今日新聞NOWnews via Yahoo奇摩新聞
- $32900Apple iPhone 13 pro 128GB購物中心
- $504002021 iPhone 13 Pro 1TB 6.1吋 A15 仿生晶片 MLVV3TA MLVW3TA MLVY3TA MLW03TA購物中心
- $434002021 iPhone 13 Pro 512G 6.1吋 A15 仿生晶片 MLVH3TA MLVN3TA MLVQ3TA MLVU3TA購物中心
- $26900$28315Apple iPhone 13 128G 組合購物中心
- $29400Apple iPhone 13 256G 6.1吋智慧型手機購物中心
- $25900Apple iPhone 13 128G 6.1吋智慧型手機購物中心
- $259002021 iPhone 13 128G 6.1吋 A15 仿生晶片 MLPF3TA MLPG3TA MLPH3TA MLPJ3TA MLPK3TA購物中心
- $36400Apple iPhone 13 Pro 256G 5G手機購物中心
- $29400$30947Apple iPhone 13 256G購物中心
- $22900Apple iPhone 13 128G MINI 5.4吋智慧型手機購物中心
- $29400Apple iPhone 13 256G 6.1吋智慧型手機購物中心
- $25900Apple iPhone 13 128G 5G手機購物中心
Apple Watch is a line of smartwatches produced by Apple Inc. It incorporates fitness tracking, health-oriented capabilities, and wireless telecommunication, and integrates with iOS and other Apple products and services.The Apple Watch was ...
The Apple electric car project (codenamed "Titan") is an electric car project undergoing research and development by Apple Inc. Apple has yet to openly discuss any of its self-driving research, but around 5,000 employees were ...
Products Ready-to-assemble furniture, homeware, food products Revenue €41.3 billion (FY 2019)  Website about.ikea.com www.ingka.com Retail page www.ikea.com IKEA (Swedish: [ɪˈkêːa]) is a Swedish-origin Dutch (Netherlands)-headquartered ...
... pronounced [kalaːɬit nunaːt]; Danish: Grønland, pronounced [ˈkʁɶnˌlænˀ]) is the world's largest island, [d] located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.Greenland is an autonomous territory [13 ...
- Bus Width
- External Links
In contrast with standard SDRAM, used in stationary devices and laptops and usually connected over a 64-bit wide memory bus, LPDDR also permits 16- or 32-bit wide channels. The "E" versions mark enhanced versions of the specifications. They formalize overclocking the memory array up to 266.7 MHz for a 33% performance boost. Memory modules implementing these higher frequencies are used in Apple MacBooksand gaming laptops. As with standard SDRAM, most generations double the internal fetch size and external transfer speed. (DDR-4 and LPDDR-5 being the exceptions.)
The original low-power DDR (sometimes retroactively called LPDDR1) is a slightly modified form of DDR SDRAM, with several changes to reduce overall power consumption. Most significant, the supply voltage is reduced from 2.5 to 1.8 V. Additional savings come from temperature-compensated refresh (DRAM requires refresh less often at low temperatures), partial array self refresh, and a "deep power down" mode which sacrifices all memory contents. Additionally, chips are smaller, using less board s...
A new JEDEC standard JESD209-2E defines a more dramatically revised low-power DDR interface. It is not compatible with either DDR1 or DDR2 SDRAM, but can accommodate either: 1. LPDDR2-S2: 2nprefetch memory (like DDR1), 2. LPDDR2-S4: 4nprefetch memory (like DDR2), or 3. LPDDR2-N: Non-volatile (NAND flash) memory. Low-power states are similar to basic LPDDR, with some additional partial array refresh options. Timing parameters are specified for LPDDR-200 to LPDDR-1066 (clock frequencies of 100...
In May 2012, JEDEC published the JESD209-3 Low Power Memory Device Standard. In comparison to LPDDR2, LPDDR3 offers a higher data rate, greater bandwidth and power efficiency, and higher memory density. LPDDR3 achieves a data rate of 1600 MT/s and utilizes key new technologies: write-leveling and command/address training,optional on-die termination (ODT), and low-I/O capacitance. LPDDR3 supports both package-on-package (PoP) and discrete packaging types. The command encoding is identical to L...
