- Names and Titles
- Background and Early Life
- Rise to Power
- Reign as Empress Regnant
- Removal and Death
- Zhou Dynasty
- Chancellors During Reign
In Chinese history and literature, Wu Zetian (Mandarin pronunciation: [ù tsɤ̌ tʰjɛ́n]) was known by various names and titles. Mention of her in the English language has only increased their number. A difficulty in English translations from Chinese is that English translations tend to specify gender (as in the case of "emperor" versus "empress" or "prince" versus "princess"); whereas, in Classical Chinese, words such as hou (后, "sovereign", "prince", "queen") or huangdi (皇帝, "imperial supreme ruler", "royal deity") are of a grammatically indeterminate gender.
The Wu family clan originated in Wenshui County, Bingzhou (an ancient name of the city of Taiyuan, Shanxi). The birthplace of Wu Zetian is not documented in preserved historical literature and remains controversial. Some scholars argue that Wu Zetian was born in Wenshui, and some argue it's Lizhou (利州) (modern-day Guangyuan in Sichuan), while some others insist she was born in the imperial capital of Chang'an (today known as Xi'an). Wu Zetian was born in the seventh year of the reign of Emperor Gaozu of Tang. In the same year, a total eclipse of the sun was visible across China. Her father Wu Shiyue was engaged in the timber business and the family was relatively well off. Her mother was from the powerful Yang family. During the final years of Emperor Yang of Sui, Li Yuan (李淵) (who would go on to become Emperor Gaozu of Tang) stayed in the Wu household many times and became close to the Wu family, whilst holding appointments in both Hedong and Taiyuan. After Li Yuan...
By early 650, Consort Wu was a concubine of Emperor Gaozong, and she had the title Zhaoyi (昭儀) (the highest ranking concubine of the nine concubines in the second rank). Wu progressively gained immeasurable influence over the governance of the empire throughout Emperor Gaozong's reign. Over time, she came to control most major decisions made. Even in the absence of Emperor Gaozong, she personally held the court to decide on the day-to-day running of civil or military responsibilities. After Emperor Gaozong's death in 683, Empress Wu became the Empress Dowager and Regent. She proceeded to depose Emperor Zhongzong, for displaying independence. She then had her youngest son Emperor Ruizong made emperor. Furthermore she was ruler not only in substance but in appearance as well. She presided over imperial gatherings and prevented Emperor Ruizong from taking an active role in governance. In 690, she had Emperor Ruizong yield the throne to her and established the Zhou Dynasty. She was rega...
In 690, Wu had Emperor Ruizong yield the throne to her and established the Zhou dynasty, with herself as the imperial ruler (Huangdi). The early part of her reign was characterized by secret police terror, which moderated as the years went by. She was, on the other hand, recognized as a capable and attentive ruler even by traditional historians who despised her, and her ability at selecting capable men to serve as officials was admired throughout the rest of the Tang dynasty as well as in subsequent dynasties.[note 12]
In autumn of 704, there began to be accusations of corruption levied against Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong, as well as their brothers Zhang Changqi, Zhang Changyi, and Zhang Tongxiu (張同休). Zhang Tongxiu and Zhang Changyi were demoted, but even though the officials Li Chengjia (李承嘉) and Huan Yanfan advocated that Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong be removed as well, Wu Zetian, taking the suggestion of the chancellor Yang Zaisi, did not remove them. Subsequently, charges of corruption against Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong were renewed by the chancellor Wei Anshi. In winter 704, Wu Zetian became seriously ill for a period, and only the Zhang brothers were allowed to see her; the chancellors were not. This led to speculation that Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong were plotting to take over the throne, and there were repeated accusations of treason. Once her condition improved, Cui Xuanwei advocated that only Li Xian and Li Dan be allowed to attend to her—a suggestion that she did not ac...
