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  1. Chantalle Ng - Wikipedia

    Chantalle Ng (born 17 June 1995),[1] is a Singaporean actress.

  2. Radical 72 - Wikipedia日

    ... the 34 Kangxi radicals (214 radicals in total) composed of 4 strokes. In the Kangxi Dictionary, there are 453 characters (out of 49,030) to be found under this radical.日 is also the 75th indexing component in the Table of Indexing Chinese ...

    • ㄖˋ
    • ryh
    • jih⁴
  3. Sakhalin Koreans - Wikipedia
    • Culture
    • Prominent Sakhalin Koreans
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Personal and family names

    Korean surnames, when Cyrillized, may be spelled slightly differently from the romanisations used in the US; the resulting common pronunciations also differ, as can be seen in the table at right. Furthermore, Korean naming practices and Russian naming practices conflict in several important ways. While most members of the older generations of Sakhalin Koreans used Korean names, members of the younger generations favor their Russian names. However, with the increasing exposure to South Korean...


    Due to their greater population density and expectation that they would one day be allowed to return to Korea, the Sakhalin Koreans have kept something of a sojourner mentality rather than a settler mentality, which influenced their relation to the surrounding society; even today, they tend to speak much better Korean than those who were deported to Central Asia. A weekly Korean language newspaper, the Saegoryeo Shinmun (새고려 신문), has been published since 1949, while Sakhalin Korean Broadcasti...


    Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, there has been significant growth in religious activities among the Sakhalin Koreans; the establishment of churches was noted in scholarly articles as early as 1990. Christian hymns have become popular listening material, supplementing the more typical Russian, Western, and Korean pop music. Korean churches also broadcast religious content through Sakhalin Korean Broadcasting; a Baptist church run by ethnic Koreans sponsors a journalist there. Howeve...

  4. Koryo-saram - Wikipedia
    • Autonym
    • Origins
    • Post-Deportation
    • Culture
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The word "Koryo" in "Koryo-saram" originated from the name of the Goryeo (Koryŏ) Dynasty from which "Korea" was also derived. The name Soviet Korean was also used, more frequently before the collapse of the Soviet Union. Russians may also lump Koryo-saram under the general label koreytsy (корейцы); however, this usage makes no distinctions between ethnic Koreans of the local nationality and the Korean nationals (citizens of North Korea or South Korea). In Standard Korean, the term "Koryo-saram" is typically used to refer to historical figures from the Goryeo dynasty; to avoid ambiguity, Korean speakers use a word Goryeoin (Korean: 고려인, Hanja: 高麗人, meaning the same as "Koryo-saram") to refer to ethnic Koreans in the post-Soviet states. However, the Sino-Korean morpheme "-in" (인) is not productive in Koryo-mal, the dialect spoken by Koryo-saram and as a result, only a few (mainly those who have studied Standard Korean) refer to themselves by this name; instead, "Koryo-saram" has come...

    Immigration to the Russian Far East and Siberia

    The early 19th century saw the decline of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. A small population of wealthy elite owned the farmlands in the country, and poor peasants found it difficult to survive. Koreans leaving the country in this period were obliged to move toward Russia, as the border with China was sealed by the Qing Dynasty. However, the first Koreans in the Russian Empire, 761 families totalling 5,310 people, had actually migrated to Qing territory; the land they had settled on was ceded to...

    Deportation to Central Asia

    In 1937, facing reports from the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) that there were possibilities that Japanese would have infiltrate the Russian Far East by means of ethnic Korean spies, Joseph Stalin and Vyacheslav Molotov signed Resolution 1428-326 ss, "On the Exile of the Korean Population from border Raions of the Far East Kray", on 21 August. According to the report of Nikolai Yezhov, 36,442 Korean families totalling 171,781 persons were deported by 25 October. The deport...

    Scholars estimated that, roughly 470,000 Koryo-saram were living in the Commonwealth of Independent States.

    After their arrival in Central Asia, the Koryo-saram quickly established a way of life different from that of neighbouring peoples. They set up irrigation works and became known throughout the region as rice farmers. They interacted little with the nomadic peoples around them, and focused on education. Although they soon ceased to wear traditional Korean clothing, they adapted Western-style dress rather than the clothing worn by the Central Asian peoples. The ritual life of the Koryo-saram community has changed in various respects. Marriages have taken on the Russian style. At Korean traditional funerals, the coffin is taken out of the house either through the window or a single door threshold; however, if there is more than one door threshold on the way out (e.g. in modern multi-stories buildings), three notches are made on each threshold. The name of the dead is traditionally written in hanja; however, as hardly anyone is left among the Koryo-saram who can write in hanja, the name...

