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  1. Priscilla Wong - Wikipedia
    • Early Life
    • Career
    • Personal Life

    Priscilla Wong was the second child of the five girls. Her father worked as a fish monger while her mother was a homemaker. She graduated from Pentecostal Lam Hon Kwongsecondary school in 2000. Wong later attended and graduated from Hong Kong Baptist University in 2003, majoring in communications and public relations. During university, Wong took an internship at i-Cableand was later offered a full-time job as a host when she graduated from university.


    Priscilla Wong was discovered while she was in Secondary School at the age of 17 by Sandy Yu who was then an artiste management exec and later became a top TVB drama production executive. Signed under management by Sundream Motion Pictures she did not fully start her career in the entertainment industry until after graduating from university. Wong worked as an anchor for travelogue programs and entertainment news reporter for i-Cable. She was dubbed as "Stephen Chow's personal host", due to h...


    In 2008, Wong starred opposite veteran actor Dicky Cheung in the 2008 film The Champions (Chinese: 奪標), and earned critical praise for her performance. In 2012, Wong signed with TVB as an actress. She made her television acting debut in the 2013 drama Reality Check and starred as the female lead in the costume drama Karma Rider. For her performances in the dramas Return of the Silver Tongue and Swipe Tap Love, Wong won the Most Improved Female Artisteaward at the 2014 TVB Anniversary Awards....

    In 2014, Wong started dating Madam Cutie On Duty co-actor Edwin Siu. The couple married in April 2018, in New Zealand. Wong became good friends with co-actresses Shiga Lin and Yoyo Chen when filming the melodrama Life After Death.

    • 2003–present
    • Wong Tsui-yu, 23 October 1981 (age 39), British Hong Kong
  2. Radical 38 - Wikipedia
    • Evolution
    • Controversies Over Sexism
    • Literature

    Some feminists have claimed that many Chinese characters under radical woman are pejorative, 奴 (slave), 妖 (demon), 妒 (JP: 妬, envy), 姦 (Simp.: 奸, rape, traitor), 嫌 (dislike) for example, and learning and using them may unconsciously lead to misogyny.Some have even proposed a reform of these characters. In 2010, a mainland Chinese male lawyer posted an essay online, in which he criticized 16 Chinese characters for their sexist implication. The 16 characters were 娱 (娛, entertainment), 耍 (to play with, usually classified under radical 126 而), 婪 (greedy), 嫉 (envy), 妒 (envy), 嫌 (dislike), 佞 (flattery), 妄 (presumptuous), 妖 (demon), 奴 (slave), 妓 (prostitute), 娼 (whore), 奸 (姦, rape, traitor), 姘 (extramarital sex), 婊 (bitch), and 嫖 (to visit prostitutes). He also proposed a reform of some characters, e.g. replace 奸 with a newly created Chinese character "犭行" (犭: dog, usually associated with monsters or uncivilized actions. 行: behaviors. The proposed character therefore implies rape is a monst...

    Fazzioli, Edoardo (1987). Chinese calligraphy : from pictograph to ideogram : the history of 214 essential Chinese/Japanese characters. calligraphy by Rebecca Hon Ko. New York, 1987: Abbeville Pres...
    Lunde, Ken (Jan 5, 2009). "Appendix J: Japanese Character Sets" (PDF). CJKV Information Processing: Chinese, Japanese, Korean & Vietnamese Computing (Second ed.). Sebastopol, Calif.: O'Reilly Media...
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  3. Radical (Chinese characters) - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Shape and Position Within Characters
    • Dictionary Lookup
    • See Also
    • References
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    In the earliest Chinese dictionaries, such as the Erya (3rd century BC), characters were grouped together in broad semantic categories.Because the vast majority of characters are phono-semantic compounds (形聲字), combining a semantic component with a phonetic component, each semantic component tended to recur within a particular section of the dictionary. In the 2nd century AD, the Han dynasty scholar Xu Shen organized his etymological dictionary Shuowen Jiezi by selecting 540 recurring graphic elements he called bù (部 , "categories"). Most were common semantic components, but they also included shared graphic elements such as a dot or horizontal stroke. Some were even artificially extracted groups of strokes, termed "glyphs" by Serruys (1984, p. 657), which never had an independent existence other than being listed in Shuowen. Each character was listed under only one element, which is then referred to as the radical for that character. For example, characters containing 女 nǚ "female"...

