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  1. 2021線上遊戲 相關
  1. Online game - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Demographics
    • Platforms
    • Types of Interactions
    • Online Games
    • Online Game Governance
    • See Also

    The history of online games dates back to the early days of packet-based computer networking in the 1970s, An early example of online games are MUDs, including the first, MUD1, which was created in 1978 and originally confined to an internal network before becoming connected to ARPANet in 1980. Commercial games followed in the next decade, with Islands of Kesmai, the first commercial online role-playing game, debuting in 1984, as well as more graphical games, such as the MSX LINKS action games in 1986, the flight simulator Air Warrior in 1987, and the Famicom Modem's online Gogame in 1987. The rapid availability of the Internet in the 1990s led to an expansion of online games, with notable titles including Nexus: The Kingdom of the Winds (1996), Quakeworld (1996), Ultima Online (1997), Lineage (1998), Starcraft (1998), Counter-Strike (1999) and EverQuest (1999). Video game consoles also began to receive online networking features, such as the Famicom Modem (1987), Sega Meganet (1990...

    The assumption that online games in general are populated mostly by males has remained somewhat accurate for years. Recent statistics begin to diminish the male domination myth in gaming culture. Although a worldwide number of male gamers still dominates over female (52% by 48%),women accounted for more than half of the players of certain games. As of 2019, the average gamer is 33 years old. The report Online Game Market Forecasts estimates worldwide revenue from online games to reach $35 billion by 2017, up from $19 billion in 2011.

    Console gaming

    Xbox Live was launched in November 2002. Initially the console only used a feature called system link, where players could connect two consoles using an Ethernet cable, or multiple consoles through a router. With the original Xbox Microsoft launched Xbox Live, allowing shared play over the internet. A similar feature exists on the PlayStation 3 in the form of the PlayStation Network, and the Wii also supports a limited amount of online gaming. Nintendo also has a network, dubbed "Nintendo Net...

    Browser games

    As the World Wide Web developed and browsers became more sophisticated, people started creating browser games that used a web browser as a client. Simple single player games were made that could be played using a web browser via HTML and HTML scripting technologies (most commonly JavaScript, ASP, PHP and MySQL). The development of web-based graphics technologies such as Flash and Java allowed browser games to become more complex. These games, also known by their related technology as "Flash g...

    Player versus environment

    PvE is a term used in online games, particularly MMORPGs and other role-playing video games, to refer to fighting computer-controlled opponents.

    Player versus player

    PvP is a term broadly used to describe any game, or aspect of a game, where players compete against each other rather than against computer-controlled opponents.

    First-person shooter game

    During the 1990s, online games started to move from a wide variety of LAN protocols (such as IPX) and onto the Internet using the TCP/IP protocol. Doom popularized the concept of a deathmatch, where multiple players battle each other head-to-head, as a new form of online game. Since Doom, many first-person shooter games contain online components to allow deathmatch or arena style play. And by popularity, first person shooter games are becoming more and more widespread around the world. As gam...

    Real-time strategy game

    Early real-time strategy games often allowed multiplayer play over a modem or local network. As the Internet started to grow during the 1990s, software was developed that would allow players to tunnel the LAN protocols used by the games over the Internet. By the late 1990s, most RTS games had native Internet support, allowing players from all over the globe to play with each other. Popular RTS games with online communities have included Age of Empires, Sins of a Solar Empire, StarCraft and Wa...

    Massively multiplayer online game

    Massively multiplayer online games were made possible with the growth of broadband Internet accessin many developed countries, using the Internet to allow hundreds of thousands of players to play the same game together. Many different styles of massively multiplayer games are available, such as: 1. MMORPG (Massively multiplayer online role-playing game) 2. MMORTS (Massively multiplayer online real-time strategy) 3. MMOFPS (Massively multiplayer online first-person shooter) 4. MMOSG(Massively...

