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  1. Executable and Linkable Format - Wikipedia
    • File Layout
    • Tools
    • Applications
    • Specifications
    • 86Open
    • Fatelf: Universal Binaries For Linux
    • See Also

    Each ELF file is made up of one ELF header, followed by file data. The data can include: 1. Program header table, describing zero or more memory segments 2. Section header table, describing zero or more sections 3. Data referred to by entries in the program header table or section header table The segments contain information that is needed for run time execution of the file, while sections contain important data for linking and relocation. Any bytein the entire file can be owned by one section at most, and orphan bytes can occur which are unowned by any section.

    readelf is a Unix binary utility that displays information about one or more ELF files. A free software implementation is provided by GNU Binutils.
    elfutils provides alternative tools to GNU Binutilspurely for Linux.
    elfdump is a command for viewing ELF information in an ELF file, available under Solaris and FreeBSD.
    objdump provides a wide range of information about ELF files and other object formats. objdump uses the Binary File Descriptor libraryas a back-end to structure the ELF data.

    Unix-like systems

    The ELF format has replaced older executable formats in various environments.It has replaced a.out and COFF formats in Unix-likeoperating systems: 1. Linux 2. Solaris / Illumos 3. IRIX 4. FreeBSD 5. NetBSD 6. OpenBSD 7. Redox 8. DragonFly BSD 9. Syllable 10. HP-UX (except for 32-bit PA-RISC programs which continue to use SOM) 11. QNXNeutrino 12. MINIX

    Non-Unix adoption

    ELF has also seen some adoption in non-Unix operating systems, such as: 1. OpenVMS, in its Itanium and amd64versions 2. BeOS Revision 4 and later for x86 based computers (where it replaced the Portable Executable format; the PowerPC version stayed with Preferred Executable Format) 3. Haiku, an open source reimplementation of BeOS 4. RISC OS 5. Stratus VOS, in PA-RISC and x86 versions 6. Windows 10 Anniversary Update using the Windows Subsystem for Linux. 7. SkyOS 8. Fuchsia OS 9. Z/TPF 10. HP...

    Game consoles

    Some game consoles also use ELF: 1. PlayStation Portable, PlayStation Vita, Playstation (console), PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 5 2. GP2X 3. Dreamcast 4. Gamecube 5. Wii 6. Wii U

    The Linux Standard Base (LSB) supplements some of the above specifications for architectures in which it is specified.For example, that is the case for the System V ABI, AMD64 Supplement.

    86open was a project to form consensus on a common binary file format for Unix and Unix-like operating systems on the common PC compatible x86 architecture, to encourage software developers to port to the architecture. The initial idea was to standardize on a small subset of Spec 1170, a predecessor of the Single UNIX Specification, and the GNU C Library (glibc) to enable unmodified binaries to run on the x86 Unix-like operating systems. The project was originally designated "Spec 150". The format eventually chosen was ELF, specifically the Linux implementation of ELF, after it had turned out to be a de facto standardsupported by all involved vendors and operating systems. The group began email discussions in 1997 and first met together at the Santa Cruz Operationoffices on August 22, 1997. The steering committee was Marc Ewing, Dion Johnson, Evan Leibovitch, Bruce Perens, Andrew Roach, Bryan Wayne Sparks and Linus Torvalds. Other people on the project were Keith Bostic, Chuck Crano...

    FatELF is an ELF binary-format extension that adds fat binary capabilities. It is aimed for Linux and other Unix-like operating systems. Additionally to the CPU architecture abstraction (byte order, word size, CPU instruction set etc.), there is the potential advantage of software-platform abstraction e.g., binaries which support multiple kernel ABI versions. As of 2 March 2021[update], FatELF has not been integrated into the mainline Linux Kernel.

  2. Starbucks - Wikipedia

    In 2021, a Starbucks in Ireland was fined €12,000 after a customer received her order with a racist drawing on the cup. [344] The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has raised allegations against Starbucks for racial bias in its promotions, ...

    • 2401 Utah Avenue South, Seattle, Washington
    • March 30, 1971; 50 years ago, Pike Place Market, Elliott Bay, Seattle, Washington, U.S.
  3. Silica gel - Wikipedia
    • History
    • Types
    • Properties
    • Regeneration
    • Preparation
    • Uses
    • Hazards
    • External Links

    Silica gel was in existence as early as the 1640s as a scientific curiosity. It was used in World War I for the adsorption of vapors and gases in gas mask canisters. The synthetic route for producing silica gel was patented by chemistry professor Walter A. Patrick at Johns Hopkins Universityin 1918. In World War II, silica gel was indispensable in the war effort for keeping penicillin dry, protecting military equipment from moisture damage,[citation needed] as a fluid cracking catalyst for the production of high octane gasoline, and as a catalyst support for the manufacture of butadiene from ethanol (feedstock for synthetic rubberproduction).

