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  1. Help:IPA/Taiwanese Hokkien - Wikipedia

    The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Taiwanese Hokkien (also called Taiwanese) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-tai ...

  2. Bank for Investment and Development of Vietnam - Wikipedia

    Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Investment and Development of Vietnam Type State-owned Industry Banking, Finance, Security Founded 26 April 1957 Headquarters The Joint Stock Commercial Bank for Investment and Development of Vietnam (Vietnamese: ...

  3. Anti-Müllerian hormone - Wikipediaüllerian_hormone
    • Structure
    • Function
    • Pathology
    • Blood Levels
    • Clinical Usage
    • Names
    • See Also

    AMH is a dimeric glycoprotein with a molar mass of 140 kDa. The molecule consists of two identical subunits linked by sulfide bridges, and characterized by the N-terminal dimer (pro-region) and C-terminal dimer. AMH binds to its Type 2 receptor AMHR2, which phosphorylates a type I receptor under the TGF beta signaling pathway.


    In male mammals, AMH prevents the development of the Müllerian ducts into the uterus and other Müllerian structures. The effect is ipsilateral, that is each testis suppresses Müllerian development only on its own side. In humans, this action takes place during the first eight weeks of gestation. If no hormone is produced from the gonads, the Müllerian ducts automatically develop, while the Wolffian ducts, which are responsible for male reproductive parts, automatically die. Amounts of AMH tha...


    AMH is expressed by granulosa cells of the ovary during the reproductive years, and limits the formation of primary follicles by inhibiting excessive follicular recruitment by FSH. AMH expression is greatest in the recruitment stage of folliculogenesis, in the preantral and small antral follicles. This expression diminishes as follicles develop and enter selection stage, upon which FSH expression increases. Some authorities suggest it is a measure of certain aspects of ovarian function, usefu...


    AMH production by the Sertoli cells of the testes remains high throughout childhood in males but declines to low levels during puberty and adult life. AMH has been shown to regulate production of sex hormones, and changing AMH levels (rising in females, falling in males) may be involved in the onset of puberty in both sexes. Functional AMH receptors have also been found to be expressed in neurons in the brains of embryonic mice, and are thought to play a role in sexually dimorphic brain devel...

    In men, inadequate embryonal AMH activity can lead to the persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS), in which a rudimentary uterus is present and testes are usually undescended. The AMH gene (AMH) or the gene for its receptor (AMH-RII) are usually abnormal. AMH measurements have also become widely used in the evaluation of testicular presence and function in infants with intersex conditions, ambiguous genitalia, and cryptorchidism. A study published in Nature Medicine found a link between hormonal imbalance in the womb and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), specifically prenatal exposure to anti-Müllerian hormone. For the study, the researchers injected pregnant mice with AMH so that they had a higher than normal concentration of the hormone. Indeed, they gave birth to daughters who later developed PCOS-like tendencies. These included problems with fertility, delayed puberty, and erratic ovulation. To reverse it, the researchers dosed the polycystic mice with an IVF drug called cetro...

    In healthy females AMH is either just detectable or undetectable in cord blood at birth and demonstrates a marked rise by three months of age; while still detectable it falls until four years of age before rising linearly until eight years of age remaining fairly constant from mid-childhood to early adulthood – it does not change significantly during puberty. The rise during childhood and adolescence is likely reflective of different stages of follicle development.From 25 years of age AMH declines to undetectable levels at menopause. The standard measurement of AMH follows the Generation II assay. This should give the same values as the previously used IBC assay, but AMH values from the previously used DSL assay should be multiplied with 1.39 to conform to current standards because it used different antibodies. Weak evidence suggests that AMH should be measured only in the early follicular phase because of variation over the menstrual cycle. Also, AMH levels decrease under current u...

    General fertility assessment

    Comparison of an individual's AMH level with respect to average levels is useful in fertility assessment, as it provides a guide to ovarian reserve and identifies women that may need to consider either egg freezing or trying for a pregnancy sooner rather than later if their long-term future fertility is poor. A higher level of anti-Müllerian hormone when tested in women in the general population has been found to have a positive correlation with natural fertility in women aged 30–44 aiming to...