    Online gamers must agree to an End-user license agreement (EULA) when they first install the game application or an update. EULA is a legal contract between the producer or distributor and the end-user of an application or software, which is to prevent the program from being copied, redistributed or hacked. The consequences of breaking the agreement vary according to the contract. Players could receive warnings to termination, or direct termination without warning. In the 3D immersive world Second Lifewhere a breach of contract will append the player warnings, suspension and termination depending on the offense. Where online games supports an in-game chat feature, it is not uncommon to encounter hate speech, sexual harassment and cyberbullying. Players, developers, gaming companies, and professional observers are discussing and developing tools which discourage antisocial behavior.There are also sometimes Moderatorspresent, who attempt to prevent anti-Social behavior. Recent develop...

  2. Massively multiplayer online game - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Virtual Economies
    • Technical Aspect
    • Research
    • Spending
    • See Also

    The most popular type of MMOG, and the subgenre that pioneered the category, is the massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), which descended from university mainframe computer MUD and adventure games such as Rogue and Dungeon on the PDP-10. These games predate the commercial gaming industry and the Internet, but still featured persistent worlds and other elements of MMOGs still used today. The first graphical MMOG, and a major milestone in the creation of the genre, was the multiplayer flight combat simulation game Air Warrior by Kesmai on the GEnieonline service, which first appeared in 1986. Kesmai later added 3D graphics to the game, making it the first 3D MMO. Commercial MMORPGs gained acceptance in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The genre was pioneered by the GemStone series on GEnie, also created by Kesmai, and Neverwinter Nights, the first such game to include graphics, which debuted on AOL in 1991.[citation needed] As video game developers applied MMOG ideas...

    Within a majority of the MMOGs created, there is virtual currency where the player can earn and accumulate money. The uses for such virtual currency are numerous and vary from game to game. The virtual economies created within MMOGs often blur the lines between real and virtual worlds. The result is often seen as an unwanted interaction between the real and virtual economies by the players and the provider of the virtual world. This practice (economy interaction) is mostly seen in this genre of games. The two seem to come hand in hand with even the earliest MMOGs such as Ultima Onlinehaving this kind of trade, real money for virtual things. The importance of having a working virtual economy within an MMOG is increasing as they develop. A sign of this is CCP Games hiring the first real-life economist for its MMOG Eve Onlineto assist and analyze the virtual economy and production within this game. The results of this interaction between the virtual economy, and our real economy, which...

    Most MMOGs also share other characteristics that make them different from other multiplayer online games. MMOGs host many players in a single game world, and all of those players can interact with each other at any given time. Popular MMOGs might have thousands of players online at any given time, usually on company-owned servers. Non-MMOGs, such as Battlefield 1942 or Half-Life usually have fewer than 50 players online (per server) and are usually played on private servers. Also, MMOGs usually do not have any significant modssince the game must work on company servers. There is some debate if a high head-count is a requirement to be an MMOG. Some say that it is the size of the game world and its capability to support many players that should matter. For example, despite technology and content constraints, most MMOGs can fit up to a few thousand players on a single game server at a time. To support all those players, MMOGs need large-scale game worlds, and servers to connect players...

    Some recent attempts to build peer-to-peer (P2P) MMOGs have been made. Outback Online may be the first commercial one, however, so far most of the efforts have been academic studies. A P2P MMOG may potentially be more scalable and cheaper to build, but notable issues with P2P MMOGs include security and consistency control, which can be difficult to address given that clients are easily hacked. Some MMOGs such as Vindictususe P2P networking and client-server networking together. In April 2004, the United States Army announced that it was developing a massively multiplayer training simulation called AWE (asymmetric warfare environment). The purpose of AWE is to train soldiers for urban warfare and there are no plans for a public commercial release. Forterra Systems is developing it for the Army based on the There engine. In 2010, Bonnie Nardi published an ethnographic study on World of Warcraft examined with Lev Vygotsky's activity theory. As the field of MMOs grows larger each year,...

