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  1. Jeep - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeep
    • World War II Jeeps
    • Post-War Military Jeeps
    • Jeep Etymology
    • Brand, Trademarks and Image
    • Company History and Ownership
    • Military Jeeps Model List
    • Civilian Jeeps Model List
    • Current Models
    • Jeeps Built Outside The USA
    • Jeep Apparel and Sponsorships

    Development – 1. Bantam Reconnaissance Car

    When it became clear that the United States would be involved in the European theater of World War II, the Army contacted 135 companies to create working prototypes of a four-wheel drive reconnaissance car. Only two companies responded: American Bantam Car Company and Willys-Overland. The Army set a seemingly impossible deadline of 49 days to supply a working prototype. Willys asked for more time, but was refused. The Bantam Car Company had only a skeleton staff left on the payroll and solici...

    Development – 2. Willys and Ford

    The Army thought that the Bantam company was too small to supply the required number of vehicles, so it supplied the Bantam design to Willys and Ford, and encouraged them to modify the design. The resulting Ford "Pygmy"and Willys "Quad" prototypes looked very similar to the Bantam BRC prototype, and Spicer supplied very similar four-wheel drivetrain components to all three manufacturers. 1,500 of each model (Bantam BRC-40, Ford GP, and Willys MA) were built and extensively field-tested. After...

    Full production – Willys MB and Ford GPW

    Final production version Jeeps built by Willys-Overland were the Model MB, while those built by Ford were the Model GPW (G = government vehicle, P = 80" wheelbase, W = Willys engine design). There were subtle differences between the two. The versions produced by Ford had every component (including bolt heads) marked with an "F", and early on Ford also stamped their name in large letters in their trademark script, embossed in the rear panel of their jeeps. Willys followed the Ford pattern by s...

    The Jeep has been widely imitated around the world, including in France by Delahaye and by Hotchkiss et Cie (after 1954, Hotchkiss manufactured Jeeps under license from Willys), and in Japan by Mitsubishi Motors and Toyota. The Land Rover was inspired by the Jeep. The utilitarian good looks of the original Jeep have been hailed by industrial designers and museum curators alike. The Museum of Modern Art described the Jeep as a masterpiece of functionalist design and has periodically exhibited the Jeep as part of its collection. Pulitzer Prize-winning war correspondent Ernie Pyle called the jeep, along with the Coleman G.I. Pocket Stove, "the two most important pieces of noncombat equipment ever developed." Jeeps became even more famous following the war, as they became available on the surplus market. Some ads claimed to offer "Jeeps still in the factory crate." This legend persisted for decades, despite the fact that Jeeps were never shipped from the factory in crates (although Ford...

    Many explanations of the origin of the word jeep have proven difficult to verify. The most widely held theory is that the military designation GP (for Government Purposes or General Purpose) was slurred into the word Jeep in the same way that the contemporary HMMWV (for High-Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle) has become known as the Humvee. Joe Frazer, Willys-Overland President from 1939 to 1944, claimed to have coined the word jeep by slurring the initials G.P. There are no contemporaneous uses of "GP" before later attempts to create a "backronym." A more detailed view, popularized by R. Lee Ermey on his television series Mail Call, disputes this "slurred GP" origin, saying that the vehicle was designed for specific duties, and was never referred to as "General Purpose" and it is highly unlikely that the average jeep-driving GI would have been familiar with this designation. The Ford GPW abbreviation actually meant G for government use, P to designate its 80-inch (2,000 mm) wh...

    The "Jeep" brand has gone through many owners, starting with Willys-Overland, which filed the original trademark application for the "Jeep" brand-name in February 1943. To help establish the term as a Willys brand, the firm campaigned with advertisements emphasizing Willys' prominent contribution to the Jeep that helped win the war. Willys' application initially met with years of opposition, primarily from Bantam, but also from Minneapolis-Moline. The Federal Trade Commission initially ruled in favor of Bantam in May 1943, largely ignoring Minneapolis-Moline's claim, and continued to scold Willys-Overland after the war for its advertising. The FTC even slapped the company with a formal complaint, to cease and desist any claims that it "created or designed" the Jeep — Willys was only allowed to advertise its contribution to the Jeep's development.Willys however proceeded to produce the first Civilian Jeep (CJ) branded vehicles in 1945, and simply copyrighted the Jeep name in 1946. Be...