Wu Zetian proclaimed herself as the ruler of the "Zhou dynasty", named after the historical Zhou dynasty (1046–256 BC); and, thus, from 690 to 705 the Chinese Empire was known as the Zhou dynasty. The traditional historical view, however, is to discount Wu's "Zhou dynasty": dynasties by definition involve the succession of rulers from one family: Wu's "Zhou dynasty" was founded by her, and ended within her lifetime, with her abdication (705). This does not meet the traditional concept of a dynasty. The alternative, is to view Wu's "Zhou dynasty" as the revival of the generally historically-accepted historical Zhou dynasty, which had been ruled (at least nominally) by the Ji family, almost a thousand years before. Either way, Wu's Zhou dynasty is best viewed as a brief interruption of the Li family's Tang dynasty, rather than as a fully realized dynasty. Her claim of founding a new dynasty, however, was little opposed at the time (690). The fifteen-year period which Wu Zetian designa...
The Great Cloud Sutra
Wu Zetian used her political powers to harness from Buddhist practices a strategy to build sovereignty and legitimacy to her throne while decisively establishing the Zhou dynasty in a society under the Confucian and patriarchal ideals. One of the first steps taken by Wu Zetian to legitimize her ascension to the throne was to proclaim herself as the reincarnation of the Devi of Pure Radiance (Jingguang tiannü) through a series of prophecies. In 690, she sought out the support of the monk Xue H...
Sacrifice on Mount Tai
In relation to Daoism, there are records that points Wu Zetian's participation in important religious rituals, such as the tou long on Mount Song, and feng and shan on Mount Tai. One of the most important rituals was performed in 666. When Emperor Gaozong offered sacrifices to the deities of heaven and earth, Empress Wu, in an unprecedented action, offered sacrifices after him, with Princess Dowager Yan, mother of Emperor Gaozong's brother Li Zhen, Prince of Yue, offering sacrifices after her...
North Gate Scholars
Toward the end of Gaozong's life, Wu began engaging a number of mid-level officials who had literary talent, including Yuan Wanqing (元萬頃), Liu Yizhi, Fan Lübing, Miao Chuke (苗楚客), Zhou Simao (周思茂), and Han Chubin (韓楚賓), to write a number of works on her behalf, including the Biographies of Notable Women (列女傳), Guidelines for Imperial Subjects (臣軌), and New Teachings for Official Staff Members (百僚新誡). Collectively, they became known as the "North Gate Scholars" (北門學士), because they served insi...
The "Twelve Suggestions"
Around the new year 675, Empress Wu submitted twelve suggestions. One was that the work of Laozi (whose family name was Li and to whom the Tang imperial clan traced its ancestry), Tao Te Ching, should be added to the required reading for imperial university students. Another was that a three-year mourning period should be observed for a mother's death in all cases, not only in those cases when the father was no longer alive. Emperor Gaozong praised her for her suggestions and adopted them.
Modified Chinese characters
In 690, Empress Dowager Wu's cousin's son Zong Qinke submitted a number of modified Chinese characters intended to showcase Empress Dowager Wu's greatness. She adopted them, and she took one of the modified characters, Zhao (曌), to be her formal name (i.e., the name by which the people would exercise naming taboo on). 曌 was made from two other characters: Ming (明) on top, meaning "light" or "clarity", and Kong (空) on the bottom, meaning "sky." The implication appeared to be that she would be...
The traditional Chinese historical view on Wu Zetian generally was mixed—admiring her for her abilities in governing the state, but vilifying her for her actions in seizing imperial power. Luo Binwang even wrote along these lines in a declaration during her lifetime, in support of Li Jingye's rebellion. Typical was a commentary by the Later Jin dynasty historian Liu Xu, the lead editor of the Old Book of Tang: Some of the diversity in terms of points of agreement and even outright divergences...
Wu Zetian's rise and reign has been criticized harshly by Confucian historians, but has been viewed in a different and positive light after the 1950s. In the early period of the Tang dynasty, because all the emperors were her direct descendants, the evaluation for Wu Zetian were relatively positive. Commentary in subsequent periods, however, especially the book Zizhi Tongjian compiled by Sima Guang, criticized Wu Zetian harshly. By the period of Southern Song...
Wu Zetian had many chancellors during her reign as monarch of her self-proclaimed Zhou dynasty, many of them notable in their own right. (For full list see List of Chancellors of Wu Zetian).