    British online gamers are outspending their German and French counterparts according to a study commissioned by and TNS. The UK MMO-market is now worth £195 million in 2009 compared to the £165 million and £145 million spent by German and French online gamers. The US gamers spend more, however, spending about $3.8 billion overall on MMO games. $1.8 billion of that money is spent on monthly subscription fees. The money spent averages out to $15.10 between both subscription and free-to-play MMO gamers. The study also found that 46% of 46 million players in the US pay real money to play MMO games. Today’s Gamers MMO Focus Report, published in March 2010, was commissioned by TNS and A similar study for the UK market-only (UK National Gamers Survey Report)was released in February 2010 by the same groups.

  3. Multiplayer online battle arena - Wikipedia
    • Gameplay
    • History
    • Impact
    • References

    Each match starts with two opposing teams, typically made up of five players. Players work together as a team to achieve the ultimate victory condition which is to destroy their enemy's base whilst protecting their own. Usually, both teams have main structures, located at the opposite corners of the battlefield. The first team to destroy the opponents' main structure wins the match, though some games have the option of different victory conditions. Destroying other structures within the opposing team's base may confer other benefits. Defensive structures, which are usually automatic "towers", are in place to prevent this. Each team is assisted by relatively weak computer-controlled units, called "minions", that periodically spawn in groups at both bases, marching down predefined paths (called "lanes") toward their enemy base. While their charges are counterbalanced by the opposite team's minions, players can aid them which turns the minions into a useful army for striking the oppone...


    The roots of the genre can be traced back decades to one of the earliest real-time strategy (RTS) titles, the 1989 Sega Mega Drive/Genesis game Herzog Zwei. It has been cited as a precursor to, or an early example of, the MOBA genre. It used a similar formula, where each player controls a single command unit in one of two opposing sides on a battlefield. Herzog Zwei's influence is apparent in several later MOBA games such as Guilty Gear 2: Overture (2007) and AirMech(2012). In 1998, Future Co...

    Establishing the genre: 2000s

    In 2002, Blizzard released Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos (WC3), with the accompanying Warcraft III World Editor. Both the multiplayer online battle arena and tower defense subgenres took substantive shape within the WC3 modding community. A modder named Eul began converting Aeon of Strife into the Warcraft III engine, calling the map Defense of the Ancients (DotA). Eul substantially improved the complexity of play from the original Aeon of Strife mod. Shortly after creating the custom DotA map...

    Mainstream popularity: 2008–present

    By 2008, the popularity of DotA had attracted commercial attention. Since the format was tied to the Warcraft property, developers began to work on their own "DOTA-style" video games. A Flash web game, named Minions, was created by The Casual Collective in 2008. Gas Powered Games released the first stand-alone commercial title in the genre, Demigod (2009). In late 2009, Riot Games' debut title League of Legends was released. It was initially designed by Steve Feak, one of the original creator...

    In the original Defense of the Ancients (DotA), each player controls one powerful unit rather than a large army. While it still kept the large scale, core mechanics, and goals of the real-time strategy games, DotA attempted to avoid "clickfest" gameplay in which high actions per minute scores are mandatory for efficient playing, changing focus to the actual teamwork, coordination, and tactics. This made the mod highly popular, as its dynamic and unpredictable fights, complex map, and hero-centric gameplay create a more competitive environment and opportunities for outplaying the enemy team. By the early 2010s, multiplayer online battle arena has become a prominent genre in esports tournaments. The genre has seen further growth in popularity since the year 2015 – among the top five esports with the largest prize pools, three have been MOBA titles for three years in row.[citation needed] Distributed prize money in MOBA tournaments reached over US$54 million in 2017. A year later, priz...

    Adams, Ernest; Rollings, Andrew (2003). Andrew Rollings and Ernest Adams on game design. New Riders Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59273-001-8.
    Adams, Ernest; Rollings, Andrew (2006). Fundamentals of Game Design. Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-321-64337-7.
  4. Daybreak Game Company - Wikipedia

    This page was last edited on 8 June 2021, at 11:44 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .

  5. Diablo (video game) - Wikipedia
    • Gameplay
    • Plot
    • Development
    • Reception
    • Legacy

    Diablo is an action role-playing hack and slash video game. The player moves and interacts with the environment primarily by way of a mouse. Other actions, such as casting a spell, are performed in response to keyboard inputs. The player can acquire items, learn spells, defeat enemies, and interact with non-player characters(NPCs) throughout the game. The dungeon levels are procedurally generated with themes for each level; for instance, the catacombs tend to have long corridors and closed rooms, while the caves are more non-linear. The players are assigned a random number of quests from several tiers; these quests are optional but usually offer powerful unique items as rewards and help to level upthe character and/or reveal more of the backstory. The final two quests are mandatory in order to finish the game.


    The setting of Diablo includes the mortal realm which is the world of Man as well as the High Heavens and the Burning Hells.:61, 62, 64 & 72 After eons of war between angels and demons, the ascension of man prompted the three Lords of Hell (including Diablo himself) to seek victory through influence, prompting their exile into the mortal realm. There, they sowed chaos, distrust, and hatred among men until a group of magi, called the Horadrim, trapped them in enchanted crystals called "Soulsto...


    The game starts when the player's character arrives in Tristram. Several of the remaining townsfolk assist the player such as Deckard Cain the Elder. The labyrinth under the Cathedral descends from the dungeon/church, to the catacombs, followed by the caves, and finally Hellitself, each with a mixture of the undead, animals, and demons. King Leoric has been re-animated as the Skeleton King. Late in the game, the hero must defeat Archbishop Lazarus, and eventually Diablo himself. At the end of...

    Diablo was conceived by David Brevik during the development of the fighting game Justice League Task Force (1995), developed by Japanese studio Sunsoft with two American studios, Condor Games (later Blizzard North) on the Sega Genesis version and Silicon & Synapse on the SNES version, which by the end of Justice League Task Force's development, had renamed themselves Blizzard Entertainment. Brevik's concept was a personal computer game based heavily on the roguelike genre that featured turn-based gameplay, but he wanted to improve how quickly the player would be able to get into the game compared to typical role-playing games. Brevik was inspired by NHL '94 and similar sports games to make it so that players only had to select a pre-determined class and would be able to jump into the game with minimal interactions. Brevik also wanted these classes to be combinations of typical character classes so that players would be not overly restricted in what type of attacks or equipment they...


    According to Max Schaefer, Blizzard's initial sales estimates for Diablo were modest. He remarked, "We were thinking that if everything went well, we would sell 100,000 copies." Following the game's positive press coverage before its release, estimates by the team were increased to roughly 500,000 copies, David Brevik later said. Pre-orders had surpassed 450,000 units globally by December 17, at which point the game was set to launch with a shipment of 500,000 units staggered across its initi...

    Critical reviews

    Diablo has received critical acclaim, with an average rating of 94/100 on Metacritic. Most praised the game's addictive gameplay, randomly generated dungeons, superior graphics, moody musical score, and great variety of possible magic items, enemies, levels, and quests. This last aspect was noted by GameSpoteditor Trent Ward in his review: "Similarly, although a set number of monsters is included, only a few will be seen during each full game. This means that players going back for their seco...

    In 1998, PC Gamer declared it the 42nd-best computer game ever released, and the editors called it "a nearly flawless gaming experience". Akira Nishitaniranked it number 1 on his personal list of the greatest games of all time in 1997. In 2005 GameSpot chose Diablo as one of "The Greatest Games of All Time". It was placed at No. 20 on Game Informer's "Top 100 RPGs Of All Time" list. The expansion pack made for Diablo is Diablo: Hellfire, released in 1997. It was produced by Synergistic Software and published by Sierra Entertainmentrather than an in-house Blizzard North development team. The multiplayer feature of the expansion pack was disabled with version 1.01. The added content included two additional dungeon segments located within a new side storyline, several unique items and magical item properties, spells, and a fourth class, the Monk. There are also two unfinished "test" classes (the Bard and Barbarian) and two quests which could be accessed through a configuration file mod...

