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  1. International Networks (country code) - Wikipedia › wiki › International_Networks_(country_code)

    International Networks is the name given by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to country calling codes +882 and +883, and serves as a catch-all for telephone services not dedicated to a single country. Satellite telephone ...

  2. SSR1 - Wikipedia › wiki › SSR1

    Translocon-associated protein subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSR1 gene.[5] The signal sequence receptor (SSR) is a glycosylated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane receptor associated with protein translocation ...

    • SSR1, TRAPA, signal sequence receptor subunit 1
  3. Papaver somniferum - Wikipedia › wiki › Papaver_somniferum
    • Description
    • Distribution
    • History
    • Metabolism
    • Uses
    • Market
    • Cultivation
    • Diseases
    • Restrictions
    • Bibliography

    Papaver somniferum is an annual herb growing to about 100 cm (40 in) tall. The plant is strongly glaucous, giving a greyish-green appearance, and the stem and leaves bear a sparse distribution of coarse hairs. The large leaves are lobed, the upper stem leaves clasping the stem, the lowest leaves with a short petiole.:40 The flowers are up to 30–100 mm (1–4 in) diameter, normally with four white, mauve or red petals, sometimes with dark markings at the base. The fruit is a hairless, rounded capsule topped with 12–18 radiating stigmatic rays, or fluted cap. All parts of the plant exude white latex when wounded.:93:32 In Australia, plant density for optimal cultivation is about 800,000 per hectare. Papaver somniferum was formally described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in his seminal publication Species Plantarumin 1753 on page 508.

    The native range of opium poppy is probably the Eastern Mediterranean, but extensive cultivation and introduction of the species throughout Europe since ancient times have obscured its origin. It has escaped from cultivation, or has been introduced and become naturalized extensively in all regions of the British Isles, particularly in the south and eastand in almost all other countries of the world with suitable, temperate climates.

    Use of the opium poppy predates written history. The making and use of opium was known to the ancient Minoans. Its sap was later named opion by the ancient Greeks, from where it gained its modern name of opium. Evidence of the early domestication of opium poppy has been discovered through small botanical remains found in regions of the Mediterranean and west of the Rhine, predating circa 5000 BCE.These samples found in various Neolithic sites show the incredibly early cultivation and natural spread of the plant throughout western Europe. Opium was used for treating asthma, stomach illnesses, and bad eyesight. Opium became a major colonial commodity, moving legally and illegally through trade networks on the Indian subcontinent, Colonial America, Qing China and others. Members of the East India Company saw the opium trade as an investment opportunity beginning in 1683. In 1773, the Governor of Bengal established a monopoly on the production of Bengal opium, on behalf of the East Indi...

    The alkaloids are organic nitrogenous compounds, derivatives of secondary metabolism, synthesized through the metabolic pathway of benzylisoquinoline. First, the amino acid phenylalanine, through the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, is transformed into tyrosine. Tyrosine can follow two different routes: by tyrosine hydroxylase it can form L-dopamine(L-DOPA), or it can be reduced to form 4-phenylhydroxyacetaldehyde (4-HPAA). Subsequently, L-DOPA reacts with 4-HPAA and, through a series of reactions, forms (S) -norcoclaurine, which carries the benzylisoquinoline skeleton that gives its name to this pathway. The conversion of (S) -norcoclaurin to (S) -reticulin is one of the key points, since from (S) -reticulin morphine can be formed through the morphinan route, noscapine through the path of the noscapina or berberina.

    Poppy seeds and oil

    Poppy seeds from Papaver somniferum are an important food item and the source of poppyseed oil, an edible oil that has many uses. The seeds contain very low levels of opiates and the oil extracted from them contains even less.Both the oil and the seed residue also have commercial uses. The poppy press cake as a residue of the oil pressing can be used as fodder for different animals as e.g., poultry and fancy fowls. Especially in the time of the molt of the birds, the cake is nutritive and fit...


    The opium poppy, as its name indicates, is the principal source of opium, the dried latex produced by the seed pods. Opium contains a class of naturally occurring alkaloids known as opiates, that include morphine, codeine, thebaine, oripavine, papaverine and noscapine. The specific epithet somniferum means "sleep-bringing", referring to the sedativeproperties of some of these opiates. The opiate drugs are extracted from opium. The latex oozes from incisions made on the green seed pods and is...

