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  1. Tomica Hero: Rescue Fire - Wikipedia
    • Characters
    • Rescue Vehicles
    • Rescue Tools
    • Episodes
    • Cast
    • External Links

    The United Fire-Defense Agency/Rescue Fire

    The Rescue Fire(レスキューファイアー, Resukyū Faiā) team is a newly formed special team called the Super-Fire Specialist Team(超火災特化部隊, Chōkasai Tokka Butai) in the United Fire-Defense Agency(世界消防庁, Sekai Shōbō Chō) or "UFDA", the organization behind the Rescue Force team. The Rescue Force team was sent overseas and is currently based in the Europe branch. The Rescue Fire team disbanded temporarily after the final battle in the last episode, only to be reassembled a year later. The artificial satellite...


    The Jakaen(ジャカエン, Jakaen, "Evil Fire") are a group of fire demons who gave humans fire long ago. However, after seeing their gift used for selfish reasons to the point of endangering the Earth, the Jakaen made it their goal to make people suffer by causing Super-Fire(超火災, Chōkasai). Sealed long ago by a warrior with the freezing powers of five Blue Pearls, the Jakaen's release into the world was the reason for the formation of the Rescue Fire team. Their original base of operations was undern...

    Rescue Dashes

    The Rescue Dashes(レスキューダッシュ, Resukyū Dasshu)are the Core Units for the larger Rescue Vehicles, each equipped with a Safety Field barrier. These can be utilized in newer vehicle models for execution of either a Dragon Attack or a Falcon Attack. 1. Rescue Dash-1(レスキューダッシュ1, Resukyū Dasshu Wan): A special regulation Nissan 370Z cruiserassigned to Fire-1; serves as the cockpit for Fire Dragon Rescue Vehicle and Rescue Striker Rescue Vehicle in episode 9. 2. Rescue Dash-2(レスキューダッシュ2, Resukyū Dassh...

    Rescue Striker

    The Rescue Striker(レスキューストライカー, Resukyū Sutoraikā) is a large-scale water truck Rescue Vehicle assigned to Fire-3 prior to the completion of Turbo Dragon. It was borrowed from Rescue Force. Its Final Rescue is the Water Cannon(ウォーターキャノン, Wōtā Kyanon), shooting a jet of liquid nitrogen. It once combined with the Rescue Drill to become the Drill Striker in order to destroy Drillen with its Final Rescue, Drill Boost. While the Fire Dragon was being repaired, Fire-1 was given the Rescue Striker t...

    2nd Generation Rescue Vehicles

    The Rescue Vehicles(レスキュービークル, Resukyū Bīkuru) used by the Rescue Fire and Sky teams have two configuration modes: Scramble Mode(スクランブルモード, Sukuranburu Mōdo) and Rescue Mode(レスキューモード, Resukyū Mōdo). Fire Dragon(ファイアードラゴン, Faiā Doragon) 1. The Fire Dragon is a large-scale Rescue Vehicle assigned to Fire-1. It largely facilitates the functions of a fire engine and semi-trailer truck. In Scramble Mode, Fire Dragon functions as auto-transport for the small-scale Rescue Vehicles for immediate tran...

    Rescue Megaphone

    The Suit-Up Megaphone Rescue Megaphone(着装メガホン レスキューメガホーン, Chakusō Megahon Resukyū Megahōn) is the team's common suit-up tool with AI. Shifting its lever to various modes allows the user to relay commands. Fire-1's Rescue Megaphone is replaced with one possessing a TF-Q robot mode. Nicknamed Q-suke(Qスケ, Kyūsuke), the robot is designed to help Tatsuya become more professional. Q-suke is also outfitted with the ability to shoot lasers from his eyes. 1. FIRE UP: Transforms the user into suit-up f...


