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Kaohsiung City (/ ˌ k aʊ ˈ ʃ ʌ ŋ /; Mandarin Chinese: [ka uɕjʊ ŋ] (); Wade–Giles: Kao¹-hsiung²) is a special municipality in southern Taiwan.It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range with an area of 2,952 km 2 (1,140 sq ...
- 9 m (30 ft)
- 4 out of 22
Water (H2 O) is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue.This simplest hydrogen chalcogenide is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the ...
Hurricane Harvey originated from a westward-moving tropical wave that emerged from Africa over the eastern Atlantic Ocean, on August 12. A surface circulation slowly developed and convection consolidated around the low over the subsequent days; ...
Radical 85 or radical water (水部) meaning "water" is a Kangxi radical; one of 35 of the 214 that are composed of 4 strokes. Its left-hand form, 氵, is closely related to Radical 15, 冫 bīng (also known as 两点水 liǎngdiǎnshuǐ), ...
- Current National Parks of Taiwan
- Proposed National Parks
The first national parks(國立公園, Kokuritsu Kōen) in Taiwan were planned in December 27, 1937 by Governor-General Seizō Kobayashi(小林躋造). This was when Taiwan was under Japanese rule, thus the three national parks were to be national parks of the Empire of Japan. The legal basis for these national parks was no longer in force when Japan withdrew from Taiwan in 1945 after World War II. However, these planned national parks formed the basis for subsequent national park establishments.
Currently there are nine national parks in Taiwan. There is also one national nature park, which is designed for areas with fewer resources compared to a full national park.
Five other national parks were proposed but the plans of formation were halted due to opposition: 1. 馬告檜木國家公園 ("Makauy National Park for Chamaecyparis formosensis", opposed by local indigenous peoples) 2. 能丹國家公園("Neng-Dan National Park", opposed by the Bunun people) 3. 蘭嶼國家公園 ("Ponso no Tao National Park", opposed by the Tao people) 4. 綠島國家公園 ("Green IslandNational Park", opposed by the inhabitants.) 5. 北方三島海洋國家公園("Three Northern Islets Marine National Park")
Russia (Russian: Россия, Rossiya, Russian pronunciation: [rɐˈsʲijə]), or the Russian Federation, [b] is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia.It is the largest country in the world by area, covering over 17 million square ...
New Zealand (Māori: Aotearoa [aɔˈtɛaɾɔa]) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.It consists of two main landmasses—the North Island (Te Ika-a-Māui) and the South Island (Te Waipounamu)—and more than 700 smaller islands,  ...
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Acala first appears in the Amoghapāśakalparāja Sūtra (不空羂索神変真言經, Bùkōng juànsuǒ shénbiàn zhēnyán jīng, translated by Bodhiruci circa 707-709 CE), where he is described as a servant or messenger of the buddha Vairocana: More well-known, however, is the following passage from the Mahāvairocana Tantra which refers to Acala as one of the deities of the Womb Mandala: The deity was apparently popular in India during the 8th-9th centuries as evident by the fact that six of the Sanskrit texts translated by the esoteric master Amoghavajrainto Chinese are devoted entirely to him. While some scholars have put forward the theory that Acala originated from the Hindu god Shiva, particularly his attributes of destruction and reincarnation, Bernard Faure suggested the wrathful esoteric deity Trailokyavijaya (whose name is an epithet of Shiva), the Vedic fire god Agni, and the guardian deity Vajrapāṇi to be other, more likely prototypes for Acala. He notes: "one could theoretically locate Acala's or...
As noted above, Acala appears in the Amoghapāśakalparāja Sūtra and the Mahāvairocana Tantra (also known as the Mahāvairocana Abhisaṃbodhi Tantra or the Vairocana Sūtra). As Caṇḍaroṣaṇa or Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa, he is the primary deity of the Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa Tantra and is described in the Sādhanamālā. The Japanese esoteric Buddhist tradition and Shugendōalso make use of the following apocryphal sutras on Acala: 1. Sūtra of the Great Wrathful King Āryācala's Secret Dhāraṇī (聖無動尊大威怒王秘密陀羅尼経, Shō-Mudō-son daiifunnuō himitsu darani kyō) 1. A sūtra in the form of a discourse given by the bodhisattva Vajrasattva (identified here with Samantabhadra) to Mañjuśrī concerning Acala's nature. Acala, identified in this text with the all-pervading dharmakāya, is here said to "have no fixed abode, but dwells within the hearts of sentient beings" (無其所居、但住衆生心想之中). 1. Āryācala Sūtra (仏説聖不動経, Bussetsu Shō-Fudō kyō) 1. A condensed version of the above sutra. To this text is often appended two litanies of the n...
