影音中心／鍾如婷報導位於阿富汗南部坎達哈市（Kandahar）的伊瑪目巴爾加清真寺（Imam Bargah mosque），昨（15日）發生自殺炸彈攻擊，造成41人死亡，約70人受傷，是繼8日昆都士省後第2起自殺炸彈攻擊，而伊斯蘭國透過通訊軟體Telegram發表聲明，表示2名呼羅珊伊斯蘭國（Islamic State-Khorasan）自殺炸彈客，對該清真寺的不同區域發動攻擊。
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Afghanistan (/ æ f ˈ ɡ æ n ɪ s t æ n, æ f ˈ ɡ ɑː n ɪ s t ɑː n / (listen);  Pashto/Dari: افغانستان Afġānestān, Pashto pronunciation: [afɣɑnɪstɑn], Dari pronunciation: [afɣɒːnɪstɒːn]), officially the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, is a ...
Afghanistan is a landlocked mountainous country located at the crossroads of Central and South Asia. It is also sometimes included as part of the Middle East. The country is the 40th largest in the world in size. Kabul is the ...
The Kingdom of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان واکمنان, Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān; Dari: پادشاهی افغانستان, Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān) was a constitutional monarchy in Southern and Central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the ...
- Afghan Dynasties
- Early References to Afghanistan
- Last Afghan Empire
- See Also
It is widely acknowledged that the terms "Pashtun" and Afghan are synonyms, a fact that is mentioned in the 17th-century poetry of Pashtun national poet Khushal Khan Khattak: Pashtunization (Afghanization) has been going on in the region (modern Afghanistan and West Pakistan) since at least the 8th century. It is a process of a cultural or linguisticchange in which something non-Pashtun (non-Afghan) becomes Pashtun (Afghan).
According to Ta'rikh-i Yamini (author being secretary of Mahmud of Ghazni), Afghans enrolled in Sabuktigin's Ghaznavid Empire in the 10th century as well as in the later Ghurid Kingdom (1148–1215). From the beginning of the Turko-Afghan Khalji dynasty in 1290, Afghans are becoming more recognized in history among the Delhi Sultanate of India. The later Lodi dynasty and Sur dynasty of Delhi were both made up of Afghans, whose rule stretched to as far as what is now Bangladesh in the east. Other Afghan dynasties emerged during the 18th century, namely the Hotak dynasty and the Durrani Empirewhich covered huge swathes of Central and South Asia.
The word Afghan is mentioned in the form of Abgan in the third century CE by the Sassanians and as Avagana (Afghana) in the 6th century CE by Indian astronomer Varahamihira. A people called the Afghans are mentioned several times in a 10th-century geography book, Hudud al-'alam, particularly where a reference is made to a village: "Saul, a pleasant village on a mountain. In it live Afghans." Al-Biruni referred to them in the 11th century as various tribes living on the western frontier mountains of the Indus River. Ibn Battuta, a famous Moroccan scholar visiting the region in 1333, writes: "We travelled on to Kabul, formerly a vast town, the site of which is now occupied by a village inhabited by a tribe of Persians called Afghans. They hold mountains and defiles and possess considerable strength, and are mostly highwaymen. Their principle mountain is called Kuh Sulayman." The earliest mention of the term "Afghanistan" appears in the 13th century in Tarikh nama-i-Herat of Sayf ibn M...
Regarding the modern sovereign state of Afghanistan, the Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Iranica, and others explain that the political history of Afghanistan begins in 1709 with the rise of the Hotaki dynasty, which was established by Mir Wais Hotakwho is regarded as "Mirwais Neeka" ("Mirwais the grandfather"). The Encyclopaedia of Islamstates: British India eventually became Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.
The vice president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan was the second highest political position attainable in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. The vice presidents were elected on the same ticket as the president. A presidential candidate ...