    The Rescue Fire Extinguisher Tri-Basher(レスキュー消火器トライバッシャー, Resukyū Shōkaki Torai Basshā) is the team's common rescue tool with three modes. Sword and Gun Modes can execute a powerful attack, by performing a Dragon Charge(ドラゴンチャージ, Doragon Chāji)on a Rescue Soul. 1. Fire Extinguisher Mode(消火器モード, Shōkaki Mōdo): Shoots special fire-extinguishing liquid. 2. Sword Mode(ソードモード, Sōdo Mōdo): Its powerful attack is the Blizzard Slash(ブリザードスラッシュ, Burizādo Surasshu). 3. Gun Mode(ガンモード, Gan Mōdo): Its po...

    Jet Caliber

    The Suit-Up Flying Sword Jet Caliber(着装飛剣ジェットカリバー, Chakusō Hiken Jetto Karibā) is the Sky Team's common suit-up and rescue tool, normally kept in the Sky Team's Rescue Dash vehicles until needed. It is usually in Jet Mode(ジェットモード, Jetto Mōdo) until suit-up. Voicing to its microphone on a pommel to various modes allows the user to relay commands. Allows the Sky Team to fly using its Jet Burner(ジェットバーナー, Jetto Bānā) function. Sword Mode can execute a powerful attack, by performing a Falcon Char...

    A New Enemy: The Roaring Fire Dragon(新たな敵 ほえよファイアードラゴン, Arata na Teki: Hoeyo Faiā Doragon)
    Tatsuya is Anxious: His Partner is a Very Nagging Robot(タツヤが心配 相棒は超ウザロボット, Tatsuya ga Shinpai: Aibō wa Chōuza Robotto)
    Miss Perfect: Ritsuka's Secret(ミス・パーフェクト リツカの秘密, Misu Pāfekuto: Ritsuka no Himitsu)
    Yuma's Promise: Count on Dozer Dragon(ユウマの約束 頼むぜドーザードラゴン, Yūma no Yakusoku: Tanomu ze Dōzā Doragon)
    Tatsuya Homura/Fire-1: Sho Kubo(久保 翔, Kubo Shō)
    Yuma Megumi/Fire-2: Yu Kawada(川田 祐, Kawada Yū)
    Ritsuka Yuki/Fire-3: Yu Nakamura(中村 優, Nakamura Yū)
    Tsubasa Aoi/Fire-4: Kazuki Fukuyama(福山 一樹, Fukuyama Kazuki)
    Rescue Fire at TV Aichi (in Japanese)
    Rescue Fire at Takara Tomy (in Japanese)
  2. Sales and operations planning - Wikipedia
    • Definitions
    • The Planning Process
    • Best Practices
    • See Also
    • External Links

    APICS defines S&OP as the "function of setting the overall level of manufacturing output (production plan) and other activities to best satisfy the current planned levels of sales (sales plan and/or forecasts), while meeting general business objectives of profitability, productivity, competitive customer lead times, etc., as expressed in the overall business plan." Institute for Supply Management defines it as "working cross-functionally with internal business units to forecast anticipated demand, inventory, supply and customer lead times based on the sales forecast, actual demand and capacity forecast." One of its primary purposes is to establish production rates that will achieve management’s objective of maintaining, raising, or lowering inventories or backlogs, while usually attempting to keep the workforce relatively stable. It must extend through a planning horizon sufficient to plan the labor, equipment, facilities, material, and finances required to accomplish the production...

    S&OP is the result of monthly planning activities. It is usually based on an Annual Operations Plan (AOP) that acts as the company's annual target in terms of sales and supply. Therefore, the sales and operations plans are a means to gradually accomplish the AOP targets – by linking monthly sales and marketing planning directly to the operations side of a business.The process for deciding upon the monthly S&OP is illustrated in the figure below. 1. Monthly S&OP Process The planning horizon for a typical S&OP process is long term and extends over 18–36 months. The selection of a time horizon is an important decision and there are different factors that influence this decision including type of industry, product characteristics, and the time of the year when S&OP planning takes place.Additionally, the S&OP process is conducted at an aggregate level. The focus is commonly on product families and not every single product.