    In vitro fertilization

    AMH is a predictor for ovarian response in in vitro fertilization (IVF). Measurement of AMH supports clinical decisions, but alone it is not a suitable predictor of IVF success.Additionally, AMH levels are used to estimate a woman's remaining egg supply. According to NICE guidelines of in vitro fertilization, an anti-Müllerian hormone level of less than or equal to 5.4 pmol/l (0.8 ng/mL) predicts a low response to ovarian hyperstimulation, while a level greater than or equal to 25.0 pmol/l (3...

    Natural remedies

    Studies into treatments to improve low ovarian reserve and low AMH levels have met with some success. Current best available evidence suggests that DHEA improves ovarian function, increases pregnancy chances and, by reducing aneuploidy, lowers miscarriage rates. The studies into DHEA for low AMH show that a dose of 75 mg for a period of 16 weeks should be taken. Improvement of oocyte/embryo quality with DHEA supplementation potentially suggests a new concept of ovarian aging, where ovarian en...

    The adjective "Müllerian" is written either "Müllerian" or "müllerian", depending on the governing style guide; the derived term with the prefix of "anti-" is then "anti-Müllerian", "anti-müllerian", or "antimüllerian". The Müllerian ducts are named after Johannes Peter Müller. A list of the names that have been used for the antimüllerian hormone is as follows. For the sake of simplicity, this list ignores some orthographicvariations; for example, it gives only one row for "Müllerian-inhibiting hormone", although there are 4 acceptable stylings thereof (cap M or lowercase m, hyphen or space).

  4. MediaTek - Wikipedia
    • Corporate History
    • Acquisitions
    • Financial Performance
    • Product Announcements
    • Controversy
    • Product List
    • See Also
    • External Links

    MediaTek was originally a unit of the Taiwanese firm, United Microelectronics Corporation (UMC), tasked with designing chipsets for home entertainment products. On May 28, 1997, the unit was spun off and incorporated. MediaTek Inc. was listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange(TSEC) under the "2454" code on July 23, 2001. The company started out designing chipsets for optical drives and subsequently expanded into chips for DVD players, digital TVs, mobile phones, smartphones and tablets.In general MediaTek has had a strong record of gaining market share and displacing competitors after entering new markets. The company launched a division to design products for mobile devices in 2004. Seven years later, it was taking orders for more than 500 million mobile system-on-chip units per annum, which included products for both feature phones and smart devices.By providing extensive system engineering assistance the company allowed many smaller companies and new entrants to enter a mobile phone m...

    In 2005, MediaTek acquired Inprocomm, a wireless semiconductor design company producing 802.11a, b and a/g chips. On September 10, 2007, MediaTek announced its intention to buy Analog Devices cellular radio and baseband chipset divisions for US$350 million.The acquisition was finalised by January 11, 2008. On May 5, 2011, MediaTek acquired Ralink Technology Corporation, gaining products and expertise for Wi-Fi technology for mobile and non-mobile applications, as well as for wired DSL and Ethernetconnectivity. On April 11, 2012, MediaTek acquired Coresonic, a global producer of digital signal processing products based in Linköping, Sweden. Coresonic became a wholly owned subsidiary of MediaTek in Europe. On June 22, 2012, MediaTek announced it would acquire rival Taiwanese chipset designer MStar Semiconductor Inc., which held a strong market share position in digital television chips. The initial phase of the deal saw MediaTek taking a 48 percent stake, with an option to purchase th...

    MediaTek's financial results have been subject to variation as the financial success of different product lines fluctuated. MediaTek's relatively strong sales in 2009/2010 was based on its strong market position for feature phone chipsets. Smartphone and tablet products contributed to MediaTek's sales and income increase in 2013, while revenue recognition from the acquisition of MStar Semiconductor, which became effective in February 2014, as well as a continuing strong position for smartphone and tablet solutions, were the main reasons for the sales growth seen in 2014.In 2014 smartphone chips accounted for approximately 50–55% of revenue, followed by digital home products (25–30%, includes digital television chips), tablet chips (5–10%), feature phone chips (5–10%) and Wi-Fi products (5–10%). MediaTek started shipping chips with integrated 4G LTE baseband in volume in the second half of 2014, later than its largest competitor Qualcomm. The additional cost of the separate baseband...