    After the war, Willys did not resume production of its passenger-car models, choosing instead to concentrate on Jeeps and Jeep-branded vehicles, launching the Jeep Station Wagon in 1946, the Jeep Truck in 1947, and the Jeepster in 1948. An attempt to re-enter the passenger-car market in 1952 with the Willys Aero sedan proved unsuccessful, and ended with the company's acquisition by Kaiser Motors in 1953, for $60 million. Kaiser initially called the merged company "Willys Motors", but renamed itself Kaiser-Jeepin 1963. By the end of 1955, Kaiser-Frazer had dropped the Willys Aero, as well as its own passenger cars to sell Jeeps exclusively. American Motors Corporation (AMC) in turn purchased Kaiser's money-losing Jeep operations in 1970. This time $70 million changed hands.The utility vehicles complemented AMC's passenger car business by sharing components, achieving volume efficiencies, as well as capitalizing on Jeep's international and government markets. In 1971 AMC spun off Jeep...

    1940 Willys Quad — Willys' first prototype, competing for the U.S. Army contract for a 1⁄4-short-ton (0.23-tonne) reconnaissance vehicle
    1941 Willys MA— Willys' low-volume preproduction model, preceding the standardized World War II jeep
    1941–1944 Willys MT "Super Jeep" — 6x6, 3⁄4-short-ton (0.68-tonne) prototype — a small number were built in various configurations
    1942 Willys MB – slat grille

    Jeep CJ

    The CJ (for "Civilian Jeep") series were literally the first "Jeep" branded vehicles sold commercially to the civilian public, beginning in 1945 with the CJ-2A, followed by the CJ-3A in 1949 and the CJ-3B in 1953. These early Jeeps are frequently referred to as "flat-fenders" because their front fenders were completely flat and straight, no different than on the original WW II model (the Willys MB and identical Ford GPW). The CJ-4 exists only as a single 1951 prototype and constitutes the "mi...

    Willys Jeep Station Wagon and Truck

    1. The 1946–1965 Willys Jeep Station Wagonand the 2. 1947–1965 Willys Jeep Truckshared much in terms of styling and engineering. With over 300,000 wagons and its variants built in the U.S., it was one of Willys' most successful post-World War II models. Its production coincided with consumers moving to the suburbs.

    Willys / Jeep Jeepster & (Jeepster) Commando

    The 1948 introduced Jeepster was directly based on the rear-wheel-drive Jeep Station Wagon chassis, and shared many of the same parts. 1. 1948–1950 Willys VJ Jeepster 2. 1948–1949 VJ2Jeepster 3. 1949–1951 VJ3Jeepster (Jeepster) Commando 1. 1966–1971 C101—Jeepster Commando 1.1. Hurst Jeepster (only 100 produced) 1.2. Hurst Half Cab 1.3. Revival Jeepster 1.4. Commando convertible 1.5. open body roadster 2. 1972–1973 C104—Jeep Commando 2.1. Commando Half Cab

    The Jeep brand currently produces five models, but 8 vehicles are under the brand name or use the Jeep logo: 1. Jeep Renegade BU: Subcompact Sport Utility Vehicle 2. Jeep Wrangler 2.1. JK: Standard wheelbase Compact Sport utility vehicle, 2-door version 2.2. JK Unlimited: Long wheelbase Mid-Size sport utility vehicle, 4-door version 2.3. J8: Mid-Size military utility vehicle; Produced by AIL, AAV, and AEV. 2.4. TJL: Compact pickup truck, 2-door version; Produced by AAV. 2.5. JL: Short (2-door) and long (4-door) wheelbase SUV; in production since November 2017 2.6. Jeep Gladiator (JT): mid-size pickup truck, went on sale in early 2019 as a 2020 model. 3. Jeep Grand Cherokee: Mid-size sport utility vehicle 4. Jeep Compass: Compact sport utility vehicle 5. Jeep Cherokee KL: Mid-size sport utility vehicle

