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Avast launched a freeware business product, Avast for Business, in February 2015. It is a cross-platform solution that includes antivirus protection, web threat scanning, browser protection, and a cloud management console.
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The company was started in John Warnock's garage. The name of the company, Adobe, comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, California, which ran behind Warnock's house. That creek is so named because of the type of clayfound there, which alludes to the creative nature of the company's software. Adobe's corporate logo features a stylized "A" and was designed by Marva Warnock, a graphic designer who is also John Warnock's wife. Steve Jobs attempted to buy the company for $5 millionin 1982, but Warnock and Geschke refused. Their investors urged them to work something out with Jobs, so they agreed to sell him shares worth 19 percent of the company. Jobs paid a five-times multiple of their company's valuation at the time, plus a five-year license fee for PostScript, in advance. The purchase and advance made Adobe the first company in the history of Silicon Valley to become profitable in its first year. Warnock and Geschke considered various business options including a copy-service business...
From 1995 to 2013, Fortune ranked Adobe as "an outstanding place to work". Adobe was rated the 5th best U.S. company to work for in 2003, 6th in 2004, 31st in 2007, 40th in 2008, 11th in 2009, 42nd in 2010, 65th in 2011, 41st in 2012, and 83rd in 2013. In October 2008, Adobe Systems Canada Inc. was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc. and was featured in Maclean'snewsmagazine. Adobe has a five-star privacy rating from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.
Adobe has been criticized for its pricing practices, with retail prices being up to twice as much in non-US countries.For example, it is significantly cheaper to pay for a return airfare ticket to the United States and purchase one particular collection of Adobe's software there than to buy it locally in Australia. After Adobe revealed the pricing for the Creative Suite 3 Master Collection, which was £1,000 higher for European customers, a petition to protest over "unfair pricing" was publish...
Hackers have exploited vulnerabilities in Adobe programs, such as Adobe Reader, to gain unauthorized access to computers. Adobe's Flash Player has also been criticized for, among other things, suffering from performance, memory usage and security problems (see criticism of Flash Player). A report by security researchers from Kaspersky Labcriticized Adobe for producing the products having top 10 security vulnerabilities. Observers noted that Adobe was spying on its customers by including spywa...
Customer data breach
On October 3, 2013, the company initially revealed that 2.9 million customers' sensitive and personal data was stolen in security breach which included encrypted credit card information. Adobe later admitted that 38 million active users have been affected and the attackers obtained access to their IDs and encrypted passwords, as well as to many inactive Adobe accounts. The company did not make it clear if all the personal information was encrypted, such as email addresses and physical address...Business data for Adobe Inc.:
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Long Term Servicing Channel
Windows Server operating system releases under the Long Term Servicing Channel are supported by Microsoft for 10 years, with five years of mainstream support and an additional five years of extended support. These releases also offer a complete GUI desktop experience, along with GUI-less setups such as Server Core and Nano Server for releases that support them. This channel includes the following operating systems: 1. Windows Server 2003(April 2003) 2. Windows Server 2003 R2(December 2005) 3....
Windows Server operating system releases under the Semi-Annual Channel are supported by Microsoft for 18 months. Microsoft targets two releases of Windows Server per year under this channel. These releases do not offer any GUI desktop environments, and include Server Core and Nano Server. Operating systems from this channel are available as part of subscription services, including Software Assurance, Azure Marketplace, Visual Studio subscriptions, and others. This channel includes the followi...
Users of Windows Server may choose to deploy either on-site or using a cloud computingservice. Each provides different advantages. By delegating the managing and upkeep of the server to a cloud computing service such as Microsoft Azure or Amazon Web Services,users get the benefit of paying monthly based on usage rather than a large fixed cost. Furthermore, infrastructure tends to be more reliable and it is easier to scale up as necessary. However, buying and running a server in-house may be a better choice in certain cases when it is more cost effective. Other use cases such as using a Windows server to manage client computers in a facility are also appropriate for running a physical server.
- Security Mechanisms
- User-Visible PPVPN Services
- Trusted Delivery Networks
- VPNs in Mobile Environments
- Networking Limitations
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- Further Reading
Virtual private networks may be classified by several categories: Remote access 1. A host-to-network configuration is analogous to connecting a computer to a local area network. This type provides access to an enterprise network, such as an intranet. This may be employed for telecommutingworkers who need access to private resources, or to enable a mobile worker to access important tools without exposing them to the public Internet. Site-to-site 1. A site-to-site configuration connects two networks. This configuration expands a network across geographically disparate offices, or a group of offices to a data center installation. The interconnecting link may run over a dissimilar intermediate network, such as two IPv6 networks connected over an IPv4network. Extranet-based site-to-site 1. In the context of site-to-site configurations, the terms intranet and extranet are used to describe two different use cases. An intranet site-to-site VPN describes a configuration where the sites conne...