    Radicals may appear in any position in a character. For example, 女 appears on the left side in the characters 姐, 媽, 她, 好 and 姓, but it appears at the bottom in 妾. However, there are two radicals that have the shape 阝, but are indexed as different radicals depending on where they appear. When used with the abbreviated radical form of 邑 yì "city" it gives 都 dū "metropolis", also read as dōu "all-city" it appears on the right, but when used with the abbreviated radical form of 阜 fù "mound, hill" (as in 陸 lù "land") it appears on the left. However, there are regularities in the positioning next to ("within") most characters, depending on function: semantic components tend to appear on the top or on the left side of the character; similarly, phonetic components tend to appear on the right side of the character or at its bottom.These are loose rules, though, and exceptions are plenty. Sometimes, the radical may span more than one side, as in 園 = 囗 "enclosure" + 袁, or 街 = 行 "go, movement"...

    Many dictionaries support using radical classification to index and lookup characters, although many present-day dictionaries supplement it with other methods as well. For example, modern dictionaries in PRC usually use the Pinyin transcription of a character to perform character lookup. Following the "section-header-and-stroke-count" method of Mei Yingzuo, characters are listed by their radical and then ordered by the number of strokes needed to write them. The steps involved in looking up a character are: 1. Identify the radical under which the character is most likely to have been indexed. If one does not know, then the component on the left side or top is often a good first guess. 2. Find the section of the dictionary associated with that radical. 3. Count the number of strokes in the remaining portion of the character. 4. Find the pages listing characters under that radical that have that number of additional strokes. 5. Find the appropriate entry or experiment with different c...

    Works cited

    1. Boltz, William (1994), The origin and early development of the Chinese writing system, American Oriental Society, ISBN 978-0-940490-78-9.(revised 2003) 2. Norman, Jerry (1988), Chinese, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29653-3. 3. Qiu, Xigui (2000), Chinese writing, trans. by Gilbert L. Mattos and Jerry Norman, Berkeley: Society for the Study of Early China and The Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, ISBN 978-1-55729-071-7. (English translation o...

    Luó Zhènyù (羅振玉) 1958. 增訂殷墟書契考釋 (revised and enlarged edition on the interpretation of oracle bone inscriptions). Taipei: Yiwen Publishing (cited in Wu 1990).
    Serruys, Paul L-M. (1984) "On the System of the Pu Shou 部首 in the Shuo-wen chieh-tzu 說文解字", in 中央研究院歷史語言研究所集刊 Zhōngyāng Yánjiūyuàn Lìshǐ Yǔyán Yánjiūsuǒ Jíkān, v. 55:4, pp. 651–754.
    Xu Shen Shuōwén Jǐezì (說文解字), is most often accessed in annotated versions, the most famous of which is Duan Yucai (1815). 說文解字注 Shuōwén Jǐezì Zhù (commentary on the Shuōwén Jíezì), compiled 1776–1...
  4. Huang Haibo (actor) - Wikipedia
    • Early Life and Education
    • Acting Career
    • Personal Life
    • External Links

    Huang was born into a military family in Jizhou District of Tianjin, on November 25, 1975. In 1997 he was accepted to Beijing Film Academy, where he majored in acting.

    Huang's first film role was uncredited appearance in the film Young Prisoners of War (1989). In the following year, he appeared in The Meridian of War, directed by Feng Xiaoning. In 1992, Huang made his television debut in the historical television series Beiyang Fleet, portraying young Lin Taizeng. The series starring Chen Baoguo, Chen Daoming, Ge Youand directed by Feng Xiaoning. During his junior year, he got a small role in The Years of Intense Emotion (2001), a romance television drama starring Sun Haiying and Lü Liping. Huang's breakthrough role came when he played Yu Xiaobei in the 2001 film The Dream of A Young Soldier, which garnered him a Best Newcomer Award at the 9th Beijing College Student Film Festival, an Outstanding New Actor Award at the 8th Huabiao Awards and a Golden Phoenix Award. In 2003, he had a cameo appearance in Let Us Remember, a film starring He Bing, Guo Donglin, Xu Fan, Huang Hong, Cai Ming, Li Mingqi, and Li Xiaolu. That same year, he also participated...