    Jeeps have been built and/or assembled around the world by various companies. 1. Argentina – IKA Jeeps 1956–current; now owned by Chrysler 2. Australia – Willys Motors Australia – 1940s–1980s 3. Brazil – Willys Overland do Brasil, purchased by Ford to become Ford do Brasil – 1957–1985 built the Jeep Rural from 1960 to 1977, and the TrollerT4 is a fiberglass bodied Jeep version built in Brazil. Troller was purchased by Ford do Brasil in 2007. 4. Burma/Myanmar – Two Burmese companies produce unlicensed copies of jeeps; Myanmar Jeeps and Chin Dwin Star Jeeps. 5. Canada – Kaiser Jeep – 1959–1969 6. China – Beijing Jeep Corporation – 1983 to 2009 as Beijing-Benz DaimlerChrysler Automotive. Since the 2014 sale of Chrysler and Jeep to FIAT jeeplike and other similar vehicles are now produced by BAIC subsidiary Beijing Automobile Works Co., Ltd. (BAW). Fiat-Chrysler plans to re-open Jeep production in China through a joint venture with Guangzhou Automobile Industry Group(GAIG). 7. Colombia...

    Jeep is also a brand of apparel of outdoor lifestyle sold under license. It is reported that there are between 600 and 1,500 such outlets in China, vastly outnumbering the number of Jeep auto dealers in the country. In April 2012 Jeep signed a shirt sponsorship deal worth €35m ($45m) with Italian football club Juventus. In August 2014 Jeep signed a sponsorship deal with Greek football club AEK Athens F.C.. Jeep has been the title sponsor of France's top men's professional basketball league, LNB Pro A, since 2018. Under the deal, the league markets itself as Jeep Élite.

    • 1943 (trademark application), 1945 (first Jeep-branded product launched)
    • Christian Meunier (President of the Jeep brand, worldwide)
  2. Gran Turismo Sport - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gran_Turismo_Sport
    • Gameplay
    • Development and Release
    • Reception

    Similar to its predecessors, Gran Turismo Sport is a racing game and includes two game modes: "Sport Mode" and "Arcade Mode". Online racing is also featured in the game and saving is only allowed in online mode, unlike its predecessors. The game has been described as different from the "Prologue" titles seen in the past in the series and features more content. Unlike Gran Turismo 5 and 6, the game does not feature a dynamic weather system or day-night cycle, but players still have the option to modify the race's time of day before entering the race.It includes 327 cars and 82 configurations in 32 locations to race on as of December 2019. For the first time in the series, the game features Porsche vehicles included in the game after Electronic Arts' licensing rights to the Porsche brand had expired (previous Gran Turismo games only included Rufas a substitute).

    Series creator Kazunori Yamauchi mentioned that "Gran Turismo Sport would be coming to the PlayStation 4 console, possibly "in a year or two [from 2013]". He also mentioned that it will be based on the same physics engine that Gran Turismo 6 uses. Yamauchi also spoke of the release sometime in 2016 or 2017 and how much more powerful the game will be on PlayStation 4 and how much easier it is to develop on the console versus Gran Turismo 6 on the PlayStation 3. Gran Turismo Sport was officially announced at the 2015 Paris Games Week. Sony originally claimed that Sportis a separate entry, but Yamauchi later confirmed that it is a main entry in the series. The developer Polyphony Digital expected Gran Turismo Sport to have much improved gameplay elements due to the enhanced processing power of the PlayStation 4. The game is the first in the Gran Turismo series to support the virtual reality headset PlayStation VR. A beta was scheduled to take place in the first and second quarter of 20...

