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  1. Qian Chu - Wikipedia › wiki › Qian_Hongchu

    Qian Chu (September 29, 929 – October 7, 988, courtesy name Wende), known as Qian Hongchu before 960, was the last king of Wuyue, reigning from 947 until 978 when he surrendered his kingdom to the Song dynasty.

  2. Chinese characters - Wikipedia › wiki › Origins_of_Chinese_Characters

    Chinese characters are the oldest continuously used system of writing in the world. By virtue of their widespread current use in East Asia, and historic use throughout the Sinosphere, Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing ...

  3. Peking opera - Wikipedia › wiki › Ching-chu
    • Etymology
    • History
    • Performers and Roles
    • Training
    • Visual Performance Elements
    • Aural Performance Elements
    • Repertoire
    • Film
    • Peking-Opera Houses in Beijing
    • See Also

    "Peking opera" is the English term for the art form; the term entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 1953."Beijing opera" is a more recent equivalent. In China, the art form has been known by many names in different times and places. The earliest Chinese name, Pihuang, was a combination of the xipi and erhuang melodies. As it increased in popularity, its name became Jingju or Jingxi, which reflected its start in the capital city (Chinese: 京; pinyin: Jīng). From 1927 to 1949, when Beijing was known as Beiping, Peking opera was known as Pingxi or Pingju to reflect this change. Finally, with the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the name of the capital city was reverted to Beijing, and the formal name of this theatre in Mainland China was established as Jingju. The Taiwanese name for this type of opera, Guoju, or 'national drama', reflects disputesover the true seat of the Chinese government.


    Peking opera was born when the 'Four Great Anhui Troupes' brought Hui opera, or what is now called Huiju, in 1790 to Beijing, for the eightieth birthday of the Qianlong Emperor on 25 September. It was originally staged for the court and only made available to the public later. In 1828, several famous Hubei troupes arrived in Beijing and performed jointly with Anhui troupes. The combination gradually formed Peking opera's melodies. Peking opera is generally regarded as having fully formed by 1...

    Model "revolutionary opera" and Peking opera in Taiwan

    After the Chinese Civil War, Peking opera became a focal point of identity for both involved parties. When the Communist Party of China came to power in Mainland China in 1949, the newly formed government moved to bring art into line with Communist ideology, and "to make art and literature a component of the whole revolutionary machine". To this end, dramatic works without Communist themes were considered subversive, and were ultimately banned during the Cultural Revolution(1966–1976). The us...

    Modern Peking opera

    During the second half of the 20th century, Peking opera witnessed a steady decline in audience numbers. This has been attributed both to a decrease in performance quality and an inability of the traditional opera form to capture modern life. Furthermore, the archaic language of Peking opera required productions to use electronic subtitles, which hampered the development of the form. The influence of Western culture has also left the younger generations impatient with the slow pacing of Pekin...


    The Sheng (生) is the main male role in Beijing opera. This role has numerous subtypes. The laosheng is a dignified older role. These characters have a gentle and cultivated disposition and wear sensible costumes. One type of laosheng role is the hongsheng, a red-faced older male. The only two hongsheng roles are Guan Gong, the Chinese God of War, and Zhao Kuang-yin, the first Song Dynasty emperor. Young male characters are known as xiaosheng. These characters sing in a high, shrill voice with...


    The Dan (旦) refers to any female role in Beijing opera. Dan roles were originally divided into five subtypes. Old women were played by laodan, martial women were wudan, young female warriors were daomadan, virtuous and elite women were qingyi, and vivacious and unmarried women were huadan. One of Mei Lanfang's most important contributions to Beijing opera was in pioneering a sixth type of role, the huashan. This role type combines the status of the qingyi with the sensuality of the huadan. A...


    The Jing (净) is a painted face male role. Depending on the repertoire of the particular troupe, he will play either primary or secondary roles. This type of role will entail a forceful character, so a Jing must have a strong voice and be able to exaggerate gestures. Beijing opera boasts 16 basic facial patterns, but there are over 100 specific variations. The patterns and coloring are thought to be derived from traditional Chinese color symbolism and divination on the lines of a person's face...