    Ornamental cultivation

    Live plants and seeds of the opium poppy are widely sold by seed companies and nurseries in most of the western world, including the United States. Poppies are sought after by gardeners for the vivid coloration of the blooms, the hardiness and reliability of the poppy plants, the exotic chocolate-vegetal fragrance note of some cultivars,[which?]and the ease of growing the plants from purchased flats of seedlings or by direct sowing of the seed. Poppy seed pods are also sold for dried flower a...


    In 2018, world production of poppy seeds for consumption was 76,240 tonnes, led by the Turkey with 35% of the world total (table). Poppy seed production and trade are susceptible to fluctuations mainly due to unstable yields. The performance of most genotypes of "Papaver somniferum" is very susceptible to environmental changes This behaviour led to a stagnation of the poppy seed market value between 2008–2009 as a consequence of high stock levels, bad weather and poor quality. The world leadi...


    Australia (Tasmania), Turkey and India are the major producers of poppy for medicinal purposes and poppy-based drugs, such as morphine or codeine. The New York Times reported, in 2014, that Tasmania was the largest producer of the poppy cultivars used for thebaine (85% of the world's supply) and oripavine(100% of the world's supply) production. Tasmania also had 25% of the world's opium and codeine production.

    In the growth development of Papaver somniferum six stages can be distinguished. The growth development starts with the growth of the seedlings. In a second step the rosette-type leaves and stalks are formed. After that budding (hook stage) takes place as a third step. The hook stage is followed by flowering. Subsequently, technical maturity is reached, which means that the plant is ready for cutting. The last step is biological maturity; dry seeds are ripened. The photoperiod seems to be the main determinant of flower development of Papaver somniferum. Papaver somniferum shows a very slow development in the beginning of its vegetation period. Due to this fact the competition of weeds is very high in early stages. It is very important to control weeds effectively in the first 50 days after sowing. Additionally Papaver somniferum is rather susceptible to herbicides. The pre-emergence application of the herbicide chlortoluron has been shown to be effective in reducing weed levels. How...

    Papaver somniferum is susceptible to several fungal, insect and virus infections including seed borne diseases such as downy mildew and root rot. The use of pesticides in combination to cultural methodshave been considered as major control measures for various poppy diseases. The fungal pathogen Peronospora arborescensis, the causal agent of downy mildew, occurs preferentially during wet and humid conditions. This oomycete penetrates the roots through oospores and infects the leaves as conidia in a secondary infection. The fungus causes hypertrophy and curvature of the stem and flower stalks. The symptoms are chlorosis and curling of the affected tissues with necrotic spots. The leaf under-surface is covered with a downy mildew coating containing conidiospores that spread the infection further leading to plant damage and death. Another downy mildew species, Peronospora somniferi, produces systemic infections leading to stunting and deformation of poppy plants.Downy mildew can be con...

    In most of Central Europe, poppyseed is commonly used for traditional pastries and cakes, and it is legal to grow poppies throughout the region, although Germany requires a license. Since January 1999 in the Czech Republic, according to the 167/1998 Sb. Addictive Substances Act, poppies growing in fields larger than 100 square metres (120 sq yd) is obliged for reporting to the local Custom Office. Extraction of opium from the plants is prohibited by law (§ 15 letter d/ of the act). It is also prohibited to grow varieties with more than 0.8% of morphine in dry matter of their capsules, excluding research and experimental purposes (§24/1b/ of the act). The name Czech blue poppy refers to blue poppy seeds used for food.[citation needed] The United Kingdom does not require a license for opium poppy cultivation, but does for extracting opium for medicinal products. In the United States, opium poppies and poppy straw are prohibited. As the opium poppy is legal for culinary or esthetic rea...