    Gran Turismo Sport received "generally favorable" reviews, according to review aggregator Metacritic. Eurogamer's Martin Robinson described GT Sport as a deviation from past games in the series, by cutting the vast car collections of its predecessors and placing a sharper emphasis on competitive online driving: "There are no lunar rovers, no 19th century single horsepowered wagons and not even anything by way of an open wheel racer to be found in its car list at launch. Yet, conversely, this is possibly the most focused, directly enjoyable game Polyphony Digital has put out since the heady days of Gran Turismo 4". Robinson praised the improved sound design and addition of a livery editor that allows players to create and share their own designs online.The website later ranked the game 21st on their list of the "Top 50 Games of 2017". IGN likewise noted that GT Sport's garage and track selection is smaller when compared to other racing games, a decision they found impossible to forgi...

  3. The S.O.U.L. S.Y.S.T.E.M. - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_S.O.U.L._S.Y.S.T.E.M.

    The S.O.U.L. S.Y.S.T.E.M. was an American R&B and dance music group, assembled by Robert Clivillés and David Cole of C&C Music Factory, that was active in 1992. The group featured lead vocals by Michelle Visage, who was formerly a member ...

  4. S.A. (corporation) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S.A._(corporation)

    S.A. or SA[a] designates a type of public company in certain countries, most of which have a Romance language as its official language and employ civil law. An SA is roughly equivalent to a public limited company in United Kingdom company law ...

  5. Programmable logic controller - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programmable_logic_controller
    • Invention and Early Development
    • Architecture
    • Programming
    • Functionality
    • Process of A Scan Cycle
    • Security
    • Safety PLCs
    • Plc Compared with Other Control Systems
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    PLC originated in the late 1960s in the automotive industry in the US and were designed to replace relay logic systems. Before, control logic for manufacturing was mainly composed of relays, cam timers, drum sequencers, and dedicated closed-loop controllers. The hard-wired nature made it difficult for design engineers to alter the process. Changes would require rewiring and careful updating of the documentation. If even one wire were out of place, or one relay failed, the whole system would become faulty. Often technicians would spend hours troubleshooting by examining the schematics and comparing them to existing wiring. When general-purpose computers became available, they were soon applied to control logic in industrial processes. These early computers were unreliableand required specialist programmers and strict control of working conditions, such as temperature, cleanliness, and power quality. The PLC provided several advantages over earlier automation systems. It tolerated the...

    A PLC is an industrial microprocessor-based controller with programmable memory used to store program instructions and various functions.It consists of: 1. a processor unit (CPU) which interprets inputs, executes the control program stored in memory and sends output signals, 2. a power supply unit which converts AC voltage to DC, 3. a memory unit storing data from inputs and program to be executed by the processor, 4. an input and output interface, where the controller receives and sends data from/to external devices, 5. a communications interface to receive and transmit data on communication networks from/to remote PLCs. PLCs require programming device which is used to develop and later download the created program into the memory of the controller. Modern PLCs generally contain a real-time operating system, such as OS-9 or VxWorks.

    Programmable logic controllers are intended to be used by engineers without a programming background. For this reason, a graphical programming language called Ladder Diagram (LD, LAD) was first developed. It resembles the schematic diagram of a system built with electromechanical relays and was adopted by many manufacturers and later standardized in the IEC 61131-3 control systems programming standard. As of 2015[update], it is still widely used, thanks to its simplicity. As of 2015[update], the majority of PLC systems adhere to the IEC 61131-3 standard that defines 2 textual programming languages: Structured Text (ST; similar to Pascal) and Instruction List (IL); as well as 3 graphical languages: Ladder Diagram, Function Block Diagram (FBD) and Sequential Function Chart (SFC). Instruction List(IL) was deprecated in the third edition of the standard. Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways, from the relay-derived ladder logic to programming languages such as specially ada...