The bīja or seed syllables used to represent Acala in Japanese Buddhism are hāṃ (हां / हाँ) and hāmmāṃ (हाम्मां / हाम्माँ), the latter being a combination of the two final bīja in his mantra: hāṃ māṃ (हां मां). Hāṃ is sometimes confounded with the similar-looking hūṃ (हूं), prompting some writers to mistakenly identify Acala with other deities. The syllables are written using the Siddham script and is conventionally read as kān (カーン) and kānmān(カーンマーン). Three mantras of Acala are considered to be the standard in Japan. The most widely known one, derived from the Mahāvairocana Tantra and popularly known as the "Mantra of Compassionate Help" (慈救呪, jikushu or jikuju), goes as follows: The "Short Mantra" (小呪, shōshu) of Acala - also found in the Mahāvairocana Tantra- is as follows: The longest of the three is the "Great Mantra" of Acala, also known as the "Fire Realm Mantra" (火界呪, kakaishu / kakaiju): Another mantra associated with the deity is Oṃ caṇḍa-mahāroṣaṇa hūṃ phaṭ, found in th...
The Caṇḍamahāroṣaṇa Tantra'sdescription of Acala is a good summary of the deity's depiction in South Asian Buddhist art. In Nepalese and Tibetan art, Acala is usually shown either kneeling on his left knee or standing astride, bearing a noose or lasso (pāśa) and an upraised sword. Some depictions portray him trampling on the elephant-headed Vighnarāja (the Hindu god Ganesha), the "Lord of Hindrances". He may also be shown wearing a tiger skin, with snakes coiled around his arms and body. By contrast, portrayals of Acala (Fudō) in Japan tend to conform to the description given in the Amoghapāśakalparāja Sūtra and the Mahāvairocana Tantra: holding a lasso and a sword while sitting or standing on a rock (盤石座, banjakuza) or a pile of hewn stones (瑟瑟座, shitsushitsuza), with his braided hair hanging from the left of his head. He may also be depicted with a lotus flower - a symbol of enlightenment - on his head (頂蓮, chōren). Unlike the South Asian Acala (whose posture conveys movement and...
Fudō Myōō(Acala), never popular in Indian, Tibetan or even Chinese Buddhism , became in Japan the object of a flourishing cult with esoteric overtones. The cult of Acala was first brought to Japan by the esoteric master Kūkai, the founder of the Shingon school, and his successors, where it developed as part of the growing popularity of rituals for the protection of the state. While Acala was at first simply regarded as the primus inter pares among the five wisdom kings, he gradually became a...
Acala worship in China was first introduced into China during the Tang dynasty after the translation of esoteric tantras associated with him by monks such as Amoghavajra and Vajrabodhi. While iconography of Acala was depicted infrequently in some temples and grottoes from the Tang through to the Qing dynasty, usually as part of a set depicting the Ten Wisdom Kings, his worship never became as popular and widespread as it did in Japan. In modern times, he is revered as one of the eight Buddhis...Gary Snyder's 1969 poem Smokey the Bear Sutra portrays Smokey Bear (the mascot of the U.S. Forest Service) as an incarnation of Vairocana (the "Great Sun Buddha") in a similar vein as Acala. Indeed...The character Daigo Dojima from the Yakuzaseries has a tattoo of Acala on his back.Gilt bronze statue from Tibet, 15th-16th century, Honolulu Museum of ArtThangka from Khara-Khoto, Western Xia, 13th century, Hermitage MuseumThangka depicting four-armed Acala, from Khara-Khoto, 13th-14th centuryAcala (left) and Yamāntaka (right), rock carving in Dazu District, Chongqing
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The word tomato comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatl [ˈtomat͡ɬ], meaning 'the swelling fruit'. The native Mexican tomatillo is tomate (Nahuatl: tomātl pronunciation (help·info), meaning 'fat water' or 'fat thing'). When Aztecs started to cultivate the fruit to be larger, sweeter and red, they called the new variety xitomatl (or jitomates) (pronounced [ʃiːˈtomatɬ]), ('plump with navel' or 'fat water with navel'). The scientific species name lycopersic...
The usual pronunciations of tomato are /təˈmeɪtoʊ/ (usual in American English) and /təˈmɑːtoʊ/ (usual in British English). The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" ("You like /pəˈteɪtoʊ/ and I like /pəˈtɑːtoʊ/ / You like /təˈmeɪtoʊ/ and I like /təˈmɑːtoʊ/") and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes. In this capacity, it has even become an American and British slang term: sayin...