    Silica alumina gel - light yellow, chemically stable, flame-resistant, insoluble except in alkali or hydrofluoric acid. Superficial polarity, thermal stability, performance greater than fine-pored silica gel. Stabilizing silica gel - non-crystalline micro-porous solid powder, nontoxic, flame-resisting, used in brewery of grains for beer to improve taste, clearness, color and foam, removal of non-micro-organism impurities.

    Silica gel's high specific surface area (around 750–800 m2/g) allows it to adsorb water readily, making it useful as a desiccant (drying agent). Silica gel is often described as "absorbing" moisture, which may be appropriate when the gel's microscopic structure is ignored, as in silica gel packs or other products. However, material silica gel removes moisture by adsorption onto the surface of its numerous pores rather than by absorptioninto the bulk of the gel.

    Once saturated with water, the gel can be regenerated by heating it to 120 °C (250 °F) for 1–2 hours.[additional citation(s) needed]Some types of silica gel will "pop" when exposed to enough water. This is caused by breakage of the silica spheres when contacting the water.

    An aqueous solution of sodium silicate is acidified to produce a gelatinous precipitate that is washed, then dehydrated to produce colorless silica gel. When a visible indication of the moisture content of the silica gel is required, ammonium tetrachlorocobaltate(II) (NH4)2CoCl4 or cobalt chloride CoCl2 is added. This will cause the gel to be blue when dry and pink when hydrated. Due to the connection between cancer and cobalt chloride, it has been forbidden in Europe on silica gel. An alternative indicator is methyl violetwhich is orange when dry and green when hydrated.


    In many items, moisture encourages the growth of mold and spoilage. Condensation may also damage other items like electronics and may speed the decomposition of chemicals, such as those in vitamin pills. Through the inclusion of silica gel packets, these items can be preserved longer. Silica gel may also be used to keep the relative humidity inside a high frequency radio or satellite transmission system waveguide as low as possible (see also humidity buffering). Excessive moisture buildup wit...


    In chemistry, silica gel is used in chromatography as a stationary phase. In column chromatography, the stationary phase is most often composed of silica gel particles of 40–63 μm. Different particle sizes are used for different kinds of column chromatography as the particle size is related to surface area. The differences in particle size dictate if the silica gel should be used for flash or gravity chromatography. In this application, due to silica gel's polarity, non-polar components tend...

    Cat litter

    Silica gel is also used as cat litter, by itself or in combination with more traditional materials, such as clays including bentonite. It is non-tracking and virtually odorless.

    Silica gel is non-toxic, non-flammable, and non-reactive and stable with ordinary usage. It will react with hydrogen fluoride, fluorine, oxygen difluoride, chlorine trifluoride, strong acids, strong bases, and oxidizers. Silica gel is irritating to the respiratory tract and may cause irritation of the digestive tract, and dust from the beads may cause irritation to the skin and eyes, so precautions should be taken. Crystalline silica dust can cause silicosis, but synthetic amorphous silica gel is indurated so does not cause silicosis. Additional hazards may occur when doped with a humidity indicator.

  4. Has Hlai grammar - Wikipedia

    Introduction The Hlai people (or, as they are called in Chinese, the Li - 黎族) are the original inhabitants of southern Hainan. A Kra-Dai people, they are believed to have settled there at least 2,000 to 6,000 years ago, and carry genetic ...

  5. Kt/V - Wikipedia
    • Rationale For Kt/V as A Marker of Dialysis Adequacy
    • Relation to Urr
    • Peritoneal Dialysis
    • Reason For Adoption
    • Criticisms/Disadvantages of Kt/V
    • External Links

    K (clearance) multiplied by t (time) is a volume (since mL/min × min = mL, or L/h × h = L), and (K × t) can be thought of as the mL or L of fluid (blood in this case) cleared of urea (or any other solute) during the course of a single treatment. V also is a volume, expressed in mL or L. So the ratio of K × t / Vis a so-called "dimensionless ratio" and can be thought of as a multiple of the volume of plasma cleared of urea divided by the distribution volume of urea. When Kt/V = 1.0, a volume of blood equal to the distribution volume of urea has been completely cleared of urea. The relationship between Kt/V and the concentration of urea C at the end of dialysis can be derived from the first-order differential equation that describes exponential decayand models the clearance of any substance from the body where the concentration of that substance decreases in an exponential fashion: where 1. C is the concentration [mol/m3] 2. tis the time [s] 3. K is the clearance [m3/s] 4. V is the vo...