    Becoming a Peking opera performer requires a long and arduous apprenticeship beginning from an early age.Before the 20th century, pupils were often handpicked at a young age by a teacher and trained for seven years on contract from the child's parents. Since the teacher fully provided for the pupil during this period, the student accrued a debt to his master that was later repaid through performance earnings. After 1911, training took place in more formally organized schools. Students at these schools rose as early as five o'clock in the morning for exercises. Daytime was spent learning the skills of acting and combat, and senior students performed in outside theatres in the evening. If they made any mistakes during such performances, the entire group was beaten with bamboo canes. Schools with less harsh training methods began to appear in 1930, but all schools were closed down in 1931 after the Japanese invasion. New schools were not opened until 1952. Performers are first trained...

    Peking-opera performers use four main skills. The first two are song and speech. The third is dance-acting. This includes pure dance, pantomime, and all other types of dance. The final skill is combat, which includes both acrobatics and fighting with all manner of weaponry. All of these skills are expected to be performed effortlessly, in keeping with the spirit of the art form.

    Vocal production

    Vocal production in Peking opera is conceived of as being composed of "four levels of song": songs with music, verse recitation, prose dialogue, and non-verbal vocalizations. The conception of a sliding scale of vocalization creates a sense of smooth continuity between songs and speech. The three basic categories of vocal production technique are the use of breath (yongqi), pronunciation (fayin), and special Peking-opera pronunciation (shangkouzi). In Chinese opera, breath is based in the pub...

    Stage speech

    Peking opera is performed using both Classical Chinese and Modern Standard Chinese with some slang terms added for color. The social position of the character being played determines the type of language that he or she uses. Peking opera features three major types of stage speech (nianbai). Monologues and dialogue, which make up the majority of most plays, consist of prose speeches. The purpose of prose speech is to advance the plot of the play or inject humor into a scene. They are usually s...


    There are six main types of song lyrics in Peking opera: emotive, condemnatory, narrative, descriptive, disputive, and "shared space separate sensations" lyrics. Each type uses the same basic lyrical structure, differing only in kind and degree of emotions portrayed. Lyrics are written in couplets (lian) consisting of two lines (ju). Couplets can consist of two ten character lines, or two seven character lines. The lines are further subdivided into three dou (lit. 'pause'), typically in a 3-3...

    The repertoire of Peking opera includes nearly 1,400 works. The plays are mostly taken from historical novels or traditional stories about civil, political and military struggles. Early plays were often adaptations from earlier Chinese theatre styles, such as kunqu. Nearly half of 272 plays listed in 1824 were derived from earlier styles. Many classification systems have been used to sort the plays. Two traditional methods have existed since Peking opera first appeared in China. The oldest and most generally used system is to sort plays into civil and martial types. Civil plays focus on the relationships between characters, and feature personal, domestic, and romantic situations. The element of singing is frequently used to express emotion in this type of play. Martial plays feature a greater emphasis on action and combat skill. The two types of play also feature different arrays of performers. Martial plays predominantly feature young sheng, jing, and chou, while civil plays have a...

    Peking opera and its stylistic devices have appeared in many Chinese films. It often was used to signify a unique "Chineseness" in contrast to sense of culture being presented in Japanese films. Fei Mu, a director of the pre-Communist era, used Peking opera in a number of plays, sometimes within Westernized, realistic plots. King Hu, a later Chinese film director, used many of the formal norms of Peking opera in his films, such as the parallelism between music, voice, and gesture. In the 1993 film Farewell My Concubine, by Chen Kaige, Peking opera serves as the object of pursuit for the protagonists and a backdrop for their romance. However, the film's portrayal of Peking opera has been criticized as one-dimensional. Chen returned to the subject again in 2008 with the Mei Lanfang biopic Forever Enthralled. Peking opera is also featured in Peking Opera Blues by Tsui Hark. A 1993 Western film that thematized Peking opera was M. Butterfly by David Cronenberg with Jeremy Irons and John...

    Fundamental to the performance and overall ambience of traditional Peking opera is the venue. There are many restored venues in Beijing dating from the late 17th century onwards, the opera stage at Prince Gong Mansion, Zhengyici-xi-lou and Huguang Guild Hall, being among them. However, modern venues for the general operatic and theatre stage are also common, such as the National Centre for the Performing Arts, and the Chang'an Grand Theatrelocated on the East Chang'an Avenue is an example of modern Peking opera theatre.