    S&OP best practices share a common set of approaches: 1. Rely on a phased approach: S&OP is much more an integrated set of business processes and technologies than a single, all-encompassing process or technology. If you just focus on the implementation of a new technology and think that S&OP will miraculously take shape, you're wrong. 2. Develop an "outside-in" sequence of S&OP initiatives: typically, the events that will have the most profound and negative impact on your sales and operations planning are those outside of your control. For the most part, these are due to the decisions and actions of your customers, partners, and competitors, which have a direct impact on your revenue and your competitor's strategy. 3. Focus on more information, less data: another key to successful S&OP is clean, current, and accurate data. Plans are often slowed down by the effort of gathering data that has minimal importance to the overall project. It is important to ensure that you know exactly w...

    Palmatier, George E., "The Need to Lead"
    The Evolution of S&OP by Dick Ling, Andy Coldrick and Chris Turner
  3. Poisson distribution - Wikipedia

    In probability theory and statistics, the Poisson distribution (/ ˈ p w ɑː s ɒ n /; French pronunciation: ), named after French mathematician Denis Poisson, is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a given number ...

  4. Laser diode - Wikipedia
    • Theory of Operation of Simple Diode
    • Types
    • Failure Mechanisms
    • Applications
    • Common Wavelengths and Uses
    • History
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    A laser diode is electrically a PIN diode. The active region of the laser diode is in the intrinsic (I) region, and the carriers (electrons and holes) are pumped into that region from the N and P regions respectively. While initial diode laser research was conducted on simple P-N diodes, all modern lasers use the double-hetero-structure implementation, where the carriers and the photons are confined in order to maximize their chances for recombination and light generation. Unlike a regular diode, the goal for a laser diode is to recombine all carriers in the I region, and produce light. Thus, laser diodes are fabricated using direct band-gap semiconductors. The laser diode epitaxial structure is grown using one of the crystal growth techniques, usually starting from an N doped substrate, and growing the I doped active layer, followed by the P doped cladding, and a contact layer. The active layer most often consists of quantum wells, which provide lower threshold current and higher e...

    The simple laser diode structure, described above, is inefficient. Such devices require so much power that they can only achieve pulsed operation without damage. Although historically important and easy to explain, such devices are not practical.

    Laser diodes have the same reliability and failure issues as light emitting diodes. In addition they are subject to catastrophic optical damage(COD) when operated at higher power. Many of the advances in reliability of diode lasers in the last 20 years remain proprietary to their developers. Reverse engineeringis not always able to reveal the differences between more-reliable and less-reliable diode laser products. Semiconductor lasers can be surface-emitting lasers such as VCSELs, or in-plane edge-emitting lasers. For edge-emitting lasers, the edge facet mirror is often formed by cleaving the semiconductor wafer to form a specularly reflecting plane.:24 This approach is facilitated by the weakness of the crystallographic plane in III-V semiconductor crystals (such as GaAs, InP, GaSb, etc.) compared to other planes. The atomic states at the cleavage plane are altered compared to their bulk properties within the crystal by the termination of the perfectly periodic lattice at that pla...

    Laser diodes are numerically the most common laser type, with 2004 sales of approximately 733 million units,as compared to 131,000 of other types of lasers.

    Visible light

    1. 405 nm – InGaN blue-violet laser, in Blu-ray Disc and HD DVDdrives 2. 445–465 nm – InGaN blue laser multimode diode recently introduced (2010) for use in mercury-free high-brightness data projectors 3. 510–525 nm – InGaN Green diodes recently (2010) developed by Nichia and OSRAMfor laser projectors. 4. 635 nm – AlGaInPbetter red laser pointers, same power subjectively twice as bright as 650 nm 5. 650–660 nm – GaInP/AlGaInP CD and DVD drives, cheap red laser pointers 6. 670 nm – AlGaInPbar...


    1. 760 nm – AlGaInP gas sensing: O2 2. 785 nm – GaAlAs Compact Discdrives 3. 808 nm – GaAlAs pumps in DPSS Nd:YAG lasers(e.g., in green laser pointers or as arrays in higher-powered lasers) 4. 848 nm – laser mice 5. 980 nm – InGaAs pump for optical amplifiers, for Yb:YAGDPSS lasers 6. 1,064 nm – AlGaAs fiber-optic communication, DPSSlaser pump frequency 7. 1,310 nm – InGaAsP, InGaAsNfiber-optic communication 8. 1,480 nm – InGaAsPpump for optical amplifiers 9. 1,512 nm – InGaAsP gas sensing: N...