    The URR or Urea reduction ratio is simply the fractional reduction of urea during dialysis. So by definition, URR = 1 -C/C0. So 1-URR = C/C0. So by algebra, substituting into equation (4) above, since ln C/C0 = – ln C0/C, we get:

    Kt/V (in the context of peritoneal dialysis) was developed by Michael J. Lysaghtin a series of articles on peritoneal dialysis. The steady-state solution of a simplified mass transfer equation that is used to describe the mass exchange over a semi-permeable membrane and models peritoneal dialysisis where 1. CB is the concentration in the blood [ mol/m3] 2. KD is the clearance [ m3/s ] 3. m ˙ {\\displaystyle {\\dot {m}}} is the urea mass generation [ mol/s ] This can also be written as: The mass generation (of urea), in steady state, can be expressed as the mass (of urea) in the effluent per time: where 1. CE is the concentration of urea in effluent [ mol/m3] 2. VE is the volume of effluent [ m3] 3. tis the time [ s ] Lysaght, motivated by Equations 6b and 6c, defined the value KD: Lysaght uses "ml/min" for the clearance. In order to convert the above clearance (which is in m3/s) to ml/min one has to multiply by 60 × 1000 × 1000. Once KD is defined the following equation is used to cal...

    Kt/V has been widely adopted because it was correlated with survival. Before Kt/V nephrologists measured the serum urea concentration (specifically thetime-averaged concentration of urea (TAC of urea)), which was found not to be correlated with survival (due to its strong dependence on proteinintake) and thus deemed an unreliable marker of dialysis adequacy.

    It is complex and tedious to calculate. Many nephrologists have difficulty understanding it.
    Kt/V only measures a change in the concentration of urea and implicitly assumes the clearance of urea is comparable to other toxins. (It ignores molecules larger than urea having diffusion-limited...
    Kt/V does not take into account the role of ultrafiltration.


    1. Hemodialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse. 2. Kt/V and the adequacy of hemodialysis–

    Peritoneal dialysis

    1. Advisory on Peritoneal Dialysis– American Association of Kidney Patients 2. Peritoneal Dialysis Dose and Adequacy– a description of URR and Kt/V from the Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse.


    1. spKt/V,eKt/V,URR,nPCR,GNRI etc. dialysis calculation– 2. free Kt/V calculators, single pool and equilibrated HD, PD, no login needed, site used by dozens of dialysis centers around the world for over 10 years– 3. Web/javascript program that does formal 2-pool urea kinetics in multiple patients– 4. Kt/V calculator– 5. Kt/V– HDCN

  6. Tōyō kanji - Wikipediaōyō_kanji
    • Reform
    • Applications and Limitations
    • Mazegaki
    • List of The 1,850 Tōyō Kanji
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Thousands of kanji characters were in use in various writing systems, leading to great difficulties for those learning written Japanese. Additionally, several characters had identical meanings but were written differently from each other, further increasing complexity. After World War II, the Ministry of Education decided to minimize the number of kanji by choosing the most commonly used kanji, along with simplified kanji (see Shinjitai) commonly appearing in contemporary literature, to form the tōyō kanji. This was an integral part of the postwar reform of Japanese national writing. This was meant as a preparation for re-introducing their previous unsuccessful reform abolishing Chinese characters. Although the postwar timing meant no public debate was held on the future of the Japanese written language, the defenders of the original kanji system considered and accepted the tōyō kanji as a reasonable compromise. Since this compromise could not then be withdrawn in favour of more rad...

    In addition to a list of the standardized tōyō kanji, the reform published by the Ministry for Education in 1946 also contains a set of guidelines for their use. Regarding provenance and scope, the foreword of the document states that: 1. The table of tōyō kanji put forth therein, are the selection of kanji recommended for use by the general public, including legal and governmental documents, newspapers, and magazines. 2. The presented kanji are selected as an approximate set of those characters found to be of no insignificant utility in the lives of today's Japanese citizens. 3. Concerning proper nouns, there is a wide range of usage beyond what may be formulated as rules, and consequently they are treated as outside the scope of this standard. 4. The simplified character forms from modern custom are taken as the proper form, and their original forms are provided alongside them for reference. 5. A systemization of the character forms and their readings is still under consideration...

