers and many soba shops use hentaigana to spell kisoba on their signs. (See also: "Ye Olde" for "the old" on English signs.) Hentaigana are used in some formal handwritten documents, particularly in certificates issued by classical Japanese cultural groups (e.g., martial art schools, etiquette schools, religious study groups, etc.). Also, they are occasionally used in reproductions of classic Japanese texts, akin to the use of blackletter in English and other Germanic languages to give an archaic flair. Modern poems may be composed and printed in hentaiganafor visual effect. However, most Japanese people are unable to read hentaigananowadays, only recognizing a few from their common use in shop signs, or figuring them out from context.

    Some of the following hentaigana are cursive formsof the same kanji as their standard hiragana counterparts, but simplified differently. Others descend from unrelated kanji that represent the same sound. 1. 以(い)i 2. 江(え)e 3. 於(お)o 4. 可(か)ka, ga 5. 起(き)ki, gi 6. 古(こ)ko, go 7. 志(し)shi, ji 8. 春(す)su, zu 9. 多(た)ta, da 10. 奈(な)na 11. 能(の)no 12. 者(は)ha, ba 13. 由(ゆ)yu 14. 連(れ)re 15. 路(ろ)ro 16. 王(わ)wa

    Chart of hentaigana calligraphy from O'Neill's A Reader of Handwritten Japanese Archived 2006-07-07 at the Wayback Machine
    A chart of hentaigana hosted by Jim Breen of the WWWJDIC
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