  4. Lactobacillus - Wikipedia › wiki › Lactobaccillus
    • Metabolism
    • Genomes
    • Taxonomy
    • Phylogeny
    • Human Health
    • Food Production
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Lactobacilli are homofermentative, i.e. hexoses are metabolised by glycolysis to lactate as major end product, or heterofermentative, i.e. hexoses are metabolised by the Phosphoketolase pathway to lactate, CO2 and acetate or ethanol as major end products. Most lactobacilli are aerotolerant and some species respire if heme and menaquinone are present in the growth medium. Aerotolerance of lactobacilli is manganese-dependent and has been explored (and explained) in Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (previously Lactobacillus plantarum). Lactobacilli generally do not require ironfor growth. The Lactobacillaceae are the only family of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that includes homofermentative and heterofermentative organisms; in the Lactobacillaceae, homofermentative or heterofermentative metabolism is shared by all strains of a genus. Lactobacillus species are all homofermentative, do not express pyruvate formate lyase, and most species do not ferment pentoses. In L. crispatus, pentose m...

    The genomes of lactobacilli are highly variable, ranging in size from 1.2 to 4.9 Mb (megabases). Accordingly, the number of protein-coding genes ranges from 1,267 to about 4,758 genes (in Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Lentilactobacillus parakefiri, respectively). Even within a single species there can be substantial variation. For instance, strains of L. crispatus have genome sizes ranging from 1.83 to 2.7 Mb, or 1,839 to 2,688 open reading frames. Lactobacillus contains a wealth of compound microsatellites in the coding region of the genome, which are imperfect and have variant motifs.Many lactobacilli also contain multiple plasmids. A recent study has revealed that plasmids encode the genes which are required for adaptation of lactobacilli to the given environment.

    The genus Lactobacillus currently contains 44 species which are adapted to vertebrate hosts or to insects. In recent years, other members of the genus Lactobacillus (formerly known as the Leuconostoc branch of Lactobacillus) have been reclassified into the genera Atopobium, Carnobacterium, Weissella, Oenococcus, and Leuconostoc. The Pediococcus species P. dextrinicus has been reclassified as a Lapidilactobacillus dextrinicus and most lactobacilli were assigned to Paralactobacillus or one of the 23 novel genera of the Lactobacillaceae. Two websites inform on the assignment of species to the novel genera or species (;

    The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclatureand the phylogeny is based on whole-genome sequences.

    Vaginal tract

    The female genital tract is one of the principal colonisation sites for human microbiotic, and there is interest in the relationship between the composition of these bacteria and human health, with a domination by a single species being correlated with general welfare and good outcomes in pregnancy. In around 70% of women, a Lactobacillusspecies is dominant, although that has been found to vary between American women of European origin and those of African origin, the latter group tending to...

    Interactions with other pathogens

    Lactobacilli produce hydrogen peroxide which inhibits the growth and virulence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies have also shown that lactobacilli reduce the pathogenicity of C. albicans through the production of organic acids and certain metabolites. Both the presence of metabolites, such as sodium butyrate, and the decrease in environmental pH caused by the organic acids reduce the growth of hyphae in C. albicans, which reduces its pathogenicity....


    Fermentive bacteria like lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce hydrogen peroxide which protects themselves from oxygen toxicity. The accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in growth media, and its antagonistic effects on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas, have been demonstrated by researchers. LAB cultures have been used as starter cultures to create fermented foods since the beginning of the 20th century. Elie Metchnikoffwon a Nobel prize in 1908 for his work on LAB. Lactobacilli administered in...

    Lactobacilli comprise most food fermenting lactic acid bacteria and are used as starter cultures in industry for controlled fermentation in the production of wine, yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, pickles, beer, cider, kimchi, cocoa, kefir, and other fermented foods, as well as animal feeds and the bokashi soil amendment. Lactobacillus species are dominant in yoghurt, cheese, and sourdough fermentations.The antibacterial and antifungal activity of lactobacilli relies on production of bacteriocins and low molecular weight compounds that inhibits these microorganisms. Sourdough bread is made either spontaneously, by taking advantage of the bacteria naturally present in flour, or by using a "starter culture", which is a symbiotic culture of yeast and lactic acid bacteria growing in a water and flour medium.The bacteria metabolize sugars into lactic acid, which lowers the pH of their environment, creating a signature "sourness" associated with yogurt, sauerkraut, etc. In many traditional pic...