    Because the majority of character-based words are composed of two (or more) kanji, many words were left with one character included in the Tōyō kanji, and the other character missing. In this case, the recommendation was to write the included part in kanji and the excluded part in kana, e.g. ふ頭 for 埠頭 and 危ぐ for 危惧. These words were called mazegaki(交ぜ書き, "mixed characters").

    Bold in 1981 and 2010 year added kanji 一 丁 七 丈 三 上 下 不 且 世 丘 丙 中 丸 丹 主 久 乏 乗 乙 九 乳 乾 乱 了 事 二 互 五 井 亜 亡 交 享 京 人 仁 今 介 仕 他 付 代 令 以 仰 仲 件 任 企 伏 伐 休 伯 伴 伸 伺 似 但 位 低 住 佐 何 仏 作 佳 使 来 例 侍 供 依 侮 侯 侵 便 係 促 俊 俗 保 信 修 俳 俵 併 倉 個 倍 倒 候 借 倣 値 倫 仮 偉 偏 停 健 側 偶 傍 傑 備 催 伝 債 傷 傾 働 像 僚 偽 僧 価 儀 億 倹 儒 償 優 元 兄 充 兆 先 光 克 免 児 入 内 全 両 八 公 六 共 兵 具 典 兼 冊 再 冒 冗 冠 冬 冷 准 凍 凝 凡 凶 出 刀 刃 分 切 刈 刊 刑 列 初 判 別 利 到 制 刷 券 刺 刻 則 削 前 剖 剛 剰 副 割 創 劇 剤 剣 力 功 加 劣 助 努 効 劾 勅 勇 勉 動 勘 務 勝 労 募 勢 勤 勲 励 勧 勺 匁 包 化 北 匠 匹 匿 区 十 千 升 午 半 卑 卒 卓 協 南 博 占 印 危 却 卵 巻 卸 即 厘 厚 原 去 参 又 及 友 反 叔 取 受 口 古 句 叫 召 可 史 右 司 各 合 吉 同 名 后 吏 吐 向 君 吟 否 含 呈 呉 吸 吹 告 周 味 呼 命 和 咲 哀 品 員 哲 唆 唐 唯 唱 商 問 啓 善 喚 喜 喪 喫 単 嗣 嘆 器 噴 嚇 厳 嘱 囚 四 回 因 困 固 圏 国 囲 園 円 図 団 土 在 地 坂 均 坊 坑 坪 垂 型 埋 城 域 執 培 基 堂 堅 堤 堪 報 場 塊 塑 塔 塗 境 墓 墜 増 墨 堕 墳 墾 壁 壇 圧 塁 壊 士 壮 壱 寿 夏 夕 外 多 夜 夢 大 天 太 夫 央 失 奇 奉 奏 契 奔 奥 奪 奨 奮 女 奴 好 如 妃 妊 妙 妥 妨 妹 妻 姉 始 姓 委 姫 姻 姿 威 娘 娯 娠 婆 婚 婦 婿 媒 嫁 嫡 嬢 子 孔 字 存 孝 季 孤 孫 学 宅 宇 守 安 完 宗 官 宙 定 宜 客 宣 室 宮 宰 害 宴 家 容 宿 寂 寄 密 富 寒 察 寡 寝 実 寧 審 写 寛 寮 宝 寸 寺 封 射 将 専 尉 尊 尋 対 導 小 少 就 尺 尼 尾 尿 局 居 届 屈...

  7. History of aspirin - Wikipedia
    • Early History of Salicylates
    • 18th and 19th Centuries
    • World War I and Bayer
    • Interwar Years
    • Competition from New Drugs
    • Investigating How Aspirin Works
    • Revival as Heart Drug
    • External Links

    Medicines derived from willow trees and other salicylate-rich plants have been part of pharmacopoeias at least dating back to ancient Sumer. The Ebers Papyrus, an Egyptian medical text from ca. 1543 BCE, mentions use of willow and myrtle(another salicylate-rich plant) to treat fever and pain. Willow bark preparations became a standard part of the materia medica of Western medicine beginning at least with the Greek physician Hippocrates in the fifth century BCE; he recommended chewing on willow bark to relieve pain or fever and drinking tea made from it to relieve pain during childbirth. The Roman encyclopedist Celsus, in his De Medicina of ca. 30 AD, suggested willow leaf extract to treat the four signs of inflammation: redness, heat, swelling and pain. Willow treatments also appeared in Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, and Pliny the Elder's Natural History. By the time of Galen around the year 200 C.E., willow bark was commonly used throughout the Roman world and later after the Ar...

