B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism and synthesis of red blood cells.  Though these vitamins share similar names (B 1, B 2, B 3, etc.), they are chemically distinct compounds that often coexist in the 
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype. They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system. B cells produce antibody molecules which may be either secreted or inserted into the plasma membrane where they serve as a part of B-cell receptors. When a ...
- Body Styles
- Sales Figures in Europe
- Electric Vehicles
- See Also
The European segments are not based on size or weight criteria. In practice, B-segment cars have been described as having a length of approximately from 3.7 metres (145.7 in) up to 4.2 metres (165.4 in), and may vary depending on the body styles, markets, and era.In some cases, the same car may be differently positioned depending on the market. The...
The term supermini, which precedes the B-segment term emerged in the UK in the 1970s, as car manufacturers sought a new design to surpass the influential Mini, launched in 1959, and journalists attempted to categorise such a vehicle. The car which is widely regarded as the first modern supermini is the Fiat 127, launched in 1971. This was initially...
Hatchbacks are the most popular body style for the segment. While the majority are equipped with five doors, many European-oriented hatchbacks are offered with both three-door and five-door versions, with 31 percent of European customers opting for three-door B-segment hatchbacks by 2007. This share decreased to 13 percent in 2016 due to shifts in ...
European sales of B-segment cars were down by 25 percent in 2020 to 2.24 million units. In 2020 the fifteen highest selling B-segment cars in Europe were the Renault Clio, Peugeot 208, Opel/Vauxhall Corsa, Toyota Yaris, Volkswagen Polo, Dacia Sandero, Ford Fiesta, Citroën C3, Mini, Renault Zoe, Skoda Fabia, Hyundai i20, Seat Ibiza, Audi A1 and Suzu...
Notes: Jump in total sales after 2019 year is because premium cars are included. From 2013 to 2018 premium cars are not included in total sales (sales are marked by "x"). Premium brands and models are marked italic. Electric cars are included in B-segment.
One of the first mass-market electric B-segment cars in Europe was the Renault Zoe, released in 2012. Global sales of the Zoe achieved the 50,000 unit milestone in June 2016, and 200,000 units by March 2020. Other manufacturers followed suit; Groupe PSA introduced the Peugeot e-208 and Opel Corsa-e in 2019, while Honda followed with the low-volume ...
The B-segment is considered as the European equivalent to the subcompact category widely known in North America, the A0-class in China, and the supermini category for B-segment hatchbacksin Great Britain.
FO B cells express high levels of IgD, and CD23; lower levels of CD21 and IgM; and no CD1 or CD5, readily distinguishing this compartment from B1 B cells and marginal zone B-cells. FO B cells organize into the primary follicles of B cell zones focused around follicular dendritic cells in the white pulp of the spleen and the cortical areas of peripheral lymph nodes .
- Clinical Significance
- as A Drug Target
- Further Reading
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor is preferentially expressed in mature B lymphocytes, and may be important for B cell development and autoimmune response. This receptor has been shown to specifically bind to the tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 13b (TNFSF13B/TALL-1/BAFF), ...
TNFRSF17 has been shown to interact with the B-cell activating factor TNFSF13B. A conserved domain at the N-terminus, BCMA TALL-1 binding domain, is required for bindingto the TNFSF13B.
TNFRSF17 is implicated in leukemia, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma (see the "Mitelman Database" and the Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology,).
An antibody-drug conjugate GSK2857916(belantamab mafodotin) demonstrated activity in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, previously treated with an immunomodulatory drug, proteosome inhibitor, or who were intolerant/refractory to an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody. The primary toxicities were keratopathy, thrombocytopenia, and anemia....
This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.
B symptoms are a set of symptoms, namely fever, night sweats, and unintentional weight loss, that can be associated with both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.These symptoms are not specific to lymphomas, especially each one considered individually, and even as a trio they are not pathognomonic for lymphomas, but the presence of the trio is sensitive enough for lymphomas to warrant ...
Haemophilia B Other names Hemophilia B This condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner.Specialty Haematology Symptoms Easy bruising  Causes Factor IX deficiency  Haemophilia B, also spelled hemophilia B, is a blood clotting disorder causing easy bruising and bleeding due to an inherited mutation of the gene for factor IX, and resulting in a deficiency of factor IX.
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