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Shiratori Ryushi wants to become a children's picture book writer, and he moves to an apartment, Narutaki-Sou (Narutaki Villa), in order to go to an art school in Tokyo. Narutaki-Sou is an old Japanese style one-story house which doesn't fit in urban scenery. The complex is owned by his mother's cousin and the manager of the apartment is his second cousin, Aoba Kozue. They met each other when they were children, although Shiratori doesn't remember much of it. Kozue is in the second grade of a high school attached to Aoba Junior College. There are seven residents of Narutaki-Sou. The first, Chanohata Tamami, lives in room #1 and she is Kozue's childhood friend and best friend. Shiratori Ryushi, the main character of the series, resides in room #2. In room #3 resides Momono Megumi, a person who goes her own way in life. Kurosaki Sayoko and her daughter Asami, who is in the first grade of middle school, live in room #5. Finally, in room #6, Haibara Yukio lives with his puppet Johnny. N...
Narutaki Sou residents
Note: All characters are voiced by Satomi Arai. Kozue Aoba(蒼葉 梢, Aoba Kozue) Landlady of Narutaki Sou and Ryūshi's 16-year-old second cousin. She attends the same high school as Tamami. She has several different personalitiesthat come out when she experiences different emotions, but returns to her original one after sleeping or passing out. In the manga, she begins going out with Ryūshi in chapter 39. Near the end of the manga, it is revealed that the cause of her different personalities is h...
Sumeragi (Imperial) Design School
1. Miyabi Shirogane(銀 雅, Shirogane Miyabi)is Shiratori's teacher. Students who are disobedient or forget their homework are subjected to "the mysterious closet", which apparently is a frightful ordeal. She has a habit of having her eyes half open and talking very cheerfully until certain moments. At one point she and Tamami meet and get along quite well, much to the others' terror. She typically wears kimonos and "normal" clothes on festivals. 2. Tsubasa Yamabuki(山吹 翼, Yamabuki Tsubasa) is Sh...
Seika Tandai Fuzoku High School
1. Erika Vermilion(エリカ·バーミリオン, Erika Bāmirion) (Voiced by:Shizuka Itō) 1. She is the head of the occult research lab, of which Tamami, as well as Kozue are technically members. She is never named and only referred to as "club president(ぶちょう, Buchō)" until the final chapter of the manga. "Erika Vermillion" is a stage name for her fortune-telling business. She has a masochistic slant as well, and enjoys Tamami's talent for insults and other unusual tortures. When at a shrine, she is strangely p...
Children's storybook sidestory Ryushi Shiratori's children's story that is seen many times throughout the anime involves the story of a prince. The prince, who is a representation of Ryushi himself, discovers a castle with a princess living in it. The princess has a fondness for umeboshiand for various reasons concerning umeboshi, she multiplies into other princesses. These new princesses are the representations of Kozue, Saki, Chiyuri, Nanako and Natsume and the princesses appear in the same episode as each of the new personalities are introduced. Comic panel sidestory Often during the anime a vertical comic-style sketch related to the main story is shown. The art style and music are consistently used in this way as various situations are shown for comedic purposes. Each panel is displayed for several seconds until the next panel scrolls into view. Usually there are four panels(4コマ, yon-koma) per situation, reflecting the same yonkomadevice that is used in the manga.
1. Welcome to Narutaki-sou (ようこそ鳴滝荘へ) 2. The Landlady's Secret (大家さんのひみつ) 3. The Precious Place (たいせつな場所) 4. Warm and Fuzzy (ぬくぬく) 5. Nega-Posi (ネガポジ) 6. Tama Check (珠チェック) 7. Hide and Seek (かくれんぼ) 8. Shopping (おかいモノ) 9. Correct-o (これくと) 10. Sketch (スケッチ) 11. Affection (想い...) 12. Summer! Swimsuits! The Beach! (夏だ!水着だ!海水浴だ!) 13. Narutaki-sou's Treasure (鳴滝荘のタカラモノ) 14. The End of Summer (夏の終わりに) 15. ...Maybe (...かも) 16. Guests After Guests (千客万来) 17. Color of the Sky (そらのいろ) 18. Meow Meow Meow...
Opening 1. Daiji Da·I·Ji (大事▽Da·I·Ji) by Saiki Mia and Shiraishi Ryoko Ending 1. Boku no SPEED de (僕のスピードで) by Chihiro Yonekura Together with King Records(Starchild label).