    As early as 1953 John von Neumann described the concept of semiconductor laser in an unpublished manuscript.[citation needed] In 1957, Japanese engineer Jun-ichi Nishizawa filed a patent for the first semiconductor laser. It was an advancement of his earlier inventions, the PIN diode in 1950 and the solid-state maserin 1955. Following theoretical treatments of M.G. Bernard, G. Duraffourg and William P. Dumke in the early 1960s coherent light emission from a gallium arsenide (GaAs) semiconductor diode (a laser diode) was demonstrated in 1962 by two US groups led by Robert N. Hall at the General Electric research center and by Marshall Nathan at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center. There has been ongoing debate as to whether IBM or GE invented the first laser diode which was largely based on theoretical work by William P. Dumke at IBM's Kitchawan Lab (currently known as the Thomas J. Watson Research Center) in Yorktown Heights, NY. The priority is given to General Electric group who h...

    B. Van Zeghbroeck's Principles of Semiconductor Devices( for direct and indirect band gaps)
    Saleh, Bahaa E. A. and Teich, Malvin Carl (1991). Fundamentals of Photonics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-83965-5. ( For Stimulated Emission )
    Koyama et al., Fumio (1988), "Room temperature cw operation of GaAs vertical cavity surface emitting laser", Trans. IEICE, E71(11): 1089–1090( for VCSELS)
    Iga, Kenichi (2000), "Surface-emitting laser—Its birth and generation of new optoelectronics field", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 6(6): 1201–1215(for VECSELS)
  5. Sunlight - Wikipedia
    • Measurement
    • Composition and Power
    • Solar Constant
    • Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI) Upon Earth
    • Intensity in The Solar System
    • Surface Illumination
    • Variations in Solar Irradiance
    • Life on Earth
    • Cultural Aspects
    • Effects on Human Health

    Researchers can measure the intensity of sunlight using a sunshine recorder, pyranometer, or pyrheliometer. To calculate the amount of sunlight reaching the ground, both the eccentricity of Earth's elliptic orbit and the attenuation by Earth's atmosphere have to be taken into account. The extraterrestrial solar illuminance (Eext), corrected for the elliptic orbit by using the day number of the year (dn), is given to a good approximation by 1. E e x t = E s c ⋅ ( 1 + 0.033412 ⋅ cos ⁡ ( 2 π d n − 3 365 ) ) , {\\displaystyle E_{\\rm {ext}}=E_{\\rm {sc}}\\cdot \\left(1+0.033412\\cdot \\cos \\left(2\\pi {\\frac {{\\rm {dn}}-3}{365}}\\right)\\right),} where dn=1 on January 1; dn=32 on February 1; dn=59 on March 1 (except on leap years, where dn=60), etc. In this formula dn–3 is used, because in modern times Earth's perihelion, the closest approach to the Sun and, therefore, the maximum Eextoccurs around January 3 each year. The value of 0.033412 is determined knowing that the ratio between the perihel...

    The spectrum of the Sun's solar radiation is close to that of a black body with a temperature of about 5,800 K. The Sun emits EM radiation across most of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although the Sun produces gamma rays as a result of the nuclear-fusion process, internal absorption and thermalization convert these super-high-energy photons to lower-energy photons before they reach the Sun's surface and are emitted out into space. As a result, the Sun does not emit gamma rays from this process, but it does emit gamma rays from solar flares. The Sun also emits X-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, and even radio waves; the only direct signature of the nuclear process is the emission of neutrinos. Although the solar corona is a source of extreme ultraviolet and X-ray radiation, these rays make up only a very small amount of the power output of the Sun (see spectrum at right). The spectrum of nearly all solar electromagnetic radiation striking the Earth's atmosphere spans a ran...