    Alekseenko, Aleksandr Nikolaevich (2000). Республика в зеркале переписей населения [Republic in the Mirror of the Population Censuses] (PDF). Population and Society: Newsletter of the Centre for De...
    Back, Tae-Hyun (2004). "The social reality faced by ethnic Koreans in Central Asia". Korean and Korean American Studies Bulletin. 12 (2–3): 45–88.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
    Chang, Jon (February 2005). "Central Asia or Bust". KoreAm Journal. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 26 February 2009.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
    Dong, Xiaoyang; Su, Chang (August 2005), "Strategic Adjustments and Countermeasures against Extremist Forces of Central Asian Countries after 9/11", in Charles Hawkins; Robert Love (eds.), Proceedi...
    (in Russian) Association of Scientific and Technological Societies Koreans (ANTOK)
    (in Russian) CIS Koreans Information Web-Site of ARIRANG.RU
    (in Russian) Lib.Ru: the Koreans
    (in Russian) Tashkent Representation of the Institute of Asian Culture and Development (TP IAKR) — an Association of Koreans in Karakalpakstan.
  5. Vietnamese name - Wikipedia
    • Family Name
    • Middle Name
    • Given Name
    • Saints' Names
    • Near-Homonyms Distinguished by Vowel Or Tones
    • Indexing and Sorting in English
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The family name is positioned first and is passed on by the father to his children. It is estimated that there are around 100 family names in common use, but some are far more common than others. The name Nguyễn is estimated to be the most common (40%).The top three names are so common as people tended to take family names of emperors to show loyalty. Over many generations, family names became permanent. The most common family names among the Vietnamese are the following with their respective Chữ Quốc Ngữ which is commonly in use, and their corresponding Hán tự (Han Character).Altogether, these 14 names account for around 90% of the Vietnamese population (2005). 1. Nguyễn阮 (39%) 2. Trần陳 (11%) 3. Lê黎 (9.5%) 4. Phạm范 (7.1%) 5. Huỳnh-Hoàng黃 (5.1%) 6. Phan潘 (4.5%) 7. Vũ-Võ武 (3.9%) 8. Đặng鄧(2.1%) 9. Bùi裴 (2%) 10. Đỗ杜 (1.4%) 11. Hồ胡 (1.3%) 12. Ngô吳 (1.3%) 13. Dương楊 (1%) 14. Lý李 (0.5%) The following list includes less-common surnames in alphabetical order which make up the rest of the 10...

    Most Vietnamese have one middle name, but it is quite common to have two or more or to have no middle name at all. In the past, the middle name was selected by parents from a fairly narrow range of options. Almost all women had Thị (氏) as their middle name, and many men had Văn (文). More recently, a broader range of names has been used, and people named Thịsometimes omit their middle name. Thị is a most common female middle name, and most common amongst pre-1975 generation but less common amongst younger generations. Thị is an archaic Vietnamese word meaning woman. For example, "Trần Thị Mai Loan" is a person who has the given name "Mai Loan" and the surname "Trần". Altogether, the name means "Mai Loan, a female person of the Trần family." Some traditional male middle names may include Văn (文), Hữu (友), Đức (德), Thành (誠), Công (公), Minh (明), and Quang (光). The middle name can have several uses, with the fourth being most common nowadays: 1. To indicate a person's generation. Brothe...

    In most cases, the middle name is formally part of the given name. For example, the name "Đinh Quang Dũng" is separated into the surname "Đinh" and the given name "Quang Dũng". In a normal name list, those two parts of the full name are put in two different columns. However, in daily conversation, the last word in a given name with a title before it is used to address a person: "Ông Dũng", "Anh Dũng", etc., with "Ông" and "Anh" being words to address the person and depend on age, social position, etc. The given name is the primary form of address for Vietnamese. It is chosen by parents and usually has a literal meaning in the Vietnamese language. Names often represent beauty, such as bird or flower names, or attributes and characteristics that the parents want in their child, such as modesty (Khiêm, 謙). Typically, Vietnamese will be addressed with their given name, even in formal situations, although an honorific equivalent to "Mr.", "Mrs.", etc. will be added when necessary. That c...