A set of 22 tarot cardswith Mahoraba's characters exist. The drawings are done by the author, and in addition to original cards, others such as mass-production versions (simplified background), fake tarot cards (different pictures for card number), and special editions (holographic) exist. These are supplements for related merchandises, and cannot be collected in its entirety solely by buying the books; thus, it is hard to complete the collection.(in Japanese) Mahoraba ~Heartful Site (Archived): Anime official website(in Japanese) Mahoraba: Manga official site(in Japanese) TV Tokyo Anime X-Press Mahoraba ~ Heartful days
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The following are the syllabic distinctions made in Old Japanese. Those syllables marked in gray are known as jōdai tokushu kanazukai.
The two groups merged by the 9th century. It predates the development of kana, and the phonetic difference is unclear. Therefore, an ad hoc transcription system is employed. Syllables written with subscript 1 are known as type A(甲, kō) and those with subscript 2 as type B(乙, otsu) (these are the first two celestial stems, and are used for such numbering in Japanese). There are several competing transcription systems. One popular system places a diaeresis above the vowel: ï, ë, ö. This typically represents i2, e2, and o2, and assumes that unmarked i, e, and o are i1, e1, and o1. It does not necessarily have anything to do with pronunciation. There are several problems with this system. 1. It implies a particular pronunciation, indirectly on the vowel. 2. It neglects to distinguish between words where the distinction is not clear, such as the /to/ in /toru/ as well as in /kaditori/. 3. It implies the unmarked Type A form is the pronunciation of syllables which do not distinguish Type...
There are many hypotheses to explain the distinction. However, it is not clear whether the distinction applied to the consonant, vowel, or something else. There is no general academic agreement.
A word is consistently, without exception, written with syllables from a specific group. For example, /kami1/ "above" and /kami2/ "god". While both words consist of an /m/ and an /i/, mi1 cannot substitute for mi2or vice versa. This strict distinction exists for all of the syllables marked in gray. This usage is also found in the verb morphology. The quadrigradeconjugation is as follows: The verb/sak-/ "bloom" has quadrigrade conjugation class. Thus, its conjugation is as follows: Before the jōdai tokushu kanazukai discovery, it was thought that quadrigrade realis and imperative shared the same form: -e. However, after the discovery, it became clear that realis was -e2 while imperative was -e1. Also, jōdai tokushu kanazukai has a profound effect on etymology. It was once thought that /kami/ "above" and /kami/ "god" shared the same etymology, a god being an entity high above. However, after the discovery, it is known that "above" is /kami1/ while "god" is /kami2/. Thus, they are dist...
The distinction between /mo1/ and /mo2/ is only made in the oldest text: Kojiki. After that, they merged into /mo/. In later texts, confusion between types A and B can be seen. Nearly all of the A/B distinctions had vanished by the Classical Japanese period. As seen in early Heian Period texts such as Kogo Shūi, the final syllables to be distinguished were /ko1, go1/ and /ko2, go2/. After the merger, CV1 and CV2became CV.Omodaka, Hisataka (1967). Jidaibetsu Kokugo Daijiten: Jōdaihen (in Japanese). Sanseidō. ISBN 4-385-13237-2.Ōno, Susumu. Kanazukai to Jōdaigo (in Japanese). Iwanami Shoten.
- Early Life
- Personal Life
- External Links
Miyavi was born in the Nishikujō district in Konohana-ku ward, Osaka, Osaka Prefecture, to a Japanese mother and a Korean-Japanese father. After the first grade, he moved to Kawanishi. His father's family, surnamed Lee, came from Jeju Island. Miyavi says that as a child he was a good student and enjoyed playing football. He was accepted into the junior team of Cerezo Osaka, a J-League team. In the second year of junior high school, a sports injury prevented him from pursuing a professional career in sports. Instead, at the age of fifteen, he learned to play the guitar. He bought a guitar and began covering songs by Ray Charles. He was particularly fond of visual kei acts such as X Japan and Luna Sea but also listened to the blues, Motown, hard rock such as Metallica and L.A. Guns, and industrial music such as Nine Inch Nails.In his third year of junior high school, he started playing with his first band, a visual kei group named Loop.
