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  1. 飛輪健身車 相關
  1. Hutchinson SA - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Markets
    • Products
    • Fab Houses
    • Research
    • Major Acquisitions

    Late 19th century

    1. In 1853, the American engineer Hiram Hutchinson met Charles Goodyear in Paris where Hutchinson obtained patents from Goodyear, using a technological monopoly to create rubber products. A factory was founded in Langlée, near Montargis. 2. In 1890, the company began the manufacture of bicycletires.


    1. In 1903, Hutchinson diversified their operations from the manufacturing of bicycle tires and began manufacture of coated canvases for airplanes and airships. 2. In 1918, Hutchinson headquarters moved to the Champs-Élysées in Paris. 3. In 1920, Hutchinson expanded into other sectors, including shoes, clothing, Textile, automobile, motorcycle, bicycle, heavyweights, balloon, heels, mats, belts, gaskets for jars.


    1. In 1934, Jean-Felix Paulsen and Stratosky, former colleagues at Citroën, founded the company 'Paulstra' to develop a method for adhering rubber to metal. In 1965, the Paulstra brand produced over fifteen million pairs of gloves. 2. In 1973, Hutchinson and Mapa merged and Jean-Felix Paulsen sold Paulstra to Hutchinson Mapa(which was renamed Hutchinson in 1981). 3. In 1974, the company Total took a majority stake in the Hutchinson. The new company had 13,500 employees across 26 different sit...

    Hutchinson’s main focuses are Automotive and Aerospace.But they also create products for Rail, Industry, Defense, and Energy markets.

    Hutchinson makes Body Sealing Systems, Precision Sealing Systems, Fluid Management Systems, Materials & Structures, Vibration Control Systems, and Belt Drive Systems.

    Hutchinson has a presence on five continents. Its main manufacturing locations are Europe, Asia, and North America, the same locations as the company’s meeting centers, which they call a Fab House. In 2016, the 507 Fab House and the 616 Fab House opened in France and the United States, respectively. The Fab House in China, called 822, opened in 2019. Hutchinson has multiple plants in China, Poland, and the United States.Recently, the company has pushed to digitize all their plants to optimize processes.

    Hutchinson has a history of creating products to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The company participates in European Commission funded research initiatives such as Clean Sky, the goal of which is to reduce the impact of air travel on the environment. Hutchinson is the coordinator of two Clean Sky 2 projects focusing on air treatment and temperature control in aircraft.In 2017, the company hosted a student research competition in the 507 Fab House. Hutchinson and its partner Electreon are members of The Smart Road Gotland Consortium, the goal of which is to develop electric roads. The technology allows vehicles to charge while driving via coils embedded in the roadway. Electrive explains, “The coils are embedded eight centimetres below the surface, invisible to road users, and only activated when a vehicle drives over them.” Hutchinson manufactures these coils.In April 2019, the Swedish Transit Authority announced that the consortium won the bid to build the world’s first dynamic i...

    Hutchinson has acquired many companies with varying expertise. In 1974 Hutchinson acquired Paulstra, a company which specializes in vibration and acoustic insulation. The company made multiple acquisitions in 2019. In January, Hutchinson announced the acquisition of an American parts manufacturer called Midé Technology. In September, Hutchinson acquired a thermal management company called TCSA from Mann+Hummel.“TCSA is now a joint venture between the two companies, dedicated to thermal management and cooling systems for vehicles, particularly EV and HEV and integrated in Hutchinson’s FMS (Fluid Management Systems) activity.” Later that month, Hutchinson announced its acquisition of German aerospace company, PFW.The acquisition was completed in January 2020.

    • Paris
    • € 4.314 Billion (2019)
    • >44,000
    • France 1853
  2. Recumbent bicycle - Wikipedia
    • Description
    • Variations
    • Compared to Uprights
    • History
    • Performance
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Recumbents can be categorized by their wheelbase, wheel sizes, steering system, faired or unfaired, and front-wheel or rear-wheel drive.

    Mountain bike recumbents

    With the right equipment and design, recumbent bikes can be used for riding unpaved roads and offroad, just as with conventional mountain bikes. Because of their longer wheelbase and the manner in which the rider is confined to the seat, recumbents are not as easy to use on tight, curving unpaved singletrack. Large-diameter wheels, mountain gearing and off-road specific design have been used since 1999. Crank-forwarddesigns that facilitate climbing out of the saddle, such as the RANS Dynamik,...