    The main difference from most other computing devices is that PLCs are intended-for and therefore tolerant-of more severe conditions (such as dust, moisture, heat, cold), while offering extensive input/output (I/O) to connect the PLC to sensors and actuators. PLC input can include simple digital elements such as limit switches, analog variables from process sensors (such as temperature and pressure), and more complex data such as that from positioning or machine vision systems. PLC output can include elements such as indicator lamps, sirens, electric motors, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders, magnetic relays, solenoids, or analog outputs. The input/output arrangements may be built into a simple PLC, or the PLC may have external I/O modulesattached to a fieldbus or computer network that plugs into the PLC. The functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include sequential relay control, motion control, process control, distributed control systems, and networking. The data h...

    A PLC works in a program scan cycle, where it executes its program repeatedly. The simplest scan cycle consists of 3 steps: 1. read inputs, 2. execute the program, 3. write outputs. The program follows the sequence of instructions. It typically takes a time span of tens of milliseconds for the processor to evaluate all the instructions and update the status of all outputs.If the system contains remote I/O—for example, an external rack with I/O modules—then that introduces additional uncertainty in the response time of the PLC system. As PLCs became more advanced, methods were developed to change the sequence of ladder execution, and subroutines were implemented. This enhanced programming could be used to save scan time for high-speed processes; for example, parts of the program used only for setting up the machine could be segregated from those parts required to operate at higher speed. Newer PLCs now[as of?] have the option to run the logic program synchronously with the IO scannin...

    In his book from 1998, E. A. Parr pointed out that even though most programmable controllers require physical keys and passwords, the lack of strict access control and version control systems, as well as an easy to understand programming language make it likely that unauthorized changes to programs will happen and remain unnoticed. Prior to the discovery of the Stuxnet computer worm in June 2010, security of PLCs received little attention. Modern programmable controllers generally contain a real-time operating systems, which can be vulnerable to exploits in similar way as desktop operating systems, like Microsoft Windows. PLCs can also be attacked by gaining control of a computer they communicate with. Since 2011[update], these concerns have grown as networking is becoming more commonplace in the PLC environment connecting the previously separate plant floor networks and office networks. In February 2021, Rockwell Automation publicly disclosed a critical vulnerability affecting its...

    In recent years "safety" PLCs have become popular, either as standalone models or as functionality and safety-rated hardware added to existing controller architectures (Allen-Bradley Guardlogix, Siemens F-series etc.). These differ from conventional PLC types by being suitable for safety-critical applications for which PLCs have traditionally been supplemented with hard-wired safety relays and areas of the memory dedicated to the safety instructions. The standard of safety level is the SIL. For example, a safety PLC might be used to control access to a robot cell with trapped-key access, or perhaps to manage the shutdown response to an emergency stop on a conveyor production line. Such PLCs typically have a restricted regular instruction set augmented with safety-specific instructions designed to interface with emergency stops, light screens, and so forth. The flexibility that such systems offer has resulted in rapid growth of demand for these controllers.

    PLCs are well adapted to a range of automation tasks. These are typically industrial processes in manufacturing where the cost of developing and maintaining the automation system is high relative to the total cost of the automation, and where changes to the system would be expected during its operational life. PLCs contain input and output devices compatible with industrial pilot devices and controls; little electrical design is required, and the design problem centers on expressing the desired sequence of operations. PLC applications are typically highly customized systems, so the cost of a packaged PLC is low compared to the cost of a specific custom-built controller design. On the other hand, in the case of mass-produced goods, customized control systems are economical. This is due to the lower cost of the components, which can be optimally chosen instead of a "generic" solution, and where the non-recurring engineering charges are spread over thousands or millions of units.[citat...

    Daniel Kandray, Programmable Automation Technologies, Industrial Press, 2010 ISBN 978-0-8311-3346-7, Chapter 8 Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers
    Walker, Mark John (2012-09-08). The Programmable Logic Controller: its prehistory, emergence and application (PDF) (PhD thesis). Department of Communication and Systems Faculty of Mathematics, Comp...
  6. Radical 172 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Short-tailed_bird_radical

    Radical 172 or radical short tailed bird (隹部) meaning "small bird" or "short-tailed bird" is one of the 9 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals in total) composed of 8 strokes. In the Kangxi Dictionary, there are 233 characters ...