1999–2003: Dué le quartz and indies era
In 1999, at the age of 17, Miyavi moved to Tokyo, and joined the visual kei rock band Dué le quartz, where he went by the stage name "Miyabi". Besides being a guitarist, he wrote lyrics, composed, and arranged. When the band split up in 2002, he started his solo career and changed his name to Miyavi. He signed a contract with the independent record label PS Company, and on October 31, his debut studio album Gagaku was released. Before the end of the year three more singles were released: "Shi...
2004–2006: Majors and pop/acoustic era
In 2004, he starred as himself in the film Oresama. In February he went on his first solo tour, Tokyo Dassou, and in July additional dates were added in Korea and Taiwan. In June his seventh single, "Ashita, Genki Ni Naare", was released, which charted twenty-second, and number one on the indies chart. In August a small, free, fan-club-only event was organized in Tokyo Dome, and on the 31st he held his last indie concert at the Nippon Budokan. In October, he signed a major contract with Unive...
2007–2008: US debut, S.K.I.N., World Tour
On February 17, Miyavi, having been invited by the break dancer Mr. Freeze, performed with the local DJ and percussionist at his first solo concert in the United States, at the Tabu Ultra Lounge in the MGM Grand, Las Vegas. On May 25, at the JRock Revolution concert organized by Yoshiki Hayashi at the Wiltern Theatre in Los Angeles, it was officially announced that Miyavi would be a member of a band named S.K.I.N.. On June 29, the band held their debut and their only concert yet at the anime...
On March 14, 2009, Miyavi married Japanese-American singer Melody. The couple has two daughters, Lovelie (Airi) Miyavi (July 29, 2009) and Jewelie Aoi (October 21, 2010), and a son named Skyler (February 24, 2021). As of 2016, Miyavi and his family currently reside in Los Angeles, California, having moved to the area in late 2014 during the release of his film Unbroken.After becoming a father, Miyavi toned down his on-stage attire.
Studio albums 1. Gagaku(October 31, 2002) 2. Galyuu(December 2, 2003) 3. Miyavizm(June 1, 2005) 4. MYV Pops(August 2, 2006) 5. Miyaviuta: Dokusō(September 13, 2006) 6. This Iz the Japanese Kabuki Rock(March 19, 2008) 7. What's My Name?(October 13, 2010) 8. Miyavi(June 19, 2013) 9. The Others(April 15, 2015) 10. Fire Bird(August 31, 2016) 11. Samurai Sessions, Vol. 2(November 8, 2017) 12. Samurai Sessions, Vol. 3: Worlds Collide(December 5, 2018) 13. No Sleep Till Tokyo(July 24, 2019) 14. Holy Nights(April 22, 2020)
Chinese nobility. Qin Shi Huangdi, founder of the Qin dynasty, created the title of Huangdi, which is translated as "emperor" in English. The nobility of China was an important feature of the traditional social structure of Ancient ...
- Origin and History
- End of The Emperors
- Number of Emperors
- Heredity and Succession
- Wives, Concubines, and Children
- See Also
- Further Reading
During the Zhou dynasty (c. 1046 BC – 256 BC), Chinese feudal rulers with power over their particular fiefdoms were called gong (公) but, as the power of the Shang and Zhou kings (王, OC:*ɢʷaŋ, mod. wang) waned, the dukes began to usurp that title for themselves. In 221 BCE, after the then-king of Qin completed the conquest of the various kingdoms of the Warring States period, he adopted a new title to reflect his prestige as a ruler greater than the rulers before him. He called himself Shi Huangdi, the First Emperor. Before this, Huang (皇) and Di (帝) were the nominal "titles" of eight rulers of Chinese mythology or prehistory: The three Huang (皇, OC:*ɢʷˤaŋ, "august, sovereign") were godly rulers credited with feats like ordering the sky and forming the first humans out of clay; the five Di (帝, OC:*tˤeks, also often translated "emperor" but also meaning "the God of Heaven"[note 1]) were cultural heroes credited with the invention of agriculture, clothing, astrology, music, etc. In...
In 1911, the title of Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet was created to rule alongside the Emperor, as part of an attempt to turn China into a constitutional monarchy. The Xuantong Emperor(Puyi) of the Qing dynasty, the de jure last Emperor of China, abdicated on 12 February 1912. Yuan Shikai, former President of the Republic of China, attempted to restore a monarchywith himself as the Hongxian Emperor, however his reign as Emperor ended on 22 March 1916. Puyi was briefly restored for almost two weeks during a coup in 1917 but was overthrown again shortly after. He later became the emperor of Manchukuo, a Japanese puppet state, and was captured by the People's Liberation Army as a prisoner of war after World War II and held in Chita, Soviet Union. He was returned to China and rehabilitated in Fushun War Criminals Management Centre, and after he was released lived until 1967.
