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  1. Harry Stonehill, who owned a blue book that had bribed officials from Pres. Macapagal to Ferdinand Marcos. The Stonehill scandal, named after American expatriate businessman Harry Stonehill, was a 1962 bribery scandal in the Philippines which implicated high level government officials, including President Diosdado Macapagal, future President ...

    • Background
    • Whistleblower of The China Scandal
    • Sex Tape of The China Head
    • Police Investigations
    • Chinese Media Coverage
    • Court Ruling
    • Impact
    • Aftermath

    Loose control over foreign companies

    China opened up its economy to global corporations since 1978 when it decided to adapt to a more market-driven economy. As American legal academic Jerome Cohen said, "for a long time, there’d been this policy of going easy on foreign enterprises. The government didn’t want to cause embarrassment or give outsiders the impression that China is plagued with corruption. But they’re not thinking like that anymore." However China's rising economic nationalismthat favors Chinese companies instead of...

    Corruption in China's healthcare system

    According to experts, China's healthcare system is rife with corruption. Fake vaccines and bribes have been employed by doctors to improve their economic condition, According to Leon Liu, partner with the Shanghai-based law firm MWE China, Chinese citizens paid high prices for drugs partly due to corruption, which the government hoped to change. A year before the GSK's scandal, some Chinese companies had been investigated by the Chinese government.Yet, GSK did not pay much attention to the sh...

    Emails to Chinese regulators

    Since December 2011, 24 anonymous tips from inside the GSK China were sent to Chinese regulators in 17-month time, which was not known to GSK high executives until April 2012. The tips reported details of GSK's fraud and corruption in China to the regulators. Although the company promised to the US regulators that they would not allow improper marketing and kickbacks to doctors in July 2012 after a remarkable fine, it did not stop doing so in China. Vivian Shi (Chinese: 施文; pinyin: Shī Wén),...

    Emails to GSK headquarter

    GSK's board received an email in January 2013 where allegations the China branch had committed fraud in its operations was detailed in 5,200 words. The email was written in English. The email said that GSK China disguised tourist travel in the disguise of international academic meetings. The company paid for the airline tickets and hotel rooms for such meetings to bribe Chinese medical professionals. The email continued by accusing GSK China of falsifying its books and records to illegally ma...

    Bribery to Chinese regulators

    However, the warnings of the whistleblower were just regarded as a "smear campaign" as shown in the company's confidential report acquired by the New York Times. Xinhua, a state run media agency, said that years before the scandal, the regulators across China were receiving tips about GSK's bribery. Allegedly in 2012, Mike Reilly, Zhang Guowei (Chinese: 张国维) and Zhao Hongyan (Chinese: 赵虹燕) of the company even founded a risk management unit to cope with the tips. Allegedly executives of GSK br...

    In March, 13 executives of the company's London headquarter, including the CEO Andrew Witty, received an email with a sex tape as an attachment from an anonymous writer called "gskwhistleblower." The secretly filmed tape showed Mark Reilly's sex with his girlfriend. The film had been edited to disguise the location, but had been filmed in the bedro...

    Early evidence

    The Chinese police denied that it was because of the internal conflicts and tips from inside the company that they launched the investigation. According to Xinhua, a state run media outlet, and the police report, the Chinese investigations started with an investigation into an unknown Shanghai travel agency in early 2013. According to Shanghai-based media the Economic Observer, the travel agency, namely Shanghai Linjiang International Travel Agency Co., Ltd. (Chinese: 上海临江国际旅行社有限公司), was foun...

    Police action

    The Public Security Ministry assigned Changsha Police to form a task force to investigate into the lead. The task force gathered evidence for GSK's bribery in ten plus Chinese provinces including Beijing, Shanghai, Liaoning, Xinjiang in a year-long period. Shanghai and ZhengzhouPolice were also assigned to make the investigation into the suspected economic crimes. On 27 June and 10 July 2013, the Changsha Police, with the help from Shanghai and Zhengzhou Police, carried out raids in multiple...

    GSK response

    Mike Reilly left China on 27 June when police took action at GSK China, which was not stopped by the police. In a police press, head of China's fraud unit Gao Feng said GSK was the boss in the bribery networks. Gao continued, "This is a very serious violation and a high-profile case. We are wondering why we have not received any information. As for the chief of the China business, you had better ask him yourself why he has left China and is not willing to return so far." But he also said he w...

    Bribery to doctors

    The patent of GSK's leading hepatitis drug, Heptodin, expired in 2006. To cope with this, the company launched Changcheng (Chinese: 长城计划; lit. 'Great Wall Project') and Longteng (Chinese: 龙腾计划; lit.'Dragon Flying Project') where the company used bribery to avoid Chinese doctors using Chinese equivalent of Heptodin. According to Gao Feng, head of the economic crimes investigation unit at China's Public Security Ministry, GSK transferred 3 billion yuan to over 700 travel agencies and consultanc...

    Distorted drug prices

    GSK's Lamivudinewas priced at 142 RMB in Mainland China, while it only cost 18RMB, 26RMB, 30RMB to buy the drug in Korea, Canada and Britain respectively. Adefovir Dipivoxil, another product of GSK, was as expensive as 182 RMB, but it only costs 103.5RMB and 59.92RMB to buy them in Japan and Hong Kong. The police investigation also showed how GSK manipulated their drug prices in China, which took 5 measures: 1. The company would first do market research in China. If there were similar drugs i...