VPNs cannot make online connections completely anonymous, but they can usually increase privacy and security. To prevent disclosure of private information, VPNs typically allow only authenticated remote access using tunneling protocols and encryptiontechniques. The VPN security model provides: 1. confidentiality such that even if the network traffic is sniffed at the packet level (see network sniffer and deep packet inspection), an attacker would see only encrypted data 2. sender authenticationto prevent unauthorized users from accessing the VPN 3. message integrityto detect any instances of tampering with transmitted messages. Secure VPN protocols include the following: 1. Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) was initially developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for IPv6, which was required in all standards-compliant implementations of IPv6 before RFC 6434 made it only a recommendation. This standards-based security protocol is also widely used with IPv4 and the Layer...
Tunneling protocols can operate in a point-to-point network topology that would theoretically not be considered a VPN because a VPN by definition is expected to support arbitrary and changing sets of network nodes. But since most routerimplementations support a software-defined tunnel interface, customer-provisioned VPNs often are simply defined tunnels running conventional routing protocols.
OSI Layer 2 services
Virtual LAN Virtual LAN (VLAN) is a Layer 2 technique that allows for the coexistence of multiple local area network (LAN) broadcast domains interconnected via trunks using the IEEE 802.1Qtrunking protocol. Other trunking protocols have been used but have become obsolete, including Inter-Switch Link (ISL), IEEE 802.10 (originally a security protocol but a subset was introduced for trunking), and ATM LAN Emulation (LANE). Virtual private LAN service (VPLS) Developed by Institute of Electrical...
OSI Layer 3 PPVPN architectures
This section discusses the main architectures for PPVPNs, one where the PE disambiguates duplicate addresses in a single routing instance, and the other, virtual router, in which the PE contains a virtual router instance per VPN. The former approach, and its variants, have gained the most attention. One of the challenges of PPVPNs involves different customers using the same address space, especially the IPv4 private address space.The provider must be able to disambiguate overlapping addresses...
Some virtual networks use tunneling protocols without encryption for protecting the privacy of data. While VPNs often do provide security, an unencrypted overlay network does not neatly fit within the secure or trusted categorization. For example, a tunnel set up between two hosts with Generic Routing Encapsulation(GRE) is a virtual private network but is neither secure nor trusted. Native plaintext tunneling protocols include Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) when it is set up without IPsec...
Trusted VPNs do not use cryptographic tunneling; instead they rely on the security of a single provider's network to protect the traffic. 1. Multi-Protocol Label Switching(MPLS) often overlays VPNs, often with quality-of-service control over a trusted delivery network. 2. L2TP which is a standards-based replacement, and a compromise taking the good features from each, for two proprietary VPN protocols: Cisco's Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) (obsolete as of 2009[update]) and Microsoft's Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). From the security standpoint, VPNs either trust the underlying delivery network or must enforce security with mechanisms in the VPN itself. Unless the trusted delivery network runs among physically secure sites only, both trusted and secure models need an authentication mechanism for users to gain access to the VPN.
Mobile virtual private networks are used in settings where an endpoint of the VPN is not fixed to a single IP address, but instead roams across various networks such as data networks from cellular carriers or between multiple Wi-Fi access points without dropping the secure VPN session or losing application sessions. Mobile VPNs are widely used in public safety where they give law-enforcement officers access to applications such as computer-assisted dispatch and criminal databases, and in other organizations with similar requirements such as field service management and healthcare.[need quotation to verify].
A limitation of traditional VPNs is that they are point-to-point connections and do not tend to support broadcast domains; therefore, communication, software, and networking, which are based on layer 2 and broadcast packets, such as NetBIOS used in Windows networking, may not be fully supported as on a local area network. Variants on VPN such as Virtual Private LAN Service(VPLS) and layer 2 tunneling protocols are designed to overcome this limitation.
Kelly, Sean (August 2001). "Necessity is the mother of VPN invention". Communication News: 26–28. ISSN 0010-3632. Archived from the originalon 17 December 2001.