    The major turning point for salicylate medicines came in 1763, when a letter from English chaplain Edward Stone was read at a meeting of the Royal Society, describing the dramatic power of willow bark extract to cure ague—an ill-defined constellation of symptoms, including intermittent fever, pain, and fatigue, that primarily referred to malaria. Inspired by the doctrine of signatures to search for a treatment for agues near the brackish waters that were known to cause it, Stone had tasted the bark of a willow tree in 1758 and noticed an astringency reminiscent of the standard—and expensive—ague cure of Peruvian bark. He collected, dried, and powdered a substantial amount of willow bark, and over the next five years tested it on a number of people sick with fever and agues. In his letter, Stone reported consistent success, describing willow extract's effects as identical to Peruvian bark, though a little less potent. (In fact, the active ingredient of Peruvian bark was quinine, whic...

    By the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Bayer was facing competition in all its major markets from local ASA producers as well as other German drug firms (particularly Heyden and Hoechst). The British market was immediately closed to the German companies, but British manufacturing could not meet the demand—especially with phenol supplies, necessary for ASA synthesis, largely being used for explosives manufacture. On 5 February 1915, Bayer's UK trademarks were voided, so that any company could use the term aspirin. The Australian market was taken over by Aspro, after the makers of Nicholas-Aspirin lost a short-lived exclusive right to the aspirin name there. In the United States, Bayer was still under German control—though the war disrupted the links between the American Bayer plant and the German Bayer headquarters—but phenol shortage threatened to reduce aspirin production to a trickle, and imports across the Atlantic Ocean were blocked by the Royal Navy.:97–110

    With the coming of the deadly Spanish flu pandemic in 1918, aspirin—by whatever name—secured a reputation as one of the most powerful and effective drugs in the pharmacopeia of the time. Its fever-reducing properties gave many sick patients enough strength to fight through the infection, and aspirin companies large and small earned the loyalty of doctors and the public—when they could manufacture or purchase enough aspirin to meet demand. Despite this, some people believed that Germans put the Spanish flu bug in Bayer aspirin, causing the pandemic as a war tactic.:136–142 The U.S. ASA patent expired in 1917, but Sterling owned the aspirin trademark, which was the only commonly used term for the drug. In 1920, United Drug Company challenged the Aspirin trademark, which became officially generic for public sale in the U.S. (although it remained trademarked when sold to wholesalers and pharmacists). With demand growing rapidly in the wake of the Spanish flu, there were soon hundreds of...

    After World War II, with the IG Farben conglomerate dismantled because of its central role in the Nazi regime, Sterling Products bought half of Bayer Ltd, the British Bayer subsidiary—the other half of which it already owned. However, Bayer Aspirin made up only a small fraction of the British aspirin market because of competition from Aspro, Disprin (a soluble aspirin drug) and other brands. Bayer Ltd began searching for new pain relievers to compete more effectively. After several moderately successful compound drugs that mainly utilized aspirin (Anadin and Excedrin), Bayer Ltd's manager Laurie Spalton ordered an investigation of a substance that scientists at Yale had, in 1946, found to be the metabolically active derivative of acetanilide: acetaminophen. After clinical trials, Bayer Ltd brought acetaminophen to market as Panadol in 1956.:205–207 However, Sterling Products did not market Panadol in the United States or other countries where Bayer Aspirin still dominated the aspiri...

    The mechanism of aspirin's analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties was unknown through the drug's heyday in the early- to mid-twentieth century; Heinrich Dreser's explanation, widely accepted since the drug was first brought to market, was that aspirin relieved pain by acting on the central nervous system. In 1958 Harry Collier, a biochemist in the London laboratory of pharmaceutical company Parke-Davis, began investigating the relationship between kinins and the effects of aspirin. In tests on guinea pigs, Collier found that aspirin, if given beforehand, inhibited the bronchoconstriction effects of bradykinin. He found that cutting the guinea pigs' vagus nerve did not affect the action of bradykinin or the inhibitory effect of aspirin—evidence that aspirin worked locally to combat pain and inflammation, rather than on the central nervous system. In 1963, Collier began working with University of London pharmacology graduate student Priscilla Piper to determine the pr...