On one count, from the Qin dynasty to the Qing dynasty, there were 557 emperors including the rulers of minor states. Some, such as Li Zicheng, Huang Chao, and Yuan Shu, declared themselves the Emperors, Son of Heaven and founded their own empires as a rival government to challenge the legitimacy of and overthrow the existing Emperor. Among the most famous emperors were Qin Shi Huang of the Qin dynasty, the Emperors Gaozu and Wu of the Han dynasty, Emperor Taizong of the Tang dynasty, Kublai Khan of the Yuan dynasty, the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty, and the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty. The Emperor's words were considered sacred edicts (simplified Chinese: 圣旨; traditional Chinese: 聖旨) and his written proclamations "directives from above" (上谕; 上諭). In theory, the Emperor's orders were to be obeyed immediately. He was elevated above all commoners, nobility and members of the Imperial family. Addresses to the Emperor were always to be formal and self-deprecatory, even by t...
The title of emperor was hereditary, traditionally passed on from father to son in each dynasty. There are also instances where the throne is assumed by a younger brother, should the deceased Emperor have no male offspring. By convention in most dynasties, the eldest son born to the Empress (嫡长子; 嫡長子) succeeded to the throne. In some cases when the empress did not bear any children, the emperor would have a child with another of his many wives (all children of the emperor were said also to be the children of the empress, regardless of birth mother). In some dynasties the succession of the empress' eldest son was disputed, and because many emperors had large numbers of progeny, there were wars of succession between rival sons. In an attempt to resolve after-death disputes, the emperor, while still living, often designated a Crown Prince (太子). Even such a clear designation, however, was often thwarted by jealousy and distrust, whether it was the crown prince plotting against the emper...
The Imperial family was made up of the Emperor and the Empress (皇后) as the primary consort and Mother of the Nation (国母; 國母). In addition, the Emperor would typically have several other consorts and concubines (嫔妃; 嬪妃), ranked by importance into a harem, in which the Empress was supreme. Every dynasty had its set of rules regarding the numerical composition of the harem. During the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), for example, imperial convention dictated that at any given time there should be one Empress, one Huang Guifei, two Guifei, four fei and six pin, plus an unlimited number of other consorts and concubines. Although the Emperor had the highest status by law, by tradition and precedent the mother of the Emperor, i.e., the Empress Dowager (皇太后), usually received the greatest respect in the palace and was the decision maker in most family affairs. At times, especially when a young emperor was on the throne, she was the de facto ruler. The Emperor's children, the princes (皇子) and princ...
Recent scholarship is wary of applying present-day ethnic categories to historical situations. Most Chinese emperors have been considered members of the Han ethnicity, but those in the dynasties following the disintegration of the Han dynasty included non-Han, and the House of Li of the Tang dynasty was of mixed Han and Xianbei descent. Nomads from the Eurasian steppe repeatedly conquered northern China and claimed the title of emperor. The most successful of these were the Xiongnu, Xianbei, Khitans (Liao dynasty), Jurchens (Jin dynasty), Mongols (Yuan dynasty), and Manchus (Qing dynasty). The orthodox historical view sees these as dynasties as sinicized polities as they adopted Chinese culture, claimed the Mandate of Heaven, and performed the traditional imperial obligations such as annual sacrifices to Heaven (as Tian or Shangdi) for rain and prosperity. The New Qing Historyschool argues that the interaction between politics and ethnicity was far more complex and that elements of...
Paludan, Ann (1998). Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China. New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05090-2.
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- Further Reading
The word "kogal" is a contraction of kōkōsei gyaru(高校生ギャル, "high school gal"). It originated as a code used by disco bouncers to distinguish adults from minors. The term is not used by the girls it refers to. They call themselves gyaru(ギャル), a Japanese pronunciation of the English word "gal". The term gyaru was first popularized in 1972 by a television ad for a brand of jeans. In the 1980s, a gyaru was a fashionably dressed woman. When written 子, ko means "young woman," so kogyaru is sometimes understood in the sense of "young gal". However, if this was the meaning originally intended, wakai gyaru(若いギャル, "young gal")would be more logical.