    Lowracers are a type of recumbent more common in Europe among racing enthusiasts. These typically have two 20" wheels or a 26" wheel at the rear and 20" wheel at the front. The seat is positioned between the wheels rather than above them. The extreme reclined position, and the fact that the rider is sitting in line with the wheels rather than atop them, makes this type the most aerodynamic of unfaired recumbents.


    Highracers are distinguished by using two large wheels (usually ISO 559, 650c or 700c). This necessitates a higher bottom bracket than on a lowracer so that the rider's legs are above the front wheel, and this in turn requires a higher seat. The seating position may be otherwise identical to that on a lowracer allowing similar aerodynamics. "Racer" in the name implies that this will often be the case, since these bikes strive for speed. Highracers are generally more maneuverable than lowracer...

    There are striking differences between recumbents and upright bikes. Since recumbents vary widely, the advantages and disadvantages listed below may apply to different types to different degrees or not at all. (For example, balance is not a concern with tricycles.)

    Recumbent bicycle designs date back to the middle of the 19th century. Several designs were patented around 1900, but these early designs were unsuccessful.

    Over distances recumbent bicycles outperform upright bicycles as evidenced by their dominance in ultra-distance events like 24 hours at Sebring. Official speed records for recumbents are governed by the rules of the International Human Powered Vehicle Association. A number of records are recognised, the fastest of which is the "flying 200 m", a distance of 200 m on level ground from a flying start with a maximum allowable tailwind of 1.66 m/s. The current record is 133.78 km/h (83.13 mph), set by Sebastiaan Bowier of the Netherlands in a fully faired front-wheel-drive recumbent lowracer bicycle designed by the Delft University of Technology and the VU University Amsterdam. The official record for an upright bicycle under IHPVA-legal conditions (but at sea level, not high altitude) is 82.53 km/h (51.28 mph) set by Jim Glover in 1986 with an English-made Moulton bicyclewith a USA-made hardshell fairing around him and the bike. The IHPVA hour record is 90.60 km (56.30 mi), set by Sam W...

    Fehlau, Gunnar (2003). The Recumbent Bicycle (2nd ed.). Out Your Backdoor Press. ISBN 1-892590-58-1.
    Fehlau, Gunnar (2006). The Recumbent Bicycle (3rd ed.). Out Your Backdoor Press. ISBN 1-892590-59-X.
    Brickman, Jonathan (2017). "O, to the Pain-Free Bicycle I go!". Medium.
    "Bed Bikes" Save Work , November 1951, Popular Sciencearticle that introduced the US to recumbent bicycles—i.e. article at bottom of page 23
  3. YouTuber - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Influence
    • Commercial Success

    The first YouTuber was Jawed Karim, who created his YouTube channel, jawed, on April 23, 2005 PDT (April 24, 2005 UTC).

    Influential YouTubers are frequently described as microcelebrities. Since YouTube is widely conceived as a bottom-up social media video platform, microcelebrities do not appear to be involved with the established and commercial system of celebrity culture but rather appear self-governed and independent.This appearance, in turn, leads to YouTubers being seen as more relatable and authentic, also fostered by the direct connection between artist and viewer using the medium of YouTube. In University of Southern California, more than 13-18 year-olds in the United States on whether 10 YouTube celebrities or 10 traditional celebrities were more influential, YouTube personalities took the first five spots of the ranking, with Smosh ranking as most influential. It repeated in 2015 and found six YouTubers on the first ranks, with KSI ranked as most influential. Several prominent YouTubers and their influence were subjects for scientific studies, such as Zoella and PewDiePie. Because of this l...

    YouTubers can earn revenue from Google AdSense. Additionally, they can supplement their income through affiliate links, merchandising, and 3rd party memberships using platforms such as Patreon. Popular channels have garnered corporate sponsors, who pay to be included in the videos. In 2018, Walmart, Nordstrom, and others sought YouTube stars as influencers. In 2015, NME stated that "vlogging has become big business." In 2015, Forbes reported that Felix Kjellberg, known on YouTube as PewDiePie, had earned $12 million in 2014, more than some popular actors such as Cameron Diaz or Gwyneth Paltrow. Additionally, YouTube stars have crossed over to other media platforms including late-night television such as Canadian YouTuber Lilly Singh, who hosts the talk show A Little Late with Lilly Singh on NBC.

  1. 飛輪健身車 相關