  7. Karma - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karma
    • Definition
    • Early Development
    • in Hinduism
    • in Buddhism
    • in Jainism
    • Reception in Other Traditions
    • Discussion
    • Comparable Concepts

    The term karma (Sanskrit: कर्म; Pali: kamma) refers to both the executed 'deed, work, action, act' and the 'object, intent'. Wilhelm Halbfass (2000) explains karma (karman) by contrasting it with the Sanskrit word kriya: whereas kriya is the activity along with the steps and effort in action, karma is (1) the executed action as a consequence of that activity, as well as (2) the intention of the actor behind an executed action or a planned action (described by some scholarsas metaphysical residue left in the actor). A good action creates good karma, as does good intent. A bad action creates bad karma, as does bad intent. Difficulty in arriving at a definition of karma arises because of the diversity of views among the schools of Hinduism; some, for example, consider karma and rebirth linked and simultaneously essential, some consider karma but not rebirth to be essential, and a few discuss and conclude karma and rebirth to be flawed fiction. Buddhism and Jainism have their own karma...

    The Vedic Sanskrit word kárman- (nominative kárma) means 'work' or 'deed', often used in the context of Srauta rituals. In the Rigveda, the word occurs some 40 times. In Satapatha Brahmana 1.7.1.5, sacrifice is declared as the "greatest" of works; Satapatha Brahmana 10.1.4.1 associates the potential of becoming immortal (amara) with the karma of the agnicayanasacrifice. The earliest clear discussion of the karma doctrine is in the Upanishads. For example, causality and ethicization is stated in Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad3.2.13: Some authors state that the samsara (transmigration) and karma doctrine may be non-Vedic, and the ideas may have developed in the "shramana" traditions that preceded Buddhism and Jainism. Others state that some of the complex ideas of the ancient emerging theory of karma flowed from Vedic thinkers to Buddhist and Jain thinkers.The mutual influences between the traditions is unclear, and likely co-developed. Many philosophical debates surrounding the concept are s...

    The concept of karma in Hinduism developed and evolved over centuries. The earliest Upanishads began with the questions about how and why man is born, and what happens after death. As answers to the latter, the early theories in these ancient Sanskrit documents include pancagni vidya (the five fire doctrine), pitryana (the cyclic path of fathers) and devayana (the cycle-transcending, path of the gods). Those who do superficial rituals and seek material gain, claimed these ancient scholars, travel the way of their fathers and recycle back into another life; those who renounce these, go into the forest and pursue spiritual knowledge, were claimed to climb into the higher path of the gods. It is these who break the cycle and are not reborn. With the composition of the Epics – the common man's introduction to Dharmain Hinduism – the ideas of causality and essential elements of the theory of karma were being recited in folk stories. For example: The 6th chapter of the Anushasana Parva (t...

    Karma and karmaphala are fundamental concepts in Buddhism, which explain how our intentional actions keep us tied to rebirth in samsara, whereas the Buddhist path, as exemplified in the Noble Eightfold Path, shows us the way out of samsara. The cycle of rebirth is determined by karma, literally 'action'.[note 1] Karmaphala (wherein phala means 'fruit, result') refers to the 'effect' or 'result' of karma. The similar term karmavipaka (wherein vipākameans 'ripening') refers to the 'maturation, ripening' of karma. In the Buddhist tradition, karma refers to actions driven by intention (cetanā),[note 2] a deed done deliberately through body, speech or mind, which leads to future consequences. The Nibbedhika Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya6.63: How these intentional actions lead to rebirth, and how the idea of rebirth is to be reconciled with the doctrines of impermanence and no-self,[note 4] is a matter of philosophical inquiry in the Buddhist traditions, for which several solutions have been pr...