    The solar constant is a measure of flux density, is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area that would be incident on a plane perpendicular to the rays, at a distance of one astronomical unit (AU) (roughly the mean distance from the Sun to Earth). The "solar constant" includes all types of solar radiation, not just the visible light. Its average value was thought to be approximately 1366 W/m2, varying slightly with solar activity, but recent recalibrations of the relevant satellite observations indicate a value closer to 1361 W/m2is more realistic.

    Since 1978 a series of overlapping NASA and ESA satellite experiments have measured total solar irradiance (TSI) – the amount of solar radiation received at the top of Earth's atmosphere – as 1.365 kilo⁠watts per square meter (kW/m2). TSI observations continue with the ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3, SOHO/VIRGO and SORCE/TIM satellite experiments. Observations have revealed variation of TSI on many timescales, including the solar magnetic cycle and many shorter periodic cycles.TSI provides the energy that drives Earth's climate, so continuation of the TSI time-series database is critical to understanding the role of solar variability in climate change. Since 2003 the SORCE Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) has monitored Spectral solar irradiance(SSI) – the spectral distribution of the TSI. Data indicate that SSI at UV (ultraviolet) wavelength corresponds in a less clear, and probably more complicated fashion, with Earth's climate responses than earlier assumed, fueling broad avenues of new researc...

    Different bodies of the Solar Systemreceive light of an intensity inversely proportional to the square of their distance from Sun. A table comparing the amount of solar radiation received by each planet in the Solar System at the top of its atmosphere: The actual brightness of sunlight that would be observed at the surface also depends on the presence and composition of an atmosphere. For example, Venus's thick atmospherereflects more than 60% of the solar light it receives. The actual illumination of the surface is about 14,000 lux, comparable to that on Earth "in the daytime with overcast clouds". Sunlight on Mars would be more or less like daylight on Earth during a slightly overcast day, and, as can be seen in the pictures taken by the rovers, there is enough diffuse sky radiationthat shadows would not seem particularly dark. Thus, it would give perceptions and "feel" very much like Earth daylight. The spectrum on the surface is slightly redder than that on Earth, due to scatter...

    The spectrum of surface illumination depends upon solar elevation due to atmospheric effects, with the blue spectral component dominating during twilight before and after sunrise and sunset, respectively, and red dominating during sunrise and sunset. These effects are apparent in natural light photographywhere the principal source of illumination is sunlight as mediated by the atmosphere. While the color of the sky is usually determined by Rayleigh scattering, an exception occurs at sunset and twilight. "Preferential absorption of sunlight by ozone over long horizon paths gives the zenith sky its blueness when the sun is near the horizon". See diffuse sky radiationfor more details.

    Seasonal and orbital variation

    On Earth, the solar radiation varies with the angle of the Sun above the horizon, with longer sunlight duration at high latitudes during summer, varying to no sunlight at all in winter near the pertinent pole. When the direct radiation is not blocked by clouds, it is experienced as sunshine. The warming of the ground (and other objects) depends on the absorption of the electromagnetic radiation in the form of heat. The amount of radiation intercepted by a planetary body varies inversely with...

    Solar intensity variation

    Space-based observations of solar irradiance started in 1978. These measurements show that the solar constant is not constant. It varies on many time scales, including the 11-year sunspot solar cycle. When going further back in time, one has to rely on irradiance reconstructions, using sunspots for the past 400 years or cosmogenic radionuclides for going back 10,000 years.Such reconstructions have been done. These studies show that in addition to the solar irradiance variation with the solar...

    The existence of nearly all life on Earth is fueled by light from the Sun. Most autotrophs, such as plants, use the energy of sunlight, combined with carbon dioxide and water, to produce simple sugars—a process known as photosynthesis. These sugars are then used as building-blocks and in other synthetic pathways that allow the organism to grow. Heterotrophs, such as animals, use light from the Sun indirectly by consuming the products of autotrophs, either by consuming autotrophs, by consuming their products, or by consuming other heterotrophs. The sugars and other molecular components produced by the autotrophs are then broken down, releasing stored solar energy, and giving the heterotroph the energy required for survival. This process is known as cellular respiration. In prehistory, humans began to further extend this process by putting plant and animal materials to other uses. They used animal skins for warmth, for example, or wooden weapons to hunt. These skills allowed humans to...