- Social Characteristics
- Ethnic Groups
The term Jāt is derogatory and none of the peripatetic groups uses it for itself, although they do employ it in reference to other peripatetic communities.It is unclear how these distinct groups acquired the name Jat. In neighbouring South Asia, the term Jat refers to a large cluster of agriculture castes, some especially in the Balochistan are connected with camel breeding and herding, and it is possible that the Afghan Jat are descended from peripatetic communities that entered Afghanistan in the company of these nomadic Jats, and acquired the name by association.[need quotation to verify]
Generally, what defines groups is a nomadic lifestyle, with their main occupation being the provision of services such as the manufacture and sale of agricultural implements, bangles, drums and winnowing trays as well as providing entertainment such as performing bears and monkeys, fortune-telling, singing. Most Jats have a network of clients and customers scattered over a broad region, and they migrate between these known clients clusters, occasionally adding new ones. Secondly, each Jat group specializes in a particular activity, for example the Ghorbat of western Afghanistan are sieve makers, shoe repairers and animal traders, while the Shadibaz peddle cloth, bangles and haberdashery. These communities are endogamous and some have secret languages.
Below is a brief overview of the main known groups of peripatetics. The information in this table, as well as in the rest of this article, is relevant to the situation in the 1970s. This is likely to have changed significantly in the turmoil since then.Hanifi, M. Jamil (2012). "Jāt". Encyclopædia Iranica.Olesen, A. (1987). "Peddling in East Afghanistan: Adaptive Strategies of the Peripatetic Sheikh Mohammadi". In Rao, Aparna (ed.). The Other Nomads: Peripatetic Minorities in Cross-Cultural Perspect...Rao, Aparna (1986). "Peripatetic Minorities in Afghanistan: Image and Identity". In Orywal, Erwin (ed.). Die ethnischen Gruppen Afghanistans. Wiesbaden: L. Reichert. pp. 254–83. ISBN 3-88226-360-1.Rao, Aparna (1995). "Marginality and language use: the example of peripatetics in Afghanistan". Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society. 5. 5(2): 69–95.
- See Also
With an influence from the local steppe climate, Nawzad features a cold semi-arid climate (BSk) under the Köppen climate classification. The average temperature in Nawzad is 16.0 °C, while the annual precipitation averages 162 mm. July is the warmest month of the year with an average temperature of 28.8 °C. The coldest month January has an average temperature of 2.9 °C.
During the early post-Taliban years, the town thrived, helped by irrigation from the Helmand and Arghandab Valley Authority. People came for miles to its bazaar; the United Nations even began building a school. But by early 2007, the estimated 10,000 civilian population, including Nawzad's police force, had fled, driven out by violence from returning Talibaninsurgents. In the years following, Nawzad became a ghost town and British, Gurkha, and Estonianforces only managed to maintain a stalemate in the region. Now Zad became one of the most bitterly contested districts since British forces first moved into Helmand in 2006. In December 2007 a small force of a British Army OMLT (Operational Mentoring and Liaison Team) with 7 soldiers drawn from 26 Regiment, Royal Artillery & 151 (London) Transport Regiment, Royal Logistic Corps who were mentoring a company of approximately 70 ANA soldiers supported by 14 soldiers from US Special Forces Task Force 232 deployed from Camp Shorabak. The ta...
Garam shah lā garam shah (transl. "Become hot, become more hot") was the national anthem of Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992 during the socialist rule. The music was the work of Jalīl Ghahlānd and was arranged by Ustad Salim Sarmast, ...
- Jalīl Ghahlānd, 1978
- Sulaiman Laiq, 1978
- Border Crossings
- Historical Maps and Gallery
- See Also
The border area was a thoroughfare on the Silk Road. It is believed that the famous Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang traveled this pass on his return trip back to China around 649 AD. The border was established between Afghanistan and China in an agreement between the British and the Russians in 1895 as part of the Great Game, although the Chinese and Afghans did not finally agree on the border until 1963. The Kingdom of Afghanistan and the People's Republic of Chinademarcated their border in 1963. It is believed that in more recent times, the main pass, Wakhjir Pass, is sometimes used as a low intensity drug smuggling route, and is used to transport opium made in Afghanistan to China. In the 2000s, Afghanistan has asked China on several occasions to open the border in the Wakhan Corridor for economic reasons or as an alternative supply route for fighting the Taliban insurgency. However, China has resisted, largely due to unrest in its far western province of Xinjiang, which border...