  4. Differences between Shinjitai and Simplified characters - Wikipedia › wiki › Differences_between_Shinjitai_and
    • List of Different Simplifications
    • Traditional Characters That May Cause Problems Displaying
    • Different Stroke Orders in Chinese and Japanese

    The old and new forms of the Kyōiku Kanji and their Hànzì equivalents are listed below. In the following lists, the characters are sorted by the radicals of the Japanese kanji. The two Kokuji働 and 畑 in the Kyōiku Kanji List, which have no Chinese equivalents, are not listed here; in Japanese, neither character was affected by the simplifications. Note that 弁 is used to simplify three different Traditional characters (辨, 瓣, and 辯) in Japan. 1. No simplificationin either language (The following characters were simplified neither in Japanese nor in Chinese.) 1. 一 丁 下 三 不 天 五 民 正 平 可 再 百 否 武 夏 中 内 出 本 世 申 由 史 冊 央 向 曲 印 州 表 果 半 必 永 求 九 丸 千 久 少 夫 午 失 末 未 包 年 危 后 兵 我 束 卵 承 垂 刷 重 省 看 勉 七 乳 才 予 事 二 元 亡 六 主 市 交 忘 夜 育 京 卒 商 率 就 人 化 今 仁 付 代 仕 他 令 以 合 全 任 休 件 仲 作 何 位 住 余 低 似 命 使 念 例 供 信 保 便 値 修 借 候 倍 俳 俵 健 停 働 像 先 入 八 分 公 共 弟 並 典 前 益 善 尊 同 周 次 兆 冷 弱 刀 切 別 判 制 券 刻 副 割 力 加 助 努 勇 勤 句 北 疑 十 古 孝 直 南 真 裁 博 上 反 灰 厚 原 台 能 友 収 口 司 右 兄 吸 告 君 味 呼 品 唱 器 四 回 因 困 固 土 去 地 在 寺 均 志 坂 幸 型 城 基 域 喜 境 士 冬 各 夕 外 名 多...

    Some of the traditional Kanji are not included in the Japanese font of Windows XP/2000, and only rectangles are shown. Downloading the Meiryo font from the Microsoft website (VistaFont_JPN.EXE) and installing it will solve this problem. Note that within the Jōyō Kanji there are 62 characters the old forms of which may cause problems displaying: Kyōiku Kanji (26): Grade 2 (2 Kanji): 海 社 Grade 3 (8 Kanji): 勉 暑 漢 神 福 練 者 都 Grade 4 (6 Kanji): 器 殺 祝 節 梅 類 Grade 5 (1 Kanji): 祖 Grade 6 (9 Kanji): 勤 穀 視 署 層 著 諸 難 朗 Secondary-School Kanji (36): 欄 廊 虜 隆 塚 祥 侮 僧 免 卑 喝 嘆 塀 墨 悔 慨 憎 懲 敏 既 煮 碑 祉 祈 禍 突 繁 臭 褐 謁 謹 賓 贈 逸 響 頻 These characters are Unicode CJK Unified Ideographs for which the old form (kyūjitai) and the new form (shinjitai) have been unified under the Unicode standard. Although the old and new forms are distinguished under the JIS X 0213 standard, the old forms map to Unicode CJK Compatibility Ideographs which are considered by Unicode to be canonically equivalent to the new forms and ma...

    Some characters, whether simplified or not, look the same in Chinese and Japanese, but have different stroke orders. For example, in Japan, 必 is written with the top dot first, while the Traditional stroke order writes the 丿 first. In the characters 王 and 玉, the vertical stroke is the third stroke in Chinese, but the second stroke in Japanese.Taiwan and Hong Kong use Traditional characters, though with an altered stroke order.

  5. Daniel Wong Kwok-tung - Wikipedia › wiki › Daniel_Wong_Kwok-tung

    Daniel Wong Kwok-tung (Chinese: 黃國桐; born 28 July 1949) is a Hong Kong lawyer and politician. He is a current member of the Kowloon City District Council for Prince constituency. Prior to that, he had been elected member of the Yau Tsim ...

    • Council abolished
    • ADPL (1990s), The Frontier (early 2000s), LSD (2006–10s)
  6. Wong Kwok-kin - Wikipedia › wiki › Wong_Kwok-kin

    Wong Kwok-kin, BBS (黃國健; Yale: Wòhng Gwok Gihn; born May 1952) is a member of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong representing the Kowloon East constituency, and a non-official member of the Executive Council of Hong Kong appointed by Carrie ...

  7. National Treasure (North Korea) - Wikipedia › wiki › National_Treasure_(North_Korea)

    ... but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. A National Treasure (국보; 國寶 : gugbo) is a tangible artifact, site, ...