    In 2014 Huang married actress Qu Shanshan in Los Angeles, California, United States, their son was born on August 6, 2015 in Beijing.

    Huang Haibo at IMDb
    Huang Haibo on Sina Weibo (in Chinese)
  5. Crystal - Wikipedia
    • Crystal Structure
    • Crystal Faces and Shapes
    • Occurrence in Nature
    • Polymorphism and Allotropy
    • Crystallization
    • Defects, Impurities, and Twinning
    • Chemical Bonds
    • Quasicrystals
    • Special Properties from Anisotropy
    • Crystallography

    The scientific definition of a "crystal" is based on the microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it, called the crystal structure. A crystal is a solid where the atoms form a periodic arrangement. (Quasicrystals are an exception, see below). Not all solids are crystals. For example, when liquid water starts freezing, the phase change begins with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline structure. In the final block of ice, each of the small crystals (called "crystallites" or "grains") is a true crystal with a periodic arrangement of atoms, but the whole polycrystal does not have a periodic arrangement of atoms, because the periodic pattern is broken at the grain boundaries. Most macroscopic inorganic solids are polycrystalline, including almost all metals, ceramics, ice, rocks, etc. Solids that are neither crystalline nor polycrystalline, such as glass, are called amorphous solids, also called glassy, vitreous, or noncrystalline. These have no periodic...

    Crystals are commonly recognized by their shape, consisting of flat faces with sharp angles. These shape characteristics are not necessaryfor a crystal—a crystal is scientifically defined by its microscopic atomic arrangement, not its macroscopic shape—but the characteristic macroscopic shape is often present and easy to see. Euhedral crystals are those with obvious, well-formed flat faces. Anhedralcrystals do not, usually because the crystal is one grain in a polycrystalline solid. The flat faces (also called facets) of a euhedral crystal are oriented in a specific way relative to the underlying atomic arrangement of the crystal: they are planes of relatively low Miller index. This occurs because some surface orientations are more stable than others (lower surface energy). As a crystal grows, new atoms attach easily to the rougher and less stable parts of the surface, but less easily to the flat, stable surfaces. Therefore, the flat surfaces tend to grow larger and smoother, until...


    By volume and weight, the largest concentrations of crystals in the Earth are part of its solid bedrock. Crystals found in rocks typically range in size from a fraction of a millimetre to several centimetres across, although exceptionally large crystals are occasionally found. As of 1999[update], the world's largest known naturally occurring crystal is a crystal of beryl from Malakialina, Madagascar, 18 m (59 ft) long and 3.5 m (11 ft) in diameter, and weighing 380,000 kg (840,000 lb). Some c...


    Water-based ice in the form of snow, sea ice, and glaciers are common crystalline/polycrystalline structures on Earth and other planets. A single snowflake is a single crystal or a collection of crystals, while an ice cube is a polycrystal.

    Organigenic crystals

    Many living organisms are able to produce crystals, for example calcite and aragonite in the case of most molluscs or hydroxylapatite in the case of vertebrates.

    The same group of atoms can often solidify in many different ways. Polymorphism is the ability of a solid to exist in more than one crystal form. For example, water ice is ordinarily found in the hexagonal form Ice Ih, but can also exist as the cubic Ice Ic, the rhombohedral ice II, and many other forms. The different polymorphs are usually called different phases. In addition, the same atoms may be able to form noncrystalline phases. For example, water can also form amorphous ice, while SiO2 can form both fused silica (an amorphous glass) and quartz(a crystal). Likewise, if a substance can form crystals, it can also form polycrystals. For pure chemical elements, polymorphism is known as allotropy. For example, diamond and graphite are two crystalline forms of carbon, while amorphous carbonis a noncrystalline form. Polymorphs, despite having the same atoms, may have wildly different properties. For example, diamond is among the hardest substances known, while graphite is so soft tha...