Article 1 of the 1963 treaty describes the Afghanistan–China border, starting from the southern end: The border's northern terminus is found at the Afghanistan-China-Tajikistan tripoint on Povalo-Shveikovskogo Peak (Chinese: 波万洛什维科夫斯基峰; pinyin: Bōwànluò Shíwéikēfūsījī Fēng) / Kokrash Kol Peak (Kekelaqukaole Peak; Chinese: 克克拉去考勒峰; pinyin: Kèkèlāqùkǎolè Fēng), the easternmost point of Afghanistan.
Historically, the main crossing between the two sides was Wakhjir Pass. Wakhjir Pass has been in use for at least a millennium since the Silk Road. In addition to Wakhjir Pass, there is also Tegermansu Pass which is located on the far eastern end from Little Pamir. The passes are closed as Chalachigu Valley, the valley on the Chinese side, is closed to visitors; however, local residents and herders from the area are permitted to access.
Historical English-language maps of the Afghanistan–China border, mid to late 20th century: 1. Map of the region (1893) 2. Map including the Afghanistan–China border (1917) 3. From the International Map of the World (AMS, 1966)[b] 4. Map including Afghanistan–China border (ACIC, 1969) 5. Border region (DMA, 1980)[c] 6. Border region (DMA, 1984)[d] 7. Satellite image of the region with the Afghanistan–China border marked 8. Wakhan Corridorincluding Afghanistan–China border
- Early Life
- Political Career
- Modern Afghanistan
Eng. Abdul Rahim Sayedjan was born in Darwaz district of northeastern Badakshan Province. He is of Tajik descent, born to a farming family in Badakhshan. His early years were spent in Kabulwhere he was sent to finish his schooling and pursue higher education. He was among the first members of his village to have attained a university education. He completed his education at a local technical institute and received his bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the Polytechnic University in Kabul. Soon after, he worked as an engineer at the Ministry of Water and Energy. Rahim is married, and has three sons and two daughters. His eldest son, Shoaib Rahim, is currently the acting Mayor of Kabul.
Rahim served as a representative of Jamiat-i-Islami in Pakistan, primarily involved in efforts of providing humanitarian, educational, and political relief for Afghan refugees as a result of the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan. He extensively participated delegations across Europe to garner international support for the Afghan resistance to the Soviet Invasion. From 1993 to 1995, he was the Chargé d'Affaires of Afghanistan in Washington and New York, coordinating American assistance to Afghanistan. Upon the completion of this service, Rahim was assigned as Chargé d'Affaires of Afghanistan in Islamabad, Pakistan until 1996. During the Taliban rule of Kabul, Rahim was appointed as the Chargé d'Affaires in Beijing, China for over a year and then moved to become Chargé d'Affaires in Dushanbe, Tajikistan to be closer to the affairs of Afghanistan until 1997. Due to strong involvement with and to better assist over a million refugees in Iran, Rahim was appointed as the Afghanistan's Consul...
Under the Afghan Interim Administration, the first post-Taliban government in 2016, Rahim was part of the three-member Jamiat-i-Islami's delegation to the Second Bonn Meeting and appointed as the Afghanistan Minister of Communication and Post.During his leadership in the Ministry, Rahim focused on uniform phone charges, and ensuring compliance to regulation by private telephone companies. Most notably, he led the ministry to support the launch of Afghan Wireless Communications, a joint ventur...
Interim Minister of Refugees and Repatriation
Rahim was nominated for the post of Minister of Refugees and Repatriations by President Hamid Karzaiafter the 2015 elections. However, he did not receive enough votes in the parliamentary approval proceedings to secure the position. He worked as the acting minister, bringing attention to the plight of both internally displaced persons and treatment of Afghan refugees in neighboring countries and the west.
After the dissolution of the interim government, Rahim served as the Ambassador of Afghanistan to Indonesia from 2018 to 2019. He served as Ambassador and Representative of Afghanistan to the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from 2017 to 2018.