Kogals have been accused of conspicuous consumption, living off their parents and enjo-kosai (amateur prostitution/dating service). Critics decry their materialism as reflecting a larger psychological or spiritual emptiness in modern Japanese life. Some kogals support their lifestyle with allowances from wealthy parents, living a "parasite single" existence that grates against traditional principles of duty and industry. "The modern school girls' uniform, embellished with loose socks and a cellular phone, has come to be perceived as the dress code for promiscuity, easiness, greed, and stupidity", according to one commentator. Others have charged that the kogal phenomenon is less about the girls and their fashions than a media practice to fetishize school uniforms and blame those required to wear them. "I wish that I were in high school at a different time," said one schoolgirl. "Now, with kogal being such an issue in Japan, nobody can see me for me. They only see me as kogal, like t...
Kogals were far from the first generation of Japanese girls who oya o nakaseru (made their parents weep) and inspired salacious media exposés. The daraku jogakusei (degenerate schoolgirls) of the early 1900s violated taboos against dating, while the moga, or modern girl, of the 1920s, adopted Western fashions. The hard-partying "Mambo girl" arose in the late 1950s. Japanese fashion began to divide by age in the 1970s with the appearance of gyaru magazines aimed at teens. Popteen, the most widely read of these magazines, has been publishing monthly since 1980. While mainstream fashion in the 1980s and early 1990s emphasized girlish and cute (kawaii), gyaru publications promoted a sexy aesthetic. Top gyaru magazines, including Popteen, Street Jam and Happie Nuts, were produced by editors previously involved in creating pornography for men. Also in the 1980s, a male-and-female motorcycle-oriented slacker culture emerged in the form of the "Yankiis" (from the American word "Yankee") and...
Kogals are identified primarily by looks, but their speech, called kogyarugo(コギャル語), is also distinctive, including, but not restricted to the following: ikemen(イケ面, "Cool dude"), chō-kawaii(超かわいい, "totally cute"), gyaru-yatte(ギャルやって, "do the gal thing"), gyaru-fuku(ギャル服, "gal clothes"), gyaru-kei shoppu(ギャル系ショップ, "gal-style shop"), gyaru-do appu no tame ni(ギャル度アップのために, "increasing her degree of galness"), chō maji de mukatsuku(超マジでむかつく, "really super frustrating"). As a way to celebrate their individuality, gals might say biba jibun(ビバ自分, "long live the self", derived from Viva and the Japanese word for "self"). Gals' words are often created by contracting Japanese phrases or by literal translation of an English phrase, i.e. without reordering to follow Japanese syntax. Gal words may also be created by adding the suffix -ingu (from English "-ing") to verbs, for example gettingu(ゲッティング, "getting"). Roman script abbreviations are popular, for example "MM" stands for maji de mukatsuku...Macias, Patrick; Evers, Izumi (2007). Japanese Schoolgirl Inferno - Tokyo Teen Fashion Subculture Handbook. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-8118-5690-4.Ashcraft, Brian; Ueda, Shoko (2014). Japanese schoolgirl confidential : how teenage girls made a nation cool. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 9781462914098.
- Era Names
Liu Ziye was born in 449, when his father Liu Jun was still the Prince of Wuling under his grandfather Emperor Wen. His mother Princess Wang Xianyuan was Liu Jun's wife. While his father was rotated through several provincial governorships, Liu Ziye remained at the capital Jiankang, and was imprisoned by his uncle Liu Shao after Liu Shao assassinated Emperor Wen and assumed the throne himself in 453 and Liu Jun rose to oppose him. Liu Shao considered executing Liu Ziye but did not do so. After Liu Jun defeated and killed Liu Shao later that year and took the throne as Emperor Xiaowu, Liu Ziye was rescued out of captivity, and in 454 was created crown prince. In 456, Emperor Xiaowu married He Lingwan (何令婉), the daughter of his official He Yu (何瑀), to Liu Ziye as crown princess. In 458, Emperor Xiaowu set up a household for Crown Prince Ziye, at a separate palace as was customary for crown princes. In 460, he gave a public reading of the Xiao Jing, and in 463 he assumed adult clothing...