    Data related to Lactobacillusat Wikispecies
    Lactobacillus at BacDive- the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase
  5. Biswarup Mukhopadhyaya - Wikipedia › wiki › Biswarup_Mukhopadhyaya
    • Biography
    • Selected Bibliography
    • See Also

    Mukhopadhyaya, who secured his PhD from the Rajabazar Science College campus of Calcutta University, has done reportedly notable work on neutrino mass and is known to have been successful in theorizing that gauge boson fusion as the dominant mode of supersymmetric particle production. He has delivered invited lectures at a number of conferences and was a member of the national organizing committees of the International Conference on particles, Strings and Cosmology (PASCOS), held in Mumbai in 2003 as well as the XXI DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics Symposium held in 2014. His studies have been documented by way of a number of articles[note 2] and ResearchGate , an online article repository of scientific articles, has listed 184 of them. He has also edited one book, Physics at the Large Hadron Collider, along with Amitava Datta and Amitava Raychaudhuriand has contributed chapters to books edited by others.


    1. Amitava Datta; B. Mukhopadhyaya; A. Raychaudhuri (30 May 2010). Physics at the Large Hadron Collider. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-81-8489-295-6.


    1. Rathin Adikari; Biswarup Mukhopadhyaya (30 November 1996). "Some Signals for a Light Neutralino". In K E Lassila; J Qiu; A Sommerer; G Valencia; K Whisnant; B-L Young (eds.). Particle Theory and Phenomenology: Proceedings of XVII International Kazimierz Meeting on Particle Physics and of the Madison Phenomenology Symposium. World Scientific. pp. 255–. ISBN 978-981-4547-00-0.


    1. Biswarup Mukhopadhyaya (2003). "Supersymmetry and neutrino mass". Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy: 18. arXiv:hep-ph/0301278. 2. Nabarun Chakrabarty; Dilip Kumar Ghosh; Biswarup Mukhopadhyaya; Ipsita Saha (2015). "Dark matter, neutrino masses and high scale validity of an inert Higgs doublet model". Phys. Rev. D. 92 (1): 015002. arXiv:1501.03700. Bibcode:2015PhRvD..92a5002C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.92.015002. 3. Siddharth Dwivedi; Dilip Kumar Gho...

  6. Bharal - Wikipedia › wiki › Pseudois_schaeferi
    • Description
    • Taxonomy and Evolution
    • Behaviour and Ecology
    • Threats
    • Relationship with Humans
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    These medium-sized caprids are 115 to 165 cm (45 to 65 in) long along the head-and-body, with a tail of 10 to 20 cm (3.9 to 7.9 in). They stand 69 to 91 cm (27 to 36 in) high at the shoulder. Body mass can range from 35 to 75 kg (77 to 165 lb). Males are slightly larger than females. Dense coat is slate grey in colour, sometimes with a bluish sheen. The underparts and backs of the legs are white, while the chest and fronts of the legs are black. Separating the grey back and white belly is a charcoal-colored stripe. The ears are small, and the bridge of the nose is dark. The horns are found in both sexes and are ridged on the upper surface. In males, they grow upwards, then turn sideways and curve backward, looking somewhat like an upside-down mustache. They may grow to a length of 80 cm (31 in). In females, the horns are much shorter and straighter, growing up to 20 cm (7.9 in) long.

    Chinese blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis
    Himalayan blue sheep, P. n. nayaur
    Helan Shan blue sheep, P. n.ssp.

    Bharal are active throughout the day, alternating between feeding and resting on the grassy mountain slopes. Due to their excellent camouflage and the absence of cover in their environment, bharal remain motionless when approached. Once they have been noticed, however, they scamper up to the precipitous cliffs, where they once again freeze, using camouflage to blend into the rock face. Population densities in Nepal were found to be 0.9–2.7 animals per km2, increasing to a maximum of 10 animals in the winter, as herds congregate in valleys.Bharal are mainly grazers, but during times of scarcity of grass, they switch to browsers, eating herbs and shrubs. A high degree of diet overlap between livestock (especially donkeys) and bharal, together with density-dependent forage limitation, results in resource competition and a decline in bharal density. Where they overlap, they are the favored prey of snow leopards, Himalayan wolves, and leopards, with a few lambs falling prey to foxes or e...

    The bharal is categorised as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The population faces threats - poaching for meat and competition with livestock. Poaching, however, is uncommon due to the unsuitable conditions of its habitat. Similarly, livestock do not generally frequent the mountainous regions where bharal occur; even if they do coexist, no notable detrimental effect on the bharal has been observed.