    The effect of sunlight is relevant to painting, evidenced for instance in works of Eduard Manet and Claude Moneton outdoor scenes and landscapes. Many people find direct sunlight to be too bright for comfort, especially when reading from white paper upon which the sunlight is directly shining. Indeed, looking directly at the Sun can cause long-term vision damage. To compensate for the brightness of sunlight, many people wear sunglasses. Cars, many helmets and caps are equipped with visors to block the Sun from direct vision when the Sun is at a low angle. Sunshine is often blocked from entering buildings through the use of walls, window blinds, awnings, shutters, curtains, or nearby shade trees. Sunshine exposure is needed biologically for the creation of Vitamin Din the skin, a vital compound needed to make strong bone and muscle in the body. In colder countries, many people prefer sunnier days and often avoid the shade. In hotter countries, the converse is true; during the midday...

    The ultraviolet radiation in sunlight has both positive and negative health effects, as it is both a principal source of vitamin D3 and a mutagen. A dietary supplement can supply vitamin D without this mutagenic effect, but bypasses natural mechanisms that would prevent overdoses of vitamin D generated internally from sunlight. Vitamin D has a wide range of positive health effects, which include strengthening bones and possibly inhibiting the growth of some cancers. Sun exposure has also been associated with the timing of melatonin synthesis, maintenance of normal circadian rhythms, and reduced risk of seasonal affective disorder. Long-term sunlight exposure is known to be associated with the development of skin cancer, skin aging, immune suppression, and eye diseases such as cataracts and macular degeneration. Short-term overexposure is the cause of sunburn, snow blindness, and solar retinopathy. UV rays, and therefore sunlight and sunlamps, are the only listed carcinogens that are...

  6. Radical 187 - Wikipedia

    Radical 187 or radical horse (馬部) meaning "horse" is one of the 8 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals in total) composed of 10 strokes. In the Kangxi Dictionary, there are 472 characters (out of 49,030) to be found under this radical.马, ...

  7. Joran: The Princess of Snow and Blood - Wikipedia
    • Plot
    • Characters
    • Production and Release
    • External Links

    Joran is set in an alternate historical Japan, the 64th year of the Meiji era (1931 A.D.), where Tokugawa Yoshinobucontinued to reign over Japan instead of handing over power to a Prime Minister. The nation of Japan discovered the "Dragon Vein," a unique energy source, within its own borders that allowed Japan to dramatically increase its technological progress through the Edo period. Despite this unexpected prosperity, the government is threatened by an insurgent group known as "Kuchinawa," which hates the isolationist policies of Tokugawa and aims to overthrow the Shogunate. In response, the Tokugawa government has created "Nue," a secret police organization dedicated to rooting out Kuchinawa.

    Sawa Yukimura(雪村 咲羽, Yukimura Sawa)

    1. Voiced by: Suzuko Mimori 2. In public, Sawa is an 18-year-old girl who runs the Morning Dew used bookstore and cares for a young orphaned girl, Asahi Nakamura. Her real name is Sawa Karasumori, and she is a blue-blooded Changeling who can partially transform into a white crow. Her family were killed when she was a child and she was found by Jin Kuzuhara while burying her family. He trained her to be a Nue executioner in return for giving her the ability to exact revenge. Her weapon is a sw...

    Makoto Tsukishiro(月城 真琴, Tsukishiro Makoto)

    1. Voiced by: Shouta Aoi 2. A female short haired bandoneon performer who dresses as a man. She is an executioner for Nue but in fact works for Janome. Her weapon is an electronic sword.

    Elena Hanakaze(花風 エレーナ, Hanakaze Erena)

    1. Voiced by: Raychell 2. A blond-haired novelist and sex worker who speaks English. She is secretly an executioner for Nue. Her weapons are an umbrella which fires arrows and a whip.