    The MT8135 system-on-chip (SoC) for tablets announced in July, 2013 was the industry's first chip to implement the new ARM big.LITTLE technology for heterogeneous multi-processing. A variant of the MT8135 was used by Amazon in its Kindle Fire HD tablet models. Also on November 20, 2013, MediaTek launched the MT6592 SoC, the first system-on-chip (SoC) with eight CPU cores which could be used simultaneously,in contrast to competing SoCs with eight physical cores of which only a subset could be active at any given time. The "True Octa-Core" trademark was registered to emphasize the difference in marketing materials. On January 7, 2014, MediaTek announced the development of the world's first "multimode receiver" for wireless charging. In contrast to existing implementations it is compatible with both inductive and resonant charging. The resulting MT3188 wireless charging chip, certified by both the Power Matters Alliance and the Wireless Power Consortiumwas announced on February 24, 201...

    Benchmark cheating

    On April 8, 2020, MediaTek published a post titled "Why MediaTek Stands Behind Our Benchmarking Practices", and later that day AnandTech published an article on MediaTek's Sports Mode. MediaTek said Sports Mode is designed to show full capabilities during benchmarks, that it is standard practice in the industry, and their device makers can choose to enable it or not. AnandTech pointed out Sports Mode was also being applied to benchmarks intended on measuring user experience benchmarks, provid...

    GNSS modules

    Global navigation satellite system(GNSS) modules. 1. MT6628 (GPS) WLAN 802.11b/g/n, WIFI Direct, Bluetooth 4.0 LE, GPS/QZSS, FM 2. MT6620 (GPS) 3. MT3339 (2011) (GPS, QZSS, SBAS) 4. MT3337 (GPS) 5. MT3336 (GPS) 6. MT3333/MT3332 (2013) GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/BEIDOU/QZSS, is the world's first five-in-one multi-GNSS that supports the Beidou navigation satellite system. 7. MT3329 (GPS) 8. MT3328 (GPS) 9. MT3318 (GPS)

    IEEE 802.11

    As a result of the merger with Ralink, MediaTek has added wireless network interface controllers for IEEE 802.11-standards, and SoCs with MIPSCPUs to its product portfolio. 1. RT3883 includes a MIPS 74KEc CPU and an IEEE 802.11n-conformant WNIC. 2. RT6856 includes a MIPS 34KEc CPU and an IEEE 802.11ac-conformant WNIC.

  5. South Hamgyong Province - Wikipedia

    South Hamgyong Province (Korean: 함경남도, Hamgyŏngnamdo; Korean pronunciation: [ham.ɡjʌŋ]) is a province of North Korea. The province was formed in 1896 from the southern half of the former Hamgyong Province, remained a province of Korea ...

  6. Advanced glycation end-product - Wikipedia
    • Dietary Sources
    • Effects
    • Reactivity
    • Clearance
    • Potential Therapy
    • See Also

    Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are generally AGE-rich and are prone to further AGE formation during cooking. However, only low molecular weight AGEs are absorbed through diet, and vegetarians have been found to have higher concentrations of overall AGEs compared to non-vegetarians. Therefore, it is unclear whether dietary AGEs contribute to disease and aging, or whether only endogenous AGEs (those produced in the body) matter. This does not free diet from potentially negatively influencing AGE, but potentially implies that dietary AGE may deserve less attention than other aspects of diet that lead to elevated blood sugarlevels and formation of AGEs.

    AGEs affect nearly every type of cell and molecule in the body and are thought to be one factor in aging and some age-related chronic diseases. They are also believed to play a causative role in the vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. AGEs arise under certain pathologic conditions, such as oxidative stress due to hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. AGEs play a role as proinflammatory mediators in gestational diabetesas well. In the context of cardiovascular disease, AGEs can induce crosslinking of collagen, which can cause vascular stiffening and entrapment of low-density lipoprotein particles (LDL) in the artery walls. AGEs can also cause glycation of LDL which can promote its oxidation. Oxidized LDL is one of the major factors in the development of atherosclerosis. Finally, AGEs can bind to RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products)and cause oxidative stress as well as activation of inflammatory pathways in vascular endothelial cells.