Upon assuming the throne, apparently because of his resentment toward his father Emperor Xiaowu, the new emperor immediately ordered that all of Emperor Xiaowu's changes to the laws established during his grandfather Emperor Wen's reign be rescinded. Another sign of his resentment toward Emperor Xiaowu could be seen in that after he commissioned new imperial portraits for the ancestral temples, he went to look at them. Upon seeing the founder (his great-grandfather) Emperor Wu's portrait, he commented, "He was a great hero who captured several emperors." Upon seeing Emperor Wen's portrait, he commented, "He was also pretty good, but it was unfortunate he lost his head to his son." Upon seeing Emperor Xiaowu's portrait, he, displeased, made the comment, "He had such a big nose from overdrinking. Where was the nose?" and he ordered that the portrait be redrawn to exaggerate Emperor Xiaowu's nose. Late in 464, Empress Dowager Wang grew extremely ill, and she summoned Emperor Qianfei to...Yongguang(永光 yǒng guāng) 465Jinghe(景和 jǐng hé) 465
Consorts: 1. Empress Xian, of the He clan of Lujiang (獻皇后 廬江何氏; 445–461), first cousin once removed, personal name Lingwan (令婉) 2. Empress, of the Lu clan (皇后 路氏), first cousin once removed
- Unified Braille
- Plus Dots 7 and 8
- Related 8-Dot Kantenji Patterns
In unified international braille, the braille pattern dots-12 is used to represent a voiced bilabial plosive, ie /b/, and is otherwise assigned as needed. It is also used for the number 2.
Related to Braille pattern dots-12 are Braille patterns 127, 128, and 1278, which are used in 8-dot braille systems, such as Gardner-Salinas and Luxembourgish Braille.
In the Japanese kantenjibraille, the standard 8-dot Braille patterns 23, 123, 234, and 1234 are the 8-dot braille patterns related to Braille pattern dots-12, since the two additional dots of kantenji patterns 012, 127, and 0127 are placed above the base 6-dot cell, instead of below, as in standard 8-dot braille.
- Table of Kanji Radicals
- Other Combinations
- See Also
- External Links
Position category: 1. へん (hen) - left ◧- radical forms the left component of a kanji. 2. つくり (tsukuri) - right ◨- radical forms the right component of a kanji. 3. かんむり (kanmuri) - top ⊤- radical forms the top component of a kanji. 4. あし (ashi) - bottom ⊥- radical forms the bottom component of a kanji. 5. かまえ (kamae) - wrap ⿴- radical encloses the other kanji components. 6. たれ (tare) - top-left ⿸- radical forms the left and top components of a kanji. 7. にょう (nyou) - bottom-left ⿺- radical form...
1. This is a simplified list, so the reading of the radical is only given if the kanji is used on its own. 2. Example kanji for each radical are all jōyō kanji, but some examples show all jōyō (ordered by stroke number) while others were from the Chinese radicals page with non-jōyō (and Chinese-only) characters removed. 3. No radicals with more than 12 strokes are listed as they are not as common and can all be formed from the other components. 4. The radicals are listed in the same basic ord...
Variations of this table
Many other combinations could realistically be called a simplified table of kanji radicals, here are a few examples. 1. 䒑 could replace both 丷 and 艹 2. ⺈ could be merged with 刀 or 勹(not commonly used as a radical by itself) 3. 聿or 書 could be used instead of ⺻ Entries with an upside-down exclamation mark (¡) are possibly made up "radicals," meaning only one online dictionary was found to use them (Tangorin Online). Possible additions: (Note that the examples below show allthe jōyō kanji exampl...
Radicals ordered by frequency
With frequency considered to be the amount of kanji where the radical or its variants can be found as a visual component. 1. Variants of the same radical are separated by forward slashes (for example 彐/ヨ/⺕) 2. The first radical on the list (口) is the most frequent and can be seen in 2839 kanji 3. The last radical on the list (斉) is the least frequent and can be seen in 5 kanji
The 79 Radicals
A simplification used in "The Kanji Dictionary","The Learner's Kanji Dictionary," "Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Surnames and How to Read Them", and in "Kanji & Kana."