    Many Buddhist monasteries protect the bharal found around them, but lately, issues of crop damage caused by bharal have started to arise in areas such as the Spiti Valley.

    Namgail, T., Fox, J.L. & Bhatnagar, Y.V. (2004). Habitat segregation between sympatric Tibetan argali Ovis ammon hodgsoni and blue sheep Pseudois nayaur in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. Journal of Zoo...
    Namgail, T., van Wieren, S.E., Mishra, C. & Prins, H.H.T. (2010). Multi-spatial co-distribution of the endangered Ladakh urial and blue sheep in the arid Trans-Himalayan Mountains. Journal of Arid...
    Namgail, T., Mishra, C., de Jong, C. B., van Wieren, S.E. & Prins, H.H.T. (2009). Effects of herbivore species richness on blue sheep niche dynamics and distribution in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. D...
    Namgail, T. (2001). Habitat Selection and Ecological Separation Between Sympatric Tibetan Argali Blue Sheep in Northern India. University of Tromso, Norway.
  7. Caviphantes - Wikipedia › wiki › Caviphantes

    Caviphantes is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by R. Oi in 1960. Species As of May 2019 it contains five species: Caviphantes dobrogicus (Dumitrescu & Miller, 1962) – Romania to Central Asia Caviphantes flagellatus (Zhu ...

  8. Honpō-ji (Kyoto) - Wikipedia › wiki › Honpō-ji_(Kyoto)

    Honpō-ji was established in 1436 by Nisshin. It was originally constructed in the Higashinotōin-Ayakōji (東洞院綾小路) area of the city, but when Nisshin angered the shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu and was imprisoned, the temple was destroyed. Nisshi ...

  9. Kuznets curve - Wikipedia › wiki › Environmental_Kuznets_Curves
    • Kuznets Ratio and Kuznets Curve
    • Explanations
    • Evidence
    • Kuznets' Own Caveats
    • Inequality and Trade Liberalization
    • Environmental Kuznets Curve
    • Bibliography

    The Kuznets ratio is a measurement of the ratio of income going to the highest-earning households (usually defined by the upper 20%) to income going to the lowest-earning households,which is commonly measured by either the lowest 20% or lowest 40% of income. Comparing 20% to 20%, a completely even distribution is expressed as 1; 20% to 40% changes this value to 0.5. Kuznets curve diagrams show an inverted U curve, although variables along the axes are often mixed and matched, with inequality or the Gini coefficienton the Y axis and economic development, time or per-capita incomes on the X axis.

    One explanation of such a progression suggests that early in development, investment opportunities for those who have money multiply, while an influx of cheap rural labor to the cities holds down wages. Whereas in mature economies, human capitalaccrual (an estimate of cost that has been incurred but not yet paid) takes the place of physical capital accrual as the main source of growth; and inequality slows growth by lowering education levels because poorer, disadvantaged people lack finance for their education in imperfect credit-markets. The Kuznets curve implies that as a nation undergoes industrialization – and especially the mechanization of agriculture – the center of the nation's economy will shift to the cities. As internal migration by farmers looking for better-paying jobs in urban hubs causes a significant rural-urban inequality gap (the owners of firms would be profiting, while laborers from those industries would see their incomes rise at a much slower rate and agricultu...

    Inequality has risen in most developed countries since the 1960s, so that graphs of inequality over time no longer display a Kuznets curve. Piketty has argued that the decline in inequality over the first half of the 20th century was a once-off effect due to the destruction of large concentrations of wealth by war and economic depression.

    In a biography about Simon Kuznets' scientific methods, economist Robert Fogelnoted Kuznets' own reservations about the "fragility of the data" which underpinned the hypothesis. Fogel notes that most of Kuznets' paper was devoted to explicating the conflicting factors at play. Fogel emphasized Kuznets' opinion that "even if the data turned out to be valid, they pertained to an extremely limited period of time and to exceptional historical experiences." Fogel noted that despite these "repeated warnings", Kuznets' caveats were overlooked, and the Kuznets curve was "raised to the level of law" by other economists.