    Aspirin's effects on blood clotting (as an antiplatelet agent) were first noticed in 1950 by Lawrence Craven. Craven, a family doctor in California, had been directing tonsillectomy patients to chew Aspergum, an aspirin-laced chewing gum. He found that an unusual number of patients had to be hospitalized for severe bleeding, and that those patients had been using very high amounts of Aspergum. Craven began recommending daily aspirin to all his patients, and claimed that the patients who followed the aspirin regimen (about 8,000 people) had no signs of thrombosis. However, Craven's studies were not taken seriously by the medical community, because he had not done a placebo-controlled study and had published only in obscure journals.:237–239 The idea of using aspirin to prevent clotting diseases (such as heart attacks and strokes) was revived in the 1960s, when medical researcher Harvey Weiss found that aspirin had an anti-adhesive effect on blood platelets (and unlike other potential...

  8. Buffet - Wikipedia
    • Home Entertaining
    • Variations
    • All-You-Can-Eat
    • Restaurant Buffets
    • Gallery
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Since a buffet involves diners serving themselves, it has in the past been considered an informal form of dining, less formal than table service. In recent years, however, buffet meals are increasingly popular among hosts of home dinner parties, especially in homes where limited space complicates the serving of individual table places.

    There are many different ways of offering diners a selection of foods that are called "buffet" style meals. Some buffets are "single pass only", but most buffets allow a diner to first take small samples of unfamiliar foods, and then to return for more servings if desired. To avoid misunderstandings in commercial eating establishments, the rules and charges are often posted on signs near the buffet serving tables. 1. One form of buffet is to have a display counter or table filled with plates containing fixed portions of food; customers select plates containing whichever dishes they want as they walk along. The food display may either be staffed, or the customers may pick up the food plates themselves. This form is most commonly seen in cafeterias. Another derivative of this type of buffet occurs where patrons choose food from a buffet style layout and then pay based on what was chosen (sometimes based on the weight of the food, or color-coded plates). 2. A variation occurs in a dim...

    The all-you-can-eat restaurant was introduced in Las Vegas by Herbert "Herb" Cobb McDonald in 1946.The buffet was advertised in flyers for only one dollar, and a patron can eat "every possible variety of hot and cold entrees to appease the howling coyote in your innards". Many boarding schools, colleges, and universities offer optional or mandatory "meal plans", especially in connection with dormitories for students. These are often in an "all-you-can-eat" buffet format, sometimes called "all-you-care-to-eat" to encourage dietary moderation. The format may also be used in other institutional settings, such as military bases, large factories, cruise ships, or medium-securityprisons. In 2007, the first all-you-can-eat seating section in Major League Baseball was introduced at Dodger Stadium. The trend spread to 19 of the 30 major league parks by 2010, and numerous minor league parks by 2012. The basic menu includes traditional ballpark food such as hot dogs, nachos, peanuts, popcorn,...

    In Australia, buffet chains such as Sizzler serve a large number of patrons with carvery meats, seafood, salads and desserts. Cruise operators in Sydney, conduct Sydney Harbour sightseeing cruises with continental buffets having multiple seafood options. Buffets are also common in Returned and Services League of Australia(RSL) clubs and some motel restaurants. In Brazil, comida a quilo or comida por quilo—literally, "food by [the] kilo"—restaurants are common. This is a cafeteria style buffet in which diners are billed by the weight of the food selected, excluding the tare weight of the plate. Brazilian cuisine's rodíziostyle is all-you-can-eat, having both non-self-service and self-service variations. In Hong Kong, the cha chaan teng buffetis a relatively new variation on traditional low-cost Chinese snack and coffee shops. In Japan, a buffet or smorgasbord is known as a viking (バイキング - baikingu). It is said that this originated from the restaurant "Imperial Viking" in the Imperial...

    Ham and cheese in a German breakfast buffet
    Staffed hot buffet line aboard the Celebrity Equinoxcruise ship
    Breakfast buffet
    Brunch buffet
    Peck, Carole (1997). The Buffet Book: Inspired Ideas for New-Style Entertaining, with 175 Recipes. Viking. ISBN 0-670-86516-8.
    "Novel Touches for Buffet Service". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. August 1945. pp. 89–90. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
    Von Welanetz Wentworth, Diana; Paul Von Welanetz (1978). The Art of Buffet Entertaining. Los Angeles: J. P. Tarcher. ISBN 0-87477-080-7.
    The dictionary definition of buffetat Wiktionary
    Media related to Buffetsat Wikimedia Commons
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  1. 4 g吃到飽2021 相關