    On February 9, 2021, the anime original television series was announced in a press conference by Bushiroad. The series is animated by Bakken Record and directed by Susumu Kudō. Rika Nezu and Kunihiko Okada are writing the series' scripts, Kano Komiyama is designing the characters, and Michiru is composing the series' music. It premiered on March 31, 2021 on streaming platforms and premiered on April 7, 2021 on NTV and other channels. Raise A Suilen performed the opening theme song "Exist" and the ending theme song "Embrace of Light". Crunchyroll has licensed this series for English release outside of Asia. Medialink has licensed the series in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Anipluswill release the series in South Korea.

    Joran: The Princess of Snow and Blood at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
  8. Aso Shrine - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Shinto Belief
    • Festivals
    • Mythology of The Shrine
    • Chief Priest
    • Structure
    • 2016 Earthquakes
    • Related Shrines
    • References
    • External Links

    Aso Shrine at Mount Aso in Kyushu is traditionally held to have been a center of worship before the accession of Emperor Jinmu. The shikinaisha shrine complex at Ichinomiya in what is today Kumamoto Prefecturewas said to have been established in 281 BC. The earliest records of the shrine are found in Chinese historical chronicles like the Zuisho-Wakoku-Den from the 07th century that states that the people of Aso held festivals every time Mt. Aso erupted to calm its wrath. Historical information of the shrine can also be found in the Nihon-Shoki, Nihon-Kiryaku, Shoku-Nihon-Kouki, Montoku-Jitsuroku, Sandai-Jitsuroku, and the Chikushi-no-Kuni-Fudoki-Itsubun. Records also link the founding of the shrine to the reign of Emperor Kōrei (孝霊天皇, Kōrei-tennō). By the middle of the 11th century, the shrine was involved in national issues as they played out across Kyushu. During the ascendancy of the Kamakura shogunate, the Hōjō clanexercised a significant influence over the affairs of Aso Shrin...

    Aso-no-Ōkami, the kami or spirit who is believed to dwell at Aso Shrine has been worshipped from early times[vague]as the guardian deity of safety in navigation, and today, Aso-no-Ōkami is seen as protecting worshippers from traffic accidents and other untoward events. Yabusameis an annual festival which brings together horse-mounted archers, special arrows and targets, and Shinto ritual at Aso Shrine. The Aso no Himatsuri festival has its origin in the month of March festivals such as Aso no Noyaki (the first burning in Aso) and Aso jinja no Hifuri shinji (the fire ritual of Aso Shrine). Although rarely performed today, ceremonies which honor ancestors who settled near the Aso calderado continue to be associated with the Aso jinja.


    The Aso shrine's U-no-matsuri (卯の祭) is a 13-day event that occurs in March to welcome spring and pray for the beginning of the rice planting season. The U-no-matsuri marks the anniversary of Aso shrine's chief deity Takeiwatatsu-no-Mikoto'sarrival in Aso. This event occurred in the second month of the lunar calendar which is March in the current calendar. The shrine's Guuji San perform sacred Shinto music and dances every day of the festival while praying for a rich harvest. Occurring simulta...


    The Daihimonjiyaki (大火文字焼き) is part of the Noyaki (のやき, burning of the hills) that occurs in Aso, at the beginning of March every year. The hills are burnt to stop the growth of trees allowing the grass to take over, thereby maintaining Aso's famous grasslands. The kanji (Chinese character) for fire Hi (火)、and the character for flame Hono (炎) is lit onto Ojo-dake and Motozuka (known locally as Kitazuka) which are two hills, on the second Saturday of March every year.The symbol can be seen fro...

    Tazukuri Matsuri

    The Tazukuri Matsuri (田作り祭り) is a week-long festival held at Aso shrine starting from the Mi no hi, (巳の日, the day of the snake) and continuing on to the I no hi(亥の, day of the boar). These days are according to the old Japanese calendar and respond to different days on the Gregorian calendar every year. The most notable days within this week is the Hifuri Shinji.The Tazukuri Matsuri is held in accordance with the belief that if the deities of the shrine got married before the rice planting se...