    Dobson and Ramlogan's research looked to identify the relationship between inequality and trade liberalization. There have been mixed findings with this idea – some developing countries have experienced greater inequality, less inequality, or no difference at all, due to trade liberalization. Because of this, Dobson and Ramlogan suggest that perhaps trade openness can be related to inequality through a Kuznets curve framework. A trade liberalization-versus-inequality graph measures trade openness along the x-axis and inequality along the y-axis. Dobson and Ramlogan determine trade openness by the ratio of exports and imports (the total trade) and the average tariff rate; inequality is determined by gross primary school enrolment rates, the share of agriculture in total output, the rate of inflation, and cumulative privatization. By studying data from several Latin American countries that have implemented trade liberalization policies in the past 30 years, the Kuznets curve seems to...

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is a hypothesized relationship between environmental quality and economic development: various indicators of environmental degradation tend to get worse as modern economic growth occurs until average income reaches a certain point over the course of development.The EKC suggests, in sum, that "the solution to pollution is economic growth." Although subject to continuing debate, there is considerable evidence to support the application of environmental Kuznets curve for various environmental health indicators, such as water, air pollution and ecological footprint which show the inverted U-shaped curve as per capita income and/or GDP rise. It has been argued that this trend occurs in the level of many of the environmental pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, lead, DDT, chlorofluorocarbons, sewage, and other chemicals previously released directly into the air or water. For example, between 1970 and 2006, the United States' inflation-a...

    Brenner, Y.S., Hartmut Kaelble, and Mark Thomas (1991): Income Distribution in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press.
    Deininger K, Squire L (1998). "New Ways of Looking at Old Issues: Inequality and Growth". Journal of Development Economics. 57 (2): 259–287. doi:10.1016/s0304-3878(98)00099-6.
    Fields G (2001). Distribution and Development, A New Look at the Developing World. Russel Sage Foundation, New York, and The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London.
    Palma, JG (2011). "Homogeneous middles vs. heterogeneous tails, and the end of the 'Inverted-U': it's all about the share of the rich". Development and Change. 42: 87–153. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.2...
  10. Epistle of James - Wikipedia › wiki › James,_Epistle_of_Saint
    • Authorship
    • Dating
    • Genre
    • Structure
    • Historical Context
    • Doctrine
    • Canonicity
    • See Also
    • References
    • External Links

    The debate about the authorship of James is inconclusive and shadows debates about Christology, and about historical accuracy. According to Robert J. Foster, "there is little consensus as to the genre, structure, dating, and authorship of the book of James."There are four "commonly espoused" views concerning authorship and dating of the Epistle of James: 1. the letter was written by James before the Pauline epistles, 2. the letter was written by James after the Pauline epistles, 3. the letter is pseudonymous, 4. the letter comprises material originally from James but reworked by a later editor. The writer refers to himself only as "James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ" (James 1:1). Jesus had two apostles named James: James, the son of Zebedee and James, the son of Alphaeus, but it is unlikely that either of these wrote the letter. According to the Book of Acts, James, the brother of John, was killed by Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12:1–2). James, the son of Alphaeus is a mo...

    Scholars, such as Luke Timothy Johnson, suggest an early dating for the Epistle of James: If written by James the brother of Jesus, it would have been written sometime before AD 69 (or AD 62), when he was martyred. However, the mention of elders and the role of elders in the church suggests a late first century composition, after the first generation of disciples. The epistle also assumes that Paul's writingswere well known, even to the extent of being misused. Other factors, including its history of use in the church point to a much later date. The earliest extant manuscriptsof James usually date to the mid-to-late 3rd century. Dated consensually c. 65–85 CE. Like Hebrews, James is not so much a letter as an exhortation; the style of the Greek makes it unlikely that it was actually written by James the brother of Jesus.

    James is considered New Testament wisdom literature: "like Proverbs and Sirach, it consists largely of moral exhortations and precepts of a traditional and eclectic nature." The content of James is directly parallel, in many instances, to sayings of Jesus which are found in the gospels of Luke and Matthew, i.e., those attributed to the hypothetical Q source. Compare, e.g., "Do not swear at all, either by heaven...or by the earth....Let your word be 'Yes, Yes' or 'No, No'; anything more than this comes from the evil one" (Matthew 5:34, 37) and " not swear either by heaven or by earth or by any other oath, but let your 'Yes' be yes and your 'No' be no, so that you may not fall under condemnation" (James 5:12). According to James Tabor, the epistle of James contains "no fewer than thirty direct references, echoes, and allusionsto the teachings of Jesus found in the Q source." Koester H. (1965) and Kloppenborg J. (1987) are widely recognized for bringing about the pivot from the ab...