    The trial on the company's commercial bribery was held in the Chinese city of Changsha on 19 September 2014. According to Xinhua, the trial at Changsha Intermediate People’s Court was not public as requested by GSK who wanted to keep business secrets. Mike Reilly was sentenced to 3-year jail sentences with 4-year suspension and deportation from Chi...

    Sales strategies of GSK

    Although the China market only contributed to a small fraction of overall revenue of GSK, it is the fastest-growing markets of the company. The company had heavily invested in the market, where it built both clinical and research facilities.GSK's sales in China recorded a 25% drop in the second quarter of 2014. Globally, the quarterly profits fell by 14% to £1.3bn, which was below analysts' forecasts, leading to a 5% fall in its shares price, the biggest single fall on FTSE 100. The company s...

    Foreign firms in China's anti-corruption campaign

    For a long time, corruption had been usually considered as part of the cost of doing business in China, and the medical industry was no exception. GSK's case occurred during the backdrop of Xi Jinping's anti-corruption campaign, which was believed to be focused on eliminating political opponents rather than stamping out corruption. Ben Cavender, an associate principal at China Market Research Group, said that the GSK's case could be part of the greater trend of fighting against corruption, wh...

    Humphrey's privacy breach

    According to lawyers via the Financial Times, China's privacy law had become from one of the loosest one to a tighter one. In 2009, the country amended the criminal law to prohibit illegal transfer or trade of personal data and punish anyone who wants to buy or sell them. Violation of the law can lead to up to 3 years in jail. On 10 July, which was 2 weeks after the police operations at GSK offices, Shanghai police arrested Humphrey and his wife Yu at their Shanghai apartment, charging them w...

    Illegal dismissal

    In the dismissal announced on 6 March 2015, 3 pregnant women and 4 nursing mothers were laid off. According to a former employee, the company talked to them individually, claiming that the employees had misbehavior and it had evidence for that. The company asked the employees to submit a resignation report by 9 March, and the company would consider it as a voluntary resignation. The employees were threatened by the company as it would leave a black mark in their employees' documents if the em...

    Vivian Shi and the whistleblower

    According to the New York Times,the whistleblower could be more than one person, as the emails to regulators were written in fluent English via a Gmail account while the emails with a sex tape were written in poor English thorough a Chinese email service. One of the email addresses responded to the New York Times, which denied Vivian Shi as a whistleblower. The response added, The company denied that it was trying to dig out the whistleblower and instead the company was trying to fix a securi...

    • Police Investigation and Allegations
    • Government Reaction
    • Other Controversies
    • See Also

    On 17 December 2013, the Financial Crime Unit of the Istanbul Security Directorate detained 47 people, including officials from TOKİ (Housing Development Administration of Turkey), the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning, and the District Municipality of Fatih. Barış Güler, Kaan Çağlayan and Oğuz Bayraktar, who are sons of the Turkish minist...

    Since the beginning of the investigation, the Justice and Development Party (AKP) government has started a purge in the police force; sacking dozens of police chiefs, most notably Hüseyin Çapkın, the Chief of Police in Istanbul. The Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of Justice also changed their regulations, forcing security forces to infor...

    On 24 December, another video began to circulate that shows Ali Erdoğan, nephew and bodyguard of Prime Minister Erdoğan, instructing a police commissioner to abuse the detainees who had protested his uncle and hurling insults at him when he refuses. On 23 December, 35-year-old Hakan Yüksekdağ, a police commissioner in the Smuggling and Battle Again...

  2. Italian. Scandal in Sorrento (original title Pane, amore e...) is a 1955 Italian comedy film directed by Dino Risi. This is the third film of the trilogy, formed by Bread, Love and Dreams in 1953, Bread, Love and Jealousy in 1954. Innovations include the use of color rather than black and white, as well the location of Sorrento instead of the ...

    • History
    • Saskatoon Foster Parent Scandal
    • See Also
    • External Links

    In 1992, a mother in Martensville, Saskatchewanalleged that a local woman who ran a babysitting service and day care centre in her home had sexually abused her child. Police began an investigation and allegations began to snowball. More than a dozen persons, including five police officers from three different forces, ultimately faced over 100 charg...

    In nearby Saskatoon in 1993, a similar case occurred that also involved children in care, allegations of sexual abuse, and allegations of satanic cults and rituals. The events of the case predate the Martensville events, but were overshadowed by the media coverage of the Martensville case. That case was centred around the Klassen family and three c...

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  4. The 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal describes a corruption, bribery and money laundering conspiracy in which a Malaysian sovereign wealth fund, 1Malaysia Development Berhad (1MDB) was systematically embezzled, with assets diverted globally by the perpetrators of the scheme. [1] International in scope, it implicated political, banking and ...

  5. WorldCom scandal. The WorldCom scandal was a major accounting scandal that came to light in the summer of 2002 at WorldCom, the USA's second-largest long-distance telephone company at the time. From 1999 to 2002, senior executives at WorldCom led by founder and CEO Bernard Ebbers orchestrated a scheme to inflate earnings in order to maintain ...

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