    The creation of Aso

    According to an interview with several priests at Aso shrine, the legend of Takeiwatatsu-no-Mikoto and the formation of Aso City, is as follows: Thousands of years ago, the crater now known as Aso city was said to be filled with water and was thereby a huge lake surrounded by the outer rim of the caldera. Takeiwatatsu-no-Mikoto kicked in the western side of the caldera at what is now known as Tateno, Minami-Aso. He fell from the effort and was unable to stand for a while hence the name "Taten...

    The legend of Kihachi

    The legend of Kihachi surrounds the Hitaki-Shinji festival commemorated in Aso annually. Legend states that Takeiwatatsu-no-mikoto liked practicing his archery. He would stand on Ojodake (a cone shaped formation on Mt. Aso) and practice shooting matoishi (target stone) in what is now Matoishi in Aso, located north of the caldera. Kihachi his servant, was in charge of bringing the arrows back from the matoishi to Takeiwatatsu-no-Mikoto. After the 100th arrow was shot, Kihachi got tired and kic...


    There is a sacred marriage pine on the grounds of Aso shrine. It is said that if a woman walks around the tree twice counterclockwise and the man she loves walks around the tree once clockwise he would encompass her wish and the two will have a happy relationship.

    The position of Chief Priest of Aso Shrine is hereditary and is passed down from generation to generation with the oldest male in the family becoming the new head of the shrine. The Aso family, has the second oldest recorded lineage in Japan after the Imperial family. The family themselves are said to be descendants of Takeiwatatsu-no-Mikoto. The Aso family were priests but also rose to power as a powerful samurai clan in the 11th century. They remained in prominence until the 16th century as their feudal lord continued to rule over half of what is now known as Kumamoto Prefecture. This contributed economically to the family and the shrine, allowing them to rebuild shrine buildings and hold festivals. It also made it possible for them to establish branches of the Aso shrine in other locations. Some of those shrines still remain in up to 500 locations to this day. Koreyuki Aso (Aso Koreyuki in Japanese name order) was the 91st Chief Priest of Aso Shrine with his son being the 92nd.

    Aso shrine is said to have been built 2300 years ago in a time where shrines were torn down and moved to more divine locations. The shrine also suffered from fires and earthquakes making most locations temporary. A permanent location wasn't chosen until 281 AD. The shrine has since been burnt down and damaged in earthquakes causing the current building to only date back to the 1830s. Most recently the shrine suffered considerable damage during the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakeand is currently under reconstruction.

    Aso Shrine was heavily damaged during the 2016 earthquakes that struck Kumamoto on April 16th, 2016 at 1:25 am JST, at a magnitude of 7.0. The shrine's rōmon (tower gate) was completely destroyed as well as the haiden (worship hall).The smaller Kangyomon and Kamikomon gates were also partially destroyed along with several smaller shrines said to house the deities on the inner parts of the main shrine. Reconstruction efforts are already underway with several smaller structures already having been completely repaired. Final reconstruction efforts are projected to be completed sometime in 2023. With the collapse of the rōmon gate, the entrance to the shrine is now situated near the south gate. A temporary building used for goshuin and omikuji are situated in the inner area of the rōmon gate. List of damaged properties in Aso shrine and their projected repair dates:

    Other Aso shrines include: 1. Aso-jinja in Hamura, Tokyo. 2. Aoi Aso Shrine in Hitoyoshi, Kumamoto. 3. 461 shrines in Kumamoto Prefecture. 4. 32 shrines in Ōita Prefecture. 5. 7 shrines in Fukuoka Prefecture. 6. 4 shrines in Miyazaki Prefecture. 7. 19 shrines in Honshu. This list from Aoi Aso Shrine to Honshu is cited here.

    Iwao, Seiichi, Teizō Iyanaga, Susumu Ishii and Shôichirô Yoshida. (2002). Dictionnaire historique du Japon. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. ISBN 978-2-7068-1575-1; OCLC 51096469
    Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
    ____________. (1962). Studies in Shinto and Shrines. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 3994492
    (in Japanese) Aso shrine
    (in Japanese) Aso city home page
    (in Japanese) Aso shrine, images
    Kyushu Tourist: Aso Shinre, images
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