    Proteins are usually glycated through their lysine residues. In humans, histones in the cell nucleus are richest in lysine, and therefore form the glycated protein N(6)-Carboxymethyllysine(CML). A receptor nicknamed RAGE, from receptor for advanced glycation end products, is found on many cells, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle, cells of the immune system[which?] from tissue such as lung, liver, and kidney.[clarification needed][which?] This receptor, when binding AGEs, contributes to age- and diabetes-related chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, asthma, arthritis, myocardial infarction, nephropathy, retinopathy, periodontitis and neuropathy. The pathogenesis of this process hypothesized to activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) following AGE binding. NF-κB controls several genes which are involved in inflammation.[citation needed]

    In clearance, or the rate at which a substance is removed or cleared from the body, it has been found that the cellular proteolysis of AGEs—the breakdown of proteins—produces AGE peptides and "AGE free adducts" (AGE adducts bound to single amino acids). These latter, after being released into the plasma, can be excreted in the urine. Nevertheless, the resistance of extracellular matrix proteins to proteolysis renders their advanced glycation end products less conducive to being eliminated. While the AGE free adducts are released directly into the urine, AGE peptides are endocytosed by the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule and then degraded by the endolysosomal system to produce AGE amino acids. It is thought that these acids are then returned to the kidney's inside space, or lumen, for excretion. AGE free adducts are the major form through which AGEs are excreted in urine, with AGE-peptides occurring to a lesser extentbut accumulating in the plasma of patients with chronic kid...

    AGEs are the subject of ongoing research. There are three therapeutic approaches: preventing the formation of AGEs, breaking crosslinks after they are formed and preventing their negative effects. Compounds that have been found to inhibit AGE formation in the laboratory include Vitamin C, Agmatine, benfotiamine, pyridoxamine, alpha-lipoic acid, taurine, pimagedine, aspirin, carnosine, metformin, pioglitazone, and pentoxifylline.Activation of the TRPA-1 receptor by lipoic acid or podocarpic acid has been shown to reduce the levels of AGES by enhancing the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a major precursor of several AGEs. Studies in rats and mice have found that natural phenols such as resveratrol and curcumincan prevent the negative effects of the AGEs. Compounds that are thought to break some existing AGE crosslinks include Alagebrium (and related ALT-462, ALT-486, and ALT-946) and N-phenacyl thiazolium bromide.One in vitro study shows that rosmarinic acid out performs the AGE brea...

  7. Tiantai dialect - Wikipedia

    The Tiantai dialect, also known as Tiantaihua (simplified Chinese: 天台话; traditional Chinese: 天台話; pinyin: tiāntāihuà; Tiantai dialect pronunciation: [tʰi.tʰai.u]) is a regiolect of Wu Chinese in the Taizhou Wu dialect group. It is spoken ...

  8. List of jōyō kanji - Wikipedia

    List of characters For brevity, only one English translation is given per kanji. The "Grade" column specifies the grade in which the kanji is taught in Elementary schools in Japan.Grade "S" means that it is taught in ...

  9. Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her""Vom_Himmel...
    • Movements
    • History, Origins and Genesis
    • Text and Translation
    • Organ Registration
    • Reception
    • Transcriptions
    • Selected Recordings
    • References
    • External Links

    The title page of the printed version BWV 769 reads In English translation this reads There are five variations: 1. 1. Canone all' ottava (Canon at the Octave) 2. 2. Alio Modo in Canone alla Quinta (Canon at the Fifth) 3. 3. Canone alla Settima, cantabile (Canon at the Seventh) 4. 4. Canon per augmentationem (Augmentation Canon) 5. 5. L'altra Sorte del'Canone all'rovercio, 1) alla Sesta, 2) alla Terza, 3) alla Seconda è 4) alla Nona (Canon with Inversions) In BWV 769a, the variations occur in the modified order 1, 2, 5, 3, 4.

    In June 1747, Bach was admitted as the fourteenth member of the "Correspondierde Societät der Muscialischen Wissenschaften" (Corresponding Society for the Musical Sciences), a society devoted to musical scholarship founded in Leipzig in 1738 by Lorenz Christoph Mizler. To mark his admission he not only presented a version of the Canonic Variations, but also a portrait by Elias Gottlob Haussmann in which Bach holds a copy of his canon triplex a 6 voci BWV 1076 towards the viewer. During the last ten years of his life, Bach had become preoccupied musically with canons and canonic fugues, already much developed in the Parts III and IV of the Clavier-Übung—the Organ Mass BWV 552, BWV 669–689, the four canonic duets BWV 802–805 and the Goldberg Variations BWV 988—as well as the Musical Offering BWV 1079 and the Art of the FugueBWV 1080. The triplex canon itself became part of the Fourteen Canons BWV 1087, preserved in one surviving copy of the Goldberg Variations. Mizler seems to have be...