    Vietnamese Catholics are given a saint's name at baptism (Vietnamese: tên thánh or tên rửa tội). Boys are given male saints' names, while girls are given female saints' names. This name appears first, before the family name, in formal religious contexts. Out of respect, clergy are usually referred to by saints' name. The saint's name also functions as a posthumous name, used instead of an individual's given name in prayers after their death. The most common saints' names are taken from the New Testament, such as Phêrô (Peter, or Pierre in French), Phaolô (Paul), Gioan (John), Maria (Mary), and Anna. Saints' names are respelled phonetically according to the Vietnamese alphabet. Some more well-known saints' names are derived further into names that sound more Vietnamese.

    Some names may appear the same if simplified into a basic ASCIIscript, as for example on websites, but are different names: 1. Emperor Lê Hiến Tông (Han Tu: 黎憲宗, 1461–1504), vs. emperor Lê Hiển Tông(黎顯宗, 1717–1786) 2. Trịnh Căn (鄭根, 1633–1709) reformist warlord, vs. Trịnh Cán(鄭檊, 1777–1782) infant heir of warlord Trịnh Sâm 3. Nguyễn Du (1765–1820) writer, vs. Nguyễn Dữ(c.1550) writer 4. Hoàng Tích Chu (1897–1933) journalist, vs.Hoàng Tích Chù(1912–2003) painter 5. Nguyễn Văn Tỵ (1917–1992) painter and poet, vs. Nguyễn Văn Tý(1925–2019), composer 6. Phan Thanh Hùng (1960) football manager, vs. Phan Thanh Hưng(1987), footballer 7. Nguyễn Bình (1906–1951), vs. Nguyễn Bính(1918–1966) 8. Nguyễn Văn Hưng (1958–) representative of the Vietnam National Assembly, vs. Nguyễn Văn Hùng(1980), martial artist, Typically, as in the above examples, it is middle or the last personal given name which varies, as almost any Sino-Vietnamese character may be used. The number of family names is limited. F...

    According to the English-language Chicago Manual of Style, Vietnamese names are indexed according to the given name, surname, then middle name, with a cross-reference placed in regards to the family name. Ngô Đình Diệm would be listed as "Diệm, Ngô Đình" and Võ Nguyên Giápwould be listed as "Giáp, Võ Nguyên". In Vietnamese, Vietnamese names are also typically sorted using the same order.

  6. List of South Korean surnames by prevalence - Wikipedia

    This List of South Korean surnames by prevalence ranks Korean family names by population and includes homophonous hanjas. Data are provided by the South Korean government and only include family names used by more than five people. (The North ...

  7. Hundred Family Surnames - Wikipedia
    • Form
    • Complete Text
    • Prevalence in Modern Times
    • See Also
    • References

    The work is a rhyming poem in lines of eight characters. The surnames are not listed in order of commonality. According to Song dynasty scholar Wang Mingqing (王明清), the first four surnames listed represent the most important families in the empire at the time: 1. 1st: Zhao (趙) is the surname of the Song dynastyemperors. 2. 2nd: Qian (錢) is the surname of the kings of Wuyue. 3. 3rd: Sun (孫) is the surname of the queen Sun Taizhen of Wuyue king Qian Chu. 4. 4th: Li (李) is the surname of the kings of Southern Tang. The next four, Zhou 周, Wu 吳, Zheng 鄭, and Wang 王, were the surnames of the other wives of Qian Chu, the last king of Wuyue.

    This text is written in Traditional Chinese. Note that several of these characters may link to the same article.

    Under 300th most common

    1. Yōng 雍 - 339th 2. 平 - Ping - 315 3. 米 316th 4. 湛 369th

    Under 400th most common

    The following surnames are not among the 400 most common surnames according to a 2013 study:

    Rawski, Evelyn Sakakida (1979). Education and Popular Literacy in Ch'ing China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08753-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

  8. ʼPhags-pa script - Wikipedia
    • Nomenclature
    • History
    • Syllable Formation
    • Typographic Forms
    • Letters
    • Unicode
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    ʼPhags-pa script: ꡏꡡꡃ ꡣꡡꡙ ꡐꡜꡞ mongxol tshi, "Mongolian script"; Mongolian: дөрвөлжин үсэг dörvöljin üseg, "square script"; Tibetan: ཧོར་ཡིག་གསར་པ་, Wylie: hor yig gsar ba"new Mongolian script"; Yuan dynasty Chinese: 蒙古新字; pinyin: měnggǔ xīnzì"new Mongolian script"; Modern Chinese: 八思巴文; pinyin: bāsībā wén"ʼPhags-pa script"