  6. Night Shift Nurses - Wikipedia
    • Synopsis
    • Characters
    • Reception
    • External Links


    Night Shift Nurses, as was originally written for the game, takes place in an undisclosed area of Japan, mainly at the fictional St. Juliana Hospital. A majority of the game is portrayed on campus with minor visits to the character's residences and surrounding towns.


    Yakin Byōto 1:Ryuji Hirasaka is an unemployed, middle-aged Japanese gynaecologist, single, independent, and living on his own. One evening, he receives an email from the fictional St. Juliana Hospital, a local institution, offering him a temporary job opportunity. He contently accepts, scheduling to meet with the president the following day. That afternoon, semi-formaland with a portfolio, Ryuji commutes to the hospital. After an acquaintance with Ren Nanase, a nurse who escorts him to the pr...

    Ryuji Hirasaka(比良坂 竜二, Hirasaka Ryūji)

    1. Voiced by: Sabro Gohno (Japanese); Bjorkin Stiles, Michael Sanderson(English) 2. Ryuji Hirasaka is the aforementioned antihero of the series. A knowledgeable practitioner, his life takes a sharp turn when he is invited to direct and corrupt a team of nurses at his new place of work. An unconvicted sex offender, Ryuji is vicious, controlling and intimidating, often cold reading those under him to learn about their vulnerabilities and how to exploit them. He sports a mullet and is bespectacl...

    Narumi Jinguji(神宮寺 成美, Jinguji Narumi)

    1. Voiced by: Kaoru Hoshioki (Japanese); Irie, Marcia Belle, Likki Dee Split (English) 2. Narumi Jinguji is the thirty-two-year-old head practitioner of the St. Juliana Hospital, specializing in gynaecology. Voluptuous and enticing, she arranges to meet with Ryuji one afternoon to offer him the chance to sexually discipline a select group of her nursing staff for the purpose of developing a prostitution ring. As a previous rape victim of her own employee, Narumi exhibits bursts of psychologic...

    Ren Nanase(七瀬 恋, Nanase Ren)

    1. Voiced by: Yuu Mikage (Japanese); Lynna Dunham, Kendall Harrison(English) 2. Bright and friendly, Ren Nanase is a twenty-two-year-oldnurse at the St. Juliana Hospital who is arguably the most iconic character of the series. She is the first nurse Ryuji meets and the first who genuinely welcomes him as a friend and superior. When her love for an inpatient boxer, Naoya Ohkawa, is discovered, Ryuji learns of her match fixing and uses it as blackmail. Like the nurses to come, in spite of the a...

    As a result of the unrestrained content of the series, Night Shift Nurses is usually regarded as one of, if not the most graphic hentai ever released.[citation needed] Several minutes of particularly unruly scenes were even banned from North American releases. Industry aggregator gave the series an F, citing that although the animation is "clean" and "slick", the quantity of edits made for the American release yields it one that "[...]I in no way [can] recommend."

    Night Shift Nurses at The Visual Novel Database
    Night Shift Nurses (anime) at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
  7. FIFA - Wikipedia

    FIFA (/ ˈ f iː f ə / French: Fédération Internationale de Football Association, English: International Federation of Association Football, Spanish: Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociación; German: Internationaler Verband des Association ...

  8. Big Brother (American TV series) - Wikipedia

    Big Brother is an American television reality competition show based on the original Dutch reality show of the same name created by producer John de Mol in 1997. The series takes its name from the character in George Orwell 's 1949 novel ...

  9. Firefox - Wikipedia

    Firefox Browser, also known as Mozilla Firefox or simply Firefox, is a free and open-source [22] web browser developed by the Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, the Mozilla Corporation.Firefox uses the Gecko, a powerful rendering engine, to ...