    In Jainism, karma conveys a totally different meaning from that commonly understood in Hindu philosophy and western civilization. Jain philosophy is the oldest Indian philosophy that completely separates body (matter) from the soul (pure consciousness). In Jainism, karma is referred to as karmic dirt, as it consists of very subtle particles of matter that pervade the entire universe. Karmas are attracted to the karmic field of a soul due to vibrations created by activities of mind, speech, and body as well as various mental dispositions. Hence the karmas are the subtle matter surrounding the consciousness of a soul. When these two components (consciousness and karma) interact, we experience the life we know at present. Jain texts expound that seven tattvas(truths or fundamentals) constitute reality. These are: 1. Jīva: the soul which is characterized by consciousness 2. Ajīva: the non-soul 3. Āsrava: inflow of auspicious and evil karmic matter into the soul. 4. Bandha(bondage): mutu...

    Sikhism

    In Sikhism, all living beings are described as being under the influence of the three qualities of maya. Always present together in varying mix and degrees, these three qualities of maya bind the soul to the body and to the earth plane. Above these three qualities is the eternal time. Due to the influence of three modes of maya's nature, jivas (individual beings) perform activities under the control and purview of the eternal time. These activities are called karma, wherein the underlying pri...

    Falun Gong

    David Ownby, a scholar of Chinese history at the University of Montreal, asserts that Falun Gong differs from Buddhism in its definition of the term "karma" in that it is taken not as a process of award and punishment, but as an exclusively negative term. The Chinese term de, or 'virtue', is reserved for what might otherwise be termed 'good karma' in Buddhism. Karma is understood as the source of all suffering – what Buddhism might refer to as 'bad karma'. According to Li Hongzhi, the founder...

    Taoism

    Karma is an important concept in Taoism. Every deed is tracked by deities and spirits. Appropriate rewards or retribution follow karma, just like a shadow follows a person. The karma doctrine of Taoism developed in three stages. In the first stage, causality between actions and consequences was adopted, with supernatural beings keeping track of everyone's karma and assigning fate (ming). In the second phase, transferability of karma ideas from Chinese Buddhism were expanded, and a transfer or...

    Free will and destiny

    One of the significant controversies with the karma doctrine is whether it always implies destiny, and its implications on free will. This controversy is also referred to as the moral agency problem;the controversy is not unique to karma doctrine, but also found in some form in monotheistic religions. The free will controversy can be outlined in three parts: 1. A person who kills, rapes or commits any other unjust act, can claim all his bad actions were a product of his karma: he is devoid of...

    Psychological indeterminacy

    Another issue with the theory of karma is that it is psychologically indeterminate, suggests Obeyesekere (1968).That is, if no one can know what their karma was in previous lives, and if the karma from past lives can determine one's future, then the individual is psychologically unclear what if anything he or she can do now to shape the future, be more happy, or reduce suffering. If something goes wrong, such as sickness or failure at work, the individual is unclear if karma from past lives w...

    Transferability

    Some schools of Asian religions, particularly popular Buddhism, allow transfer of karma merit and demerit from one person to another. This transfer is an exchange of non-physical quality just like an exchange of physical goods between two human beings. The practice of karma transfer, or even its possibility, is controversial. Karma transfer raises questions similar to those with substitutionary atonementand vicarious punishment. It defeats the ethical foundations, and dissociates the causalit...

    Western culture, influenced by Christianity, holds a notion similar to karma, as demonstrated in the phrase "what goes around comes around".

  8. Chinese characters - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Chinese_characters

    Chinese characters are the oldest continuously used system of writing in the world. By virtue of their widespread current use in East Asia, and historic use throughout the Sinosphere, Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing ...

  9. Spider-Man (Japanese TV series) - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supaidāman

    Spider-Man (スパイダーマン, Supaidāman), also referred to as Japanese Spider-Man, is a Japanese live-action tokusatsu television series produced by Toei Company, loosely based on Marvel Comics' Spider-Man character.[1] The series lasted 41 ...

  10. Radical 29 - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_hand_radical

    Radical 29 or radical again (又部) meaning "and", "again" or "right hand" is one of the 23 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals total) composed of two strokes. In the Kangxi Dictionary, there are 91 characters (out of ...

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