  8. Hundred Family Surnames - Wikipedia › wiki › 100_Chinese_family_names

    Hundred Family Surnames. The Hundred Family Surnames ( Chinese: 百家姓 ), commonly known as Bai Jia Xing, also translated as Hundreds of Chinese Surnames, is a classic Chinese text composed of common Chinese surnames. The book was composed in ...

  9. Kyūjitai - Wikipedia › wiki › Kyūjitai
    • Jōyō Kanji
    • Jinmeiyō Kanji
    • Hyōgai Kanji
    • Kokuji

    In the 2,136 Jōyō Kanji(常用漢字), there are 364 pairs of simplified and traditional characters (for example, 亜 is the simplified form of 亞). Note that the kanji 弁 is used to simplify three different traditional kanji (辨, 瓣, and 辯).

    Kyūjitai vs. Shinjitai

    The Jinmeiyō Kanji List contains 212 traditional characters still used in names.The modern form (shinjitai), which appears in the Jōyō Kanji List, is given in parentheses. 1. 亞(亜) 惡(悪) 爲(為) 逸︁(逸) 榮(栄) 衞(衛) 謁︀(謁) 圓(円) 緣(縁) 薗(園) 應(応) 櫻(桜) 奧(奥) 橫(横) 溫(温) 價(価) 禍︀(禍) 悔︀(悔) 海︀(海) 壞(壊) 懷(懐) 樂(楽) 渴(渇) 卷(巻) 陷(陥) 寬(寛) 漢︀(漢) 氣(気) 祈︀(祈) 器︀(器) 僞(偽) 戲(戯) 虛(虚) 峽(峡) 狹(狭) 響︀(響) 曉(暁) 勤︀(勤) 謹︀(謹) 駈(駆) 勳(勲) 薰(薫) 惠(恵) 揭(掲) 鷄(鶏) 藝(芸) 擊(撃) 縣(県) 儉(倹) 劍(剣) 險(険) 圈(圏) 檢(検) 顯(顕) 驗(験) 嚴(厳) 廣(広) 恆(恒) 黃(黄) 國(国) 黑(黒) 穀︀(穀)...


    The Jinmeiyō Kanji List also contains 631 additional kanji that are not elements of the Jōyō Kanji List; 18 of them have a variant: 1. 亘(亙) 凜(凛) 尭(堯) 巌(巖) 晃(晄) 桧(檜) 槙(槇) 渚(渚︀) 猪(猪︀) 琢(琢︀) 祢(禰) 祐(祐︀) 祷(禱) 禄(祿) 禎(禎︀) 穣(穰) 萌(萠) 遥(遙)

    Former Jōyō Kanji still used as Jinmeiyō Kanji

    The following 5 kanji were removed from the Jōyō Kanji List in 2010, but were preserved as Jinmeiyō Kanji. They have no simplified form. 1. 勺 銑 脹 錘 匁 Note that 勺 and 匁 are kokuji.

    Hyōgai Kanji are kanji that are elements of neither the Jōyō Kanji List nor the Jinmeiyō Kanji List.In Hyōgai Kanji Jitaihyō(表外漢字字体表), traditional characters are recognized as printed standard style (印刷標準字体) while the simplified characters are recognized as simple conventional style (簡易慣用字体).Here are some examples of Hyōgai Kanji that have a simplified and a traditional form: 1. 唖(啞) 頴(穎) 鴎(鷗) 躯(軀) 撹(攪) 麹(麴) 鹸(鹼) 噛(嚙) 繍(繡) 蒋(蔣) 醤(醬) 掻(搔) 屏(屛) 并(幷) 沪(濾) 芦(蘆) 蝋(蠟) 弯(彎) 焔(焰) 砿(礦) 讃(讚) 顛(顚) 醗(醱) 溌(潑) 輌(輛) 繋(繫)

    Kokuji are characters that were created in Japan and were not taken over from China. Some of them, e.g. 腺, are now also used in Chinese, but most of them are unknown to the Chinese. Currently, there are no kokuji that have been simplified after their introduction.

  10. List of mountains in Korea - Wikipedia › wiki › Mountains_of_Korea

    List of mountains in North Korea Pyeongyang Taesongsan (대성산; 大 成 山) – 270 metres (890 ft) Chagang Province Namsan (남산; 南 山) – 539 metres (1,768 ft) Obongsan (오봉산; 五 峰 山) – 1,180 metres (3,870 ft) North Pyongan Province ...

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