- See Also
The Publisher Defendants sold over 48% of all e-books in the U.S. in the first quarter of 2010. The Publisher Defendants along with Random House Publishing are the six largest publishers in the United States (collectively the Publishers) and are often referred to as the "Big Six" in the publishing industry. In 2009 Amazon.com Inc. had nearly 90% of the e-books industry. Amazon charged $9.99 for certain new releases and bestselling e-books which helped make it the market leader in the sale of e-books and e-readers with its Kindle. Amazon's price point caused discontent among the Publishers. The Publishers believed that the low price point was a problem for their sales of more profitable hardcover books. Approximately every three months, the CEOs of the Big Six would meet in private dining rooms in New York restaurants "without counsel or assistant present, in order to discuss the common challenges they faced, including most prominently Amazon's pricing policies." The Publishers used...
Beginning on December 8, 2009, Apple's senior VP of Internet Software and Services, Eddy Cue, contacted the Publishers to set up meetings for the following week. During the meetings Cue suggested that Apple would sell the majority of e-books between $9.99 and $14.99, with new releases being $12.99 to $14.99. Apple also adopted the agency model which it used in its App Store for distribution of e-books. This let Publishers control the price of the e-books with Apple receiving a 30% commission. Apple also set up price tiers for different books. Apple also included a MFNclause in their contract with the Publishers which allowed for Apple to sell e-book at its competitors' lowest price. Amazon learned about the coming deals between the Publishers and Apple on January 18, 2010. In response, Amazon appealed directly to authors and encouraged disintermediation, the act of reducing intermediaries between producers and consumers (i.e. allowing for authors to directly sell to consumers). Auth...
Section 1 of the Sherman Act outlaws "every contract, combination…, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States."To show that there is violation of Section 1 of the Sherman Act proof of joint or concerted action is required as was shown in Monsanto Co. v. Spray-Rite Service Corp.. The plaintiffs must show: 1. "a combination or some form of concerted action between at least two legally distinct economic entities" that 2. "constituted an unreasonable restraint of t...
Apple asserted that it is entitled to a verdict in its favor since the evidence does not "tend to exclude" the possibility that Apple acted in a manner consistent with its lawful business interests. This relies on the Supreme Court's decision in Monsanto v. Spray-Rite.The defendant argued that it never intended to conspire to raise e-book prices. Apple argued that the Plaintiffs have failed to show that the Publishers actually "increased" e-book prices. This is because had Amazon not adopted...
Analysis of evidence
The Court found that a large amount of evidence shows that the Publisher Defendants joined with each other in a horizontal price-fixing conspiracy. There is sufficient evidence to show that Apple violated Section 1 of the Sherman Act by conspiring with the Publishers to eliminate retail price competition and raise the price of e-books. The evidence shows that Apple was a knowing and active member of the conspiracy. The plaintiff has proven a per se violation of the Sherman Act.
In this case, the court applied the per se doctrine to vertical pricing conduct which had not been the doctrine since Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc.. Leegin suggested that vertical conduct be judged independently under the rule of reason even in the presence of both vertical and horizontal parties. This may lead to more stringent antitrust treatment to actors in vertical relationships.
- Starkey Hearing Foundation
In 1967, William F. "Bill" Austin started a small hearing aid repair store after dropping out of medical school. In 1970, he purchased an ear mold company called Starkey Labs for $13,000.Starkey started manufacturing hearing aids, offering the industry's first 90-day trial period.
In 1983, the company's sales doubled when Ronald Reaganstarted wearing its hearing aids while he was president, which caused a manufacturing crisis at the company to meet demand. Austin has personally assisted five U.S. presidents, two popes, Mother Teresa, Nelson Mandela and other notable leaders with Starkey hearing aids. In 2015, Austin fired Starkey's then-president, Jerry Ruzicka, along with a handful of senior managers. A year later, in September 2016, federal prosecutors charged Ruzick...
Current product line
As of October 2019, the company offers ten different hearing aid devices and several accessories. The devices include: 1. Hearing & activity tracking 2. Smartphone compatible 3. Invisible products 4. Receiver-in-canal 5. Completely-in-canal 6. Behind-the-ear-ear 7. In-the- 8. In-the-ear 9. Tinnitus relief 10. Single-sided hearing
Recent developments and accessories
In 2014, Starkey introduced Halo, a hearing aid that works with the iPhoneand an associated app. In 2016, the company introduced high-tech hearing aids with more powerful processors and software, aimed at aging baby boomers; their marketing emphasized its ability to help its users hear music well. In 2017, the iQ product familywas unveiled. Products in this family deliver pristine audio and exceptional listening clarity. Muse IQ Rechargeable delivers continuous, stable power to ensure users'...