    Below are the first, second and last (fifteenth) verses of the Christmas hymn Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her by Martin Luther, published in 1539, with the English translation from 1855 of Catherine Winkworth.

    The first three variations concern the voice pitch of the cantus firmus. In Variatio I it is in the lower voice: according to Haas (2008), with the registration on a 16' stop, the cantus firmus would correspond to a bass part, with many crossings in the left hand of the manual. Likewise Variatio II is for a bass part and Variatio III for a soprano. These earlier variations are significant for understanding the performance and balance of the augmentation canon. In the augmentation canon, the upper soprano voice plays at twice the pace, with the lower voice slower. It makes sense to place the faster canonic voice in the upper manual and the longer canonic one in the lower manual, with the free alto voice also in the lower manual. A few notes of right hand side can be shared between upper and lower manuals; Williams (2003) has even indicated that theoretically the three voices—the two canonic voices and the free alto voice—could be performed on three different manuals. According to the...

    The Canonic Variations were among the works included in J. G. Schicht's four-volume anthology of Bach's organ music (1803–1806), prior to the publication of Bach's complete organ works in 1847 by Griepenkerl and Roitzsch in Leipzig. Felix Mendelssohn, Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahmsall studied the Variations, annotating their personal copies of Schicht. Mendelssohn himself composed a 6 movement cantata on "Vom Himmel hoch" in 1831 for soprano, baritone, mixed choir and orchestra, opening with the same descending figures as those in Bach's Variation 1.

    Ivan Karlovitsch Tscherlitzky (1799–1865), organist in the Maltese Chapel adjoining the Vorontsov Palace in St Petersburg, arranged the Canonic Variations for piano solo.
    In 1951 and 1958 the Swiss organist, conductor and composer Roger Vuataz (1898–1988) made two arrangements of the Canonic Variations for orchestra.
    In 1956 Igor Stravinskymade an arrangement of the Canonic Variations for orchestra and mixed choir, adding extra contrapuntal lines.
    Anton Heiller, Heiller at Harvard, Moran-Fisk-Kent, contained on the first disc of a 4-CD boxmastered from live recitals recorded between 1967 and 1973 on the first Fisk organ at Memorial Church.
    André Isoir, L'Oeuvre pour Orgue (15 discs), Calliope, CAL 3703–3717 (budget edition 2008). The Canonic Variations and the Great Eighteen Chorale Preludes, recorded in 1990 on the G. Westenfelder o...
    Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel; Agricola, Johann Friedrich (1754), "Bach's Nekrolog", in Mizler, Lorenz Christoph (ed.), Musikalische Bibliothek(in German), IV, 1, pp. 158–176
    Barber, Elinore (1986), Clavierübung Part IV (Goldberg Variations) BWV 988 and the Canonic Variations BWV 769, Riemenschnedier Bach Facsimiles, 2
    Breig, Werner (2010), Complete Organ Works - Breitkopf Urtext (New Edition in 10 Volumes), Vol. 6: Clavierübung III / Schübler-Choräle / Canonische Veränderungen über "Vom Himmel hoch", Breitkopf &...
    Butler, Gregory G. (1990), J. S. Bach's Clavier-Ubung III : The Making of a Print, with a Companion Study of the Canonic Variations on Vom Himmel Hoch BWV 769, ISBN 9780822310099
    Canonic Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her": Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
    Free score at Mutopia
    Free creative commons downloads of the Canonic Variations recorded by James Kibbie on the 1755 Gottfried Silbermann/Zacharias Hildebrandt organ in the Katholische Hofkirche, Dresden, Germany: BWV 7...
  10. ʼPhags-pa script - Wikipedia'Phags-pa_alphabet
    • Nomenclature
    • History
    • Syllable Formation
    • Typographic Forms
    • Letters
    • Unicode
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    ʼPhags-pa script: ꡏꡡꡃ ꡣꡡꡙ ꡐꡜꡞ mongxol tshi, "Mongolian script"; Mongolian: дөрвөлжин үсэг dörvöljin üseg, "square script"; Tibetan: ཧོར་ཡིག་གསར་པ་, Wylie: hor yig gsar ba"new Mongolian script"; Yuan dynasty Chinese: 蒙古新字; pinyin: měnggǔ xīnzì"new Mongolian script"; Modern Chinese: 八思巴文; pinyin: bāsībā wén"ʼPhags-pa script"