    During the Mongol Empire, the Mongols wanted a universal script to write down the languages of the people they subjugated. The Uyghur-based Mongolian alphabet is not a perfect fit for the Middle Mongol language, and it would be impractical to extend it to a language with a very different phonology like Chinese.[citation needed] Therefore, during the Yuan dynasty (c. 1269), Kublai Khan asked the Tibetan monk ʼPhags-pa to design a new alphabet for use by the whole empire. ʼPhags-pa extended his native Tibetan alphabet to encompass Mongol and Chinese, evidently Central Plains Mandarin. The resulting 38 letters have been known by several descriptive names, such as "square script" based on their shape, but today are primarily known as the ʼPhags-pa alphabet.[citation needed] Descending from Tibetan script it is part of the Brahmic family of scripts, which includes Devanagari and scripts used throughout Southeast Asia and Central Asia. It is unique among Brahmic scripts in that it is writ...

    Although it is an alphabet, phagspa is written like a syllabary or abugida, with letters forming a single syllable glued or 'ligated' together. Unlike the ancestral Tibetan script, all ʼPhags-pa letters are written in temporal order (that is, /CV/ is written in the order C–V for all vowels) and in-line (that is, the vowels are not diacritics). However, vowel letters retain distinct initial forms, and short /a/ is not written except initially, making ʼPhags-pa transitional between an abugida, a syllabary, and a full alphabet. The letters of a ʼPhags-pa syllable are linked together so that they form syllabic blocks.

    ʼPhags-pa was written in a variety of graphic forms. The standard form (top, at right) was blocky, but a "Tibetan" form (bottom) was even more so, consisting almost entirely of straight orthogonal lines and right angles. A "seal script" form (Chinese 蒙古篆字 měnggǔ zhuànzì "Mongolian Seal Script"), used for imperial seals and the like, was more elaborate, with squared sinusoidal lines and spirals.[citation needed] Korean records state that hangul was based on an "Old Seal Script" (古篆字), which may be ʼPhags-pa and a reference to its Chinese name 蒙古篆字 měnggǔ zhuànzì (see origin of hangul). However, it is the simpler standard form of ʼPhags-pa that is the closer graphic match to hangul.

    Basic Letters

    The following 41 are the basic ʼPhags-pa letters. Letters 1-30 and 35-38 are base consonants. The order of Letters 1-30 is the same as the traditional order of the thirty basic letters of the Tibetan script, to which they correspond. Letters 35-38 represent sounds that do not occur in Tibetan, and are either derived from an existing Tibetan base consonant (e.g. Letters 2 and 35 are both derived from the simple Tibetan letter KHA, but are graphically distinct from each other) or from a combina...

    Menggu Ziyun

    Following are the initials of the ʼPhags-pa script as presented in Menggu Ziyun. They are ordered according to the Chinese philological tradition of the 36 initials.[citation needed]

    ʼPhags-pa script was added to the UnicodeStandard in July 2006 with the release of version 5.0. The Unicode block for ʼPhags-pa is U+A840–U+A877:[citation needed] U+A856 ꡖ PHAGS-PA LETTER SMALL A is transliterated using U+A78F ꞏ LATIN LETTER SINOLOGICAL DOT from the Latin Extended-DUnicode block.

    Coblin, W. South (2006). A Handbook of ʼPhags-pa Chinese. ABC Dictionary Series. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-3000-7. Retrieved 24 April 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged param...
    Denlinger, Paul. B. (1963). Chinese in Hp'ags-pa Script. Retrieved 24 April 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
    Everding, Karl-Heinz (2006). Herrscherurkunden aus der Zeit des mongolischen Großreiches für tibetische Adelshäuser, Geistliche und Klöster. Teil 1: Diplomata Mongolica. Mittelmongolische Urkunden...
  9. List of most common surnames in Asia - Wikipedia

    ... surnames, they have Sanskrit origination. Tamils and Sri Lankan Moors have distinctive surnames for their own ethnicity. Many Sinhalese surnames end with Singhe (Sinhalese: සිංහයා meaning lion), such as Jayasinghe, Ranasinghe, Samarasinghe ...

  10. List of Korean surnames - Wikipedia

    This is a list of Korean surnames, in Hangul alphabetical order. Note: (S) denotes South Korea. (N) denotes North Korea. The most common Korean family name (particularly in South Korea) is Kim, followed by Lee and Park. These three family names ...

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