According to the World Health Organization, as of 2019, approximately 466 million people worldwide, including 34 million children, have disabling hearing loss. One of WHO's responses has been to build partnerships "to develop strong hearing care programmes." To address hearing loss facing those in developing nations, in 1984 Austin and his spouse, Tani Austin, founded the Starkey Hearing Foundation. Together, they have been active in "building sustainable, community-based systems of hearing healthcare around the world to empower local communities and ensure the people helped are able to achieve their full potential in life." In 2015, Tani Austin was honored at the United Nations by the United States Federation for Middle East Peaceas Female Philanthropist of the Year. To help raise funds, the foundation holds an annual gala that is attended by various celebrities.As of 2017, the foundation had donated one million hearing aids to those in need around the world. During the COVID-19 pa...
A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode during discharge, and back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an ...
- General Characteristics
- Connection to Other Circuits
- Active-Matrix Technologies
- Quality Control
- "Zero-Power" (bistable) Displays
- Advantages and Disadvantages
Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, often made of Indium-Tin oxide (ITO) and two polarizing filters (parallel and perpendicular polarizers), the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other. Without the liquid crystal between the polarizing filters, light passing through the first filter would be blocked by the second (crossed) polarizer. Before an electric field is applied, the orientation of the liquid-crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces of electrodes. In a twisted nematic (TN) device, the surface alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular to each other, and so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist. This induces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, and the device appears gray. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules in the center of the layer are alm...
The origins and the complex history of liquid-crystal displays from the perspective of an insider during the early days were described by Joseph A. Castellano in Liquid Gold: The Story of Liquid Crystal Displays and the Creation of an Industry.Another report on the origins and history of LCD from a different perspective until 1991 has been published by Hiroshi Kawamoto, available at the IEEE History Center.A description of Swiss contributions to LCD developments, written by Peter J. Wild, can be found at the Engineering and Technology History Wiki.
Since LCDs produce no light of their own, they require external light to produce a visible image. In a transmissive type of LCD, the light source is provided at the back of the glass stack and is called a backlight. Active-matrix LCDs are almost always backlit. Passive LCDs may be backlit but many use a reflector at the back of the glass stack to utilize ambient light. Transflective LCDscombine the features of a backlit transmissive display and a reflective display. The common implementations of LCD backlight technology are: 1. CCFL: The LCD panel is lit either by two cold cathode fluorescent lamps placed at opposite edges of the display or an array of parallel CCFLs behind larger displays. A diffuser (made of PMMA acrylic plastic, also known as a wave or light guide/guiding plate) then spreads the light out evenly across the whole display. For many years, this technology had been used almost exclusively. Unlike white LEDs, most CCFLs have an even-white spectral output resulting in...
A standard television receiver screen, a modern LCD panel, has over six million pixels, and they are all individually powered by a wire network embedded in the screen. The fine wires, or pathways, form a grid with vertical wires across the whole screen on one side of the screen and horizontal wires across the whole screen on the other side of the screen. To this grid each pixel has a positive connection on one side and a negative connection on the other side. So the total amount of wires needed for a 1080p display is 3 x 1920 going vertically and 1080 going horizontally for a total of 6840 wires horizontally and vertically. That's three for red, green and blue and 1920 columns of pixels for each color for a total of 5760 wires going vertically and 1080 rows of wires going horizontally. For a panel that is 28.8 inches (73 centimeters) wide, that means a wire density of 200 wires per inch along the horizontal edge. The LCD panel is powered by LCD drivers that are carefully matched up...
Monochrome and later color passive-matrix LCDs were standard in most early laptops (although a few used plasma displays) and the original Nintendo Game Boy until the mid-1990s, when color active-matrix became standard on all laptops. The commercially unsuccessful Macintosh Portable (released in 1989) was one of the first to use an active-matrix display (though still monochrome). Passive-matrix LCDs are still used in the 2010s for applications less demanding than laptop computers and TVs, such as inexpensive calculators. In particular, these are used on portable devices where less information content needs to be displayed, lowest power consumption (no backlight) and low cost are desired or readability in direct sunlight is needed. Displays having a passive-matrix structure are employing super-twisted nematic STN (invented by Brown Boveri Research Center, Baden, Switzerland, in 1983; scientific details were published) or double-layer STN (DSTN) technology (the latter of which addresse...
Twisted nematic displays contain liquid crystals that twist and untwist at varying degrees to allow light to pass through. When no voltage is applied to a TN liquid crystal cell, polarized light passes through the 90-degrees twisted LC layer. In proportion to the voltage applied, the liquid crystals untwist changing the polarization and blocking the light's path. By properly adjusting the level of the voltage almost any gray level or transmission can be achieved.