    Crystallization is the process of forming a crystalline structure from a fluid or from materials dissolved in a fluid. (More rarely, crystals may be deposited directly from gas; see thin-film deposition and epitaxy.) Crystallization is a complex and extensively-studied field, because depending on the conditions, a single fluid can solidify into many different possible forms. It can form a single crystal, perhaps with various possible phases, stoichiometries, impurities, defects, and habits. Or, it can form a polycrystal, with various possibilities for the size, arrangement, orientation, and phase of its grains. The final form of the solid is determined by the conditions under which the fluid is being solidified, such as the chemistry of the fluid, the ambient pressure, the temperature, and the speed with which all these parameters are changing. Specific industrial techniques to produce large single crystals (called boules) include the Czochralski process and the Bridgman technique....

    An ideal crystal has every atom in a perfect, exactly repeating pattern. However, in reality, most crystalline materials have a variety of crystallographic defects, places where the crystal's pattern is interrupted. The types and structures of these defects may have a profound effect on the properties of the materials. A few examples of crystallographic defects include vacancy defects (an empty space where an atom should fit), interstitial defects (an extra atom squeezed in where it does not fit), and dislocations (see figure at right). Dislocations are especially important in materials science, because they help determine the mechanical strength of materials. Another common type of crystallographic defect is an impurity, meaning that the "wrong" type of atom is present in a crystal. For example, a perfect crystal of diamond would only contain carbon atoms, but a real crystal might perhaps contain a few boron atoms as well. These boron impurities change the diamond's color to slight...

    In general, solids can be held together by various types of chemical bonds, such as metallic bonds, ionic bonds, covalent bonds, van der Waals bonds, and others. None of these are necessarily crystalline or non-crystalline. However, there are some general trends as follows. Metals are almost always polycrystalline, though there are exceptions like amorphous metal and single-crystal metals. The latter are grown synthetically. (A microscopically-small piece of metal may naturally form into a single crystal, but larger pieces generally do not.) Ionic compound materials are usually crystalline or polycrystalline. In practice, large salt crystals can be created by solidification of a molten fluid, or by crystallization out of a solution. Covalently bonded solids (sometimes called covalent network solids) are also very common, notable examples being diamond and quartz. Weak van der Waals forces also help hold together certain crystals, such as crystalline molecular solids, as well as the...

    A quasicrystal consists of arrays of atoms that are ordered but not strictly periodic. They have many attributes in common with ordinary crystals, such as displaying a discrete pattern in x-ray diffraction, and the ability to form shapes with smooth, flat faces. Quasicrystals are most famous for their ability to show five-fold symmetry, which is impossible for an ordinary periodic crystal (see crystallographic restriction theorem). The International Union of Crystallography has redefined the term "crystal" to include both ordinary periodic crystals and quasicrystals ("any solid having an essentially discrete diffraction diagram"). Quasicrystals, first discovered in 1982, are quite rare in practice. Only about 100 solids are known to form quasicrystals, compared to about 400,000 periodic crystals known in 2004. The 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Dan Shechtmanfor the discovery of quasicrystals.

    Crystals can have certain special electrical, optical, and mechanical properties that glass and polycrystals normally cannot. These properties are related to the anisotropy of the crystal, i.e. the lack of rotational symmetry in its atomic arrangement. One such property is the piezoelectric effect, where a voltage across the crystal can shrink or stretch it. Another is birefringence, where a double image appears when looking through a crystal. Moreover, various properties of a crystal, including electrical conductivity, electrical permittivity, and Young's modulus, may be different in different directions in a crystal. For example, graphitecrystals consist of a stack of sheets, and although each individual sheet is mechanically very strong, the sheets are rather loosely bound to each other. Therefore, the mechanical strength of the material is quite different depending on the direction of stress. Not all crystals have all of these properties. Conversely, these properties are not qui...

    Crystallography is the science of measuring the crystal structure (in other words, the atomic arrangement) of a crystal. One widely used crystallography technique is X-ray diffraction. Large numbers of known crystal structures are stored in crystallographic databases.