    During the Mongol Empire, the Mongols wanted a universal script to write down the languages of the people they subjugated. The Uyghur-based Mongolian alphabet is not a perfect fit for the Middle Mongol language, and it would be impractical to extend it to a language with a very different phonology like Chinese.[citation needed] Therefore, during the Yuan dynasty (c. 1269), Kublai Khan asked the Tibetan monk ʼPhags-pa to design a new alphabet for use by the whole empire. ʼPhags-pa extended his native Tibetan alphabet to encompass Mongol and Chinese, evidently Central Plains Mandarin. The resulting 38 letters have been known by several descriptive names, such as "square script" based on their shape, but today are primarily known as the ʼPhags-pa alphabet.[citation needed] Descending from Tibetan script it is part of the Brahmic family of scripts, which includes Devanagari and scripts used throughout Southeast Asia and Central Asia. It is unique among Brahmic scripts in that it is writ...

    Although it is an alphabet, phagspa is written like a syllabary or abugida, with letters forming a single syllable glued or 'ligated' together. Unlike the ancestral Tibetan script, all ʼPhags-pa letters are written in temporal order (that is, /CV/ is written in the order C–V for all vowels) and in-line (that is, the vowels are not diacritics). However, vowel letters retain distinct initial forms, and short /a/ is not written except initially, making ʼPhags-pa transitional between an abugida, a syllabary, and a full alphabet. The letters of a ʼPhags-pa syllable are linked together so that they form syllabic blocks.

    ʼPhags-pa was written in a variety of graphic forms. The standard form (top, at right) was blocky, but a "Tibetan" form (bottom) was even more so, consisting almost entirely of straight orthogonal lines and right angles. A "seal script" form (Chinese 蒙古篆字 měnggǔ zhuànzì "Mongolian Seal Script"), used for imperial seals and the like, was more elaborate, with squared sinusoidal lines and spirals.[citation needed] Korean records state that hangul was based on an "Old Seal Script" (古篆字), which may be ʼPhags-pa and a reference to its Chinese name 蒙古篆字 měnggǔ zhuànzì (see origin of hangul). However, it is the simpler standard form of ʼPhags-pa that is the closer graphic match to hangul.

    Basic Letters

    The following 41 are the basic ʼPhags-pa letters. Letters 1-30 and 35-38 are base consonants. The order of Letters 1-30 is the same as the traditional order of the thirty basic letters of the Tibetan script, to which they correspond. Letters 35-38 represent sounds that do not occur in Tibetan, and are either derived from an existing Tibetan base consonant (e.g. Letters 2 and 35 are both derived from the simple Tibetan letter KHA, but are graphically distinct from each other) or from a combina...

    Menggu Ziyun

    Following are the initials of the ʼPhags-pa script as presented in Menggu Ziyun. They are ordered according to the Chinese philological tradition of the 36 initials.[citation needed]

    ʼPhags-pa script was added to the UnicodeStandard in July 2006 with the release of version 5.0. The Unicode block for ʼPhags-pa is U+A840–U+A877:[citation needed] U+A856 ꡖ PHAGS-PA LETTER SMALL A is transliterated using U+A78F ꞏ LATIN LETTER SINOLOGICAL DOT from the Latin Extended-DUnicode block.

    Coblin, W. South (2006). A Handbook of ʼPhags-pa Chinese. ABC Dictionary Series. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3000-7. Retrieved 24 April 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged param...
    Denlinger, Paul. B. (1963). Chinese in Hp'ags-pa Script. Retrieved 24 April 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
    Everding, Karl-Heinz (2006). Herrscherurkunden aus der Zeit des mongolischen Großreiches für tibetische Adelshäuser, Geistliche und Klöster. Teil 1: Diplomata Mongolica. Mittelmongolische Urkunden...
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