  10. Luna 1 - Wikipedia
    • Background
    • Spacecraft
    • Launch
    • Experiment Results
    • Reaction
    • Subsequent Missions
    • External Links

    Luna 1 was the fourth and final spacecraft of the Ye-1 spacecraft series. The previous three iterations did not achieve orbit due to issues with each rocket launch.[self-published source]

    The satellite and rocket carrying Luna 1 was originally referred to as the Soviet Space Rocket by the Soviet Press. Pravda writer Alexander Kazantsev called it Mechta (Russian: Мечта, meaning 'dream'). Citizens of Moscow unofficially deemed it Lunik, a combination of Luna (Moon) and Sputnik. It was renamed to Luna 1 in 1963.[self-published source] The spherical satellite was powered by mercury-oxide batteries and silver-zinc accumulators. There were five antenna on one hemisphere, four whip-style and one rigid, for communication purposes. The spacecraft also contained radio equipment including a tracking transmitter and telemetry system.[self-published source]There was no propulsion system. Luna 1 was designed to impact the Moon, delivering two metallic pennants with the Soviet coat of arms that were included into its payload package.[self-published source] It also had six instruments to study the Moon upon its suicidal approach. The flux-gate magnetometer was triaxial and could mea...

    Luna 1 was launched at 16:41 GMT (22:41 local time) on 2 January 1959 from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome by a Luna 8K72 rocket. The first three stages operated nominally. The Soviet engineers did not trust automated systems for controlling the engine burns, so they communicated to the rocket via radio. The signal to stop firing the engine Block E stage was sent too late, and it imparted an extra 175 m/s to Luna 1. Consequently Luna 1 missed its target by 5,995 kilometers (3,725 mi).[self-published source] The spacecraft passed within 5,995–6,400 kilometers (3,725–3,977 mi) of the Moon's surface on 4 January after 34 hours of flight, and became the first man made object to leave earth's orbit on January 6th. Luna 1 ran out of battery power on 5 January 1959 when it was 597,000 kilometers (371,000 mi) from Earth, making it impossible to track further.The batteries were designed for a minimum of 40 hours but lasted for 62. Luna 1 became the first artificial object to reach the es...

    At 00:57 GMT on 3 January 1959, at a distance of 113,000 kilometres (70,000 mi) from Earth, 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of sodium gas was released by the spacecraft, forming a cloud behind it to serve as an artificial comet. The cloud was released for two purposes: to allow visual tracking of the spacecraft's trajectory and to observe the behavior of gas in space. This glowing orange trail of gas, visible over the Indian Ocean with the brightness of a sixth-magnitude star for a few minutes, was photographed by Mstislav Gnevyshev at the Mountain Station of the Main Astronomical Observatory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR near Kislovodsk. While traveling through the outer Van Allen radiation belt, the spacecraft's scintillator made observations indicating that a small number of high-energy particles exist in the outer belt. The measurements obtained during this mission provided new data on the Earth's radiation belt and outer space. The craft was unable to detect a lunar magnetic field...

    Some doubted the veracity of the Soviets' claim of mission success. Lloyd Malan wrote about it in a book called The Big Red Lie. Many in the West did not receive transmissions from the spacecraft even though the Soviets publicized them before the flight. By the time the Earth rotated so that scientists in America could pick up signals from the spacecraft, it was already 171,000 kilometers (106,000 mi) away. The Soviet Union issued stamps to commemorate their success.

    Luna 2, the second spacecraft of the Ye-1A series, successfully completed the mission on 13 September 1959.[self-published source]

    Cormack, Lesley B. (2012). A History of Science in Society: From Philosophy to Utility (2nd ed.). University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-0446-9.
    Darling, David (2003). The complete book of spaceflight: from Apollo 1 to zero gravity. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-05649-2.
    Harvey, Brian (2007a). Russian planetary exploration: history, development, legacy, prospects. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-46343-8.
    Harvey, Brian (2007b). Soviet and Russian Lunar Exploration. Chichester, UK: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-21896-0. LCCN 2006935327.
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  1. 2021線上遊戲 相關