    Some view the epistle as having no overarching outline: "James may have simply grouped together small 'thematic essays' without having more linear, Greco-Roman structures in mind." That view is generally supported by those who believe that the epistle may not be a true piece of correspondence between specific parties but an example of wisdom literature, formulated as a letter for circulation. The Catholic Encyclopediasays, "the subjects treated of in the Epistle are many and various; moreover, St. James not infrequently, whilst elucidating a certain point, passes abruptly to another, and presently resumes once more his former argument." Others view the letter as having only broad topical or thematic structure. They generally organize James under three (Ralph Martin) to seven (Luke Johnson) general key themes or segments. A third group believes that James was more purposeful in structuring his letter, linking each paragraph theologically and thematically: The third view of the struct...

    A 2013 article in the Evangelical Quarterly explores a violent historical background behind the epistle and offers the suggestion that it was indeed written by James, the brother of Jesus, and it was written before AD 62, the year he was killed.[note 1] The 50s saw the growth of turmoil and violence in Roman Judea, as Jews became more and more frustrated with corruption, injustice and poverty. It continued into the 60s, four years before James was killed. War broke out with Rome and would lead to the destruction of Jerusalem and the scattering of the people. The epistle is renowned for exhortations on fighting poverty and caring for the poor in practical ways (1:26–27; 2:1-4; 2:14-19; 5:1-6), standing up for the oppressed (2:1-4; 5:1-6) and not being "like the world" in the way one responds to evil in the world (1:26-27; 2:11; 3:13-18; 4:1-10). Worldly wisdom is rejected and people are exhorted to embrace heavenly wisdom, which includes peacemaking and pursuing righteousness and jus...


    The epistle contains the following famous passage concerning salvationand justification: That passage has been cited in Christian theological debates, especially regarding the doctrine of justification. Gaius Marius Victorinus (4th century) associated James's teaching on works with the heretical Symmachian sect, followers of Symmachus the Ebionite, and openly questioned whether James' teachings were heretical. This passage has also been contrasted with the teachings of Paul the Apostle on jus...

    Anointing of the Sick

    The epistle is also the chief biblical text for the Anointing of the Sick. James wrote: G. A. Wells suggested that the passage was evidence of late authorship of the epistle, on the grounds that the healing of the sick being done through an official body of presbyters (elders) indicated a considerable development of ecclesiastical organisation "whereas in Paul's day to heal and work miracles pertained to believers indiscriminately (I Corinthians, XII:9)."

    Works, deeds and care for the poor

    James and the M Source material in Matthew are unique in the canon in their stand against the rejection of works and deeds. According to Sanders, traditional Christian theology wrongly divested the term "works" of its ethical grounding, part of the effort to characterize Judaism as legalistic.However, for James and for all Jews, faith is alive only through Torah observance. In other words, belief demonstrates itself through practice and manifestation. For James, claims about belief are empty,...

    The Epistle of James was first explicitly referred to and quoted by Origen of Alexandria, and possibly a bit earlier by Irenaeus of Lyons as well as Clement of Alexandria in a lost work according to Eusebius,[citation needed] although it was not mentioned by Tertullian, who was writing at the end of the Second century. It is also absent from the Muratorian fragment, the earliest known list of New Testament books.[citation needed] The Epistle of James was included among the twenty-seven New Testament books first listed by Athanasius of Alexandria in his Thirty-Ninth Festal Epistle (AD 367)and was confirmed as a canonical epistle of the New Testament by a series of councils in the fourth century. In the first centuries of the Church the authenticity of the Epistle was doubted by some, including Theodore of Mopsuestia in the mid-fifth century. Because of the silence of several of the western churches regarding it, Eusebius classes it among the Antilegomena or contested writings (Histor...


    1. Perkins, Pheme (2012). Reading the New Testament: An Introduction. Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809147861.

    Bible: James public domain audiobook at LibriVoxVarious versions
    Quotations related to Epistle of Jamesat Wikiquote
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