Fruit versus vegetable
Botanically, a tomato is a fruit—a berry, consisting of the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant. However, the tomato is considered a "culinary vegetable" because it has a much lower sugar content than culinary fruits; it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal, rather than as a dessert. Tomatoes are not the only food source with this ambiguity; bell peppers, cucumbers, green beans, eggplants, avocados, and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pu...
Tomato plants are vines, initially decumbent, typically growing 180 cm (6 ft) or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred, generally 100 cm (3 ft 3 in) tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands), although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates. Tomato plants are d...
In 1753, Linnaeus placed the tomato in the genus Solanum (alongside the potato) as Solanum lycopersicum. In 1768, Philip Miller moved it to its own genus, naming it Lycopersicon esculentum. This name came into wide use, but was technically in breach of the plant naming rules because Linnaeus's species name lycopersicum still had priority. Although the name Lycopersicum lycopersicum was suggested by Karsten (1888), this is not used because it violates the International Code of Nomenclature bar...
Tomatoes that have been modified using genetic engineering have been developed, and although none are commercially available now, they have been in the past. The first commercially available genetically modified food was a variety of tomato named the Flavr Savr, which was engineered to have a longer shelf life.Scientists are continuing to develop tomatoes with new traits not found in natural crops, such as increased resistance to pests or environmental stresses. Other projects aim to enrich t...
The wild ancestor of the tomato is native to western South America. These wild versions were the size of peas. Aztecs and other peoples in Mesoamerica were the first to have domesticated the fruit and used in their cooking. The Spanish first introduced tomatoes to Europe, where they became used in Spanish food. In France, Italy and northern Europe, the tomato was initially grown as an ornamental plant. It was regarded with suspicion as a food because botanists recognized it as a nightshade, a relative of the poisonous belladonna. This was exacerbated by the interaction of the tomato's acidic juice with pewter plates. The leaves and immature fruit contains tomatine, which in large quantities would be toxic. However, the ripe fruit contains no tomatine.
The tomato is grown worldwide for its edible fruits, with thousands of cultivars. A fertilizer with an NPK ratio of 5–10–10 is often sold as tomato fertilizer or vegetable fertilizer, although manure and compost are also used.
In 2019, world production of tomatoes was 181 million tonnes, with China accounting for 35% of the total, followed by India and Turkeyas major producers (see table).
Though it is botanically a berry, a subset of fruit, the tomato is a vegetable for culinary purposes because of its savoury flavour (see below). Although tomatoes originated in the Americas, they have become extensively used in Mediterranean cuisine. Ripe tomatoes contain significant umami flavor and they are a key ingredient in pizza, and are commonly used in pasta sauces.They are also used in gazpacho (Spanish cuisine) and pa amb tomàquet (Catalan cuisine). The tomato is now grown and eaten around the world. It is used in diverse ways, including raw in salads or in slices, stewed, incorporated into a wide variety of dishes, or processed into ketchup or tomato soup. Unripe green tomatoes can also be breaded and fried, used to make salsa, or pickled. Tomato juice is sold as a drink, and is used in cocktails such as the Bloody Mary.
A tomato is 95% water, contains 4% carbohydrates and less than 1% each of fat and protein (table). 100 g of raw tomatoes supply 18 kilocalories and are a moderate source of vitamin C (17% of the Daily Value), but otherwise have no significant nutrient content (table).
The Potato Tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella) is an oligophagous insect that prefers to feed on plants of the family Solanaceae such as tomato plants. Female P. operculella use the leaves to lay their eggs and the hatched larvae will eat away at the mesophyllof the leaf.
The town of Buñol, Spain, annually celebrates La Tomatina, a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. On 30 August 2007, 40,000 Spaniards gathered to throw 115,000 kg (254,000 lb) of tomatoes at each other in the festival. In Ontario, Canada, member of provincial parliament Mike Colle introduced a private member's bill in March 2016 to name the tomato as the official vegetable of the province and to designate 15 July as Tomato Day, in order to acknowledge the tomato's importance in Ontario's agriculture.The bill did not pass in the legislature and no official designations were made. Several US states have adopted the tomato as a state fruit or vegetable (see above). Tomatoes have been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law, citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. In 2009, the state of Ohio passed a law making the tom...Various heirloom tomato(UK: heritage tomato) cultivarsA variety of specific cultivars, including Brandywine (biggest red), Black Krim (lower left) and Green Zebra(top left)Red tomatoes with PLU codein a supermarket.
Leonardo da Vinci, properly named Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (Leonardo, son of ser Piero from Vinci), was born on 15 April 1452 in, or close to, the Tuscan hill town of Vinci; Florence was 20 miles away. He was born out of wedlock to Ser ...