In-plane switching is an LCD technology that aligns the liquid crystals in a plane parallel to the glass substrates. In this method, the electrical field is applied through opposite electrodes on the same glass substrate, so that the liquid crystals can be reoriented (switched) essentially in the same plane, although fringe fields inhibit a homogeneous reorientation. This requires two transistors for each pixel instead of the single transistor needed for a standard thin-film transistor (TFT)...
M+ or RGBW controversy
In 2015 LG Displayannounced the implementation of a new technology called M+ which is the addition of white subpixel along with the regular RGB dots in their IPS panel technology. Most of the new M+ technology was employed on 4K TV sets which led to a controversy after tests showed that the addition of a white sub pixel replacing the traditional RGB structure would reduce the resolution by around 25%. This means that a 4K TV cannot display the full UHD TV standard.The media and internet users...
Some LCD panels have defective transistors, causing permanently lit or unlit pixels which are commonly referred to as stuck pixels or dead pixels respectively. Unlike integrated circuits (ICs), LCD panels with a few defective transistors are usually still usable. Manufacturers' policies for the acceptable number of defective pixels vary greatly. At one point, Samsung held a zero-tolerance policy for LCD monitors sold in Korea. As of 2005, though, Samsung adheres to the less restrictive ISO 13406-2 standard.Other companies have been known to tolerate as many as 11 dead pixels in their policies. Dead pixel policies are often hotly debated between manufacturers and customers. To regulate the acceptability of defects and to protect the end user, ISO released the ISO 13406-2 standard, which was made obsolete in 2008 with the release of ISO 9241, specifically ISO-9241-302, 303, 305, 307:2008 pixel defects. However, not every LCD manufacturer conforms to the ISO standard and the ISO standa...
The zenithal bistable device (ZBD), developed by Qinetiq (formerly DERA), can retain an image without power. The crystals may exist in one of two stable orientations ("black" and "white") and power is only required to change the image. ZBD Displays is a spin-off company from QinetiQ who manufactured both grayscale and color ZBD devices. Kent Displays has also developed a "no-power" display that uses polymer stabilized cholesteric liquid crystal (ChLCD). In 2009 Kent demonstrated the use of a ChLCD to cover the entire surface of a mobile phone, allowing it to change colors, and keep that color even when power is removed.In 2004 researchers at the University of Oxford demonstrated two new types of zero-power bistable LCDs based on Zenithal bistable techniques. Several bistable technologies, like the 360° BTN and the bistable cholesteric, depend mainly on the bulk properties of the liquid crystal (LC) and use standard strong anchoring, with alignment films and LC mixtures similar to th...Resolution The resolution of an LCD is expressed by the number of columns and rows of pixels (e.g., 1024×768). Each pixel is usually composed 3 sub-pixels, a red, a green, and a blue one. This had...Spatial performance: For a computer monitor or some other display that is being viewed from a very close distance, resolution is often expressed in terms of dot pitch or pixels per inch, which is c...Temporal performance: the temporal resolution of an LCD is how well it can display changing images, or the accuracy and the number of times per second the display draws the data it is being given....Color performance: There are multiple terms to describe different aspects of color performance of a display. Color gamut is the range of colors that can be displayed, and color depth, which is the...
Some of these issues relate to full-screen displays, others to small displays as on watches, etc. Many of the comparisons are with CRT displays.
- SFP Types
- QSFP Types
- Mechanical Dimensions
- EEPROM Information
- Digital Diagnostics Monitoring
- See Also
SFP transceivers are available with a variety of transmitter and receiver specifications, allowing users to select the appropriate transceiver for each link to provide the required optical or electrical reach over the available media type (e.g. twisted pair copper cables, multi-mode or single-modefiber cables). Transceivers are also designated by their transmission speed. SFP modules are commonly available in several different categories.
Quad Small Form-factor Pluggable (QSFP) transceivers are available with a variety of transmitter and receiver types, allowing users to select the appropriate transceiver for each link to provide the required optical reach over multi-mode or single-mode fiber.
SFP sockets are found in Ethernet switches, routers, firewalls and network interface cards. They are used in Fibre Channel host adaptersand storage equipment. Because of their low cost, low profile, and ability to provide a connection to different types of optical fiber, SFP provides such equipment with enhanced flexibility.
The SFP transceiver is not standardized by any official standards body, but rather is specified by a multi-source agreement (MSA) among competing manufacturers. The SFP was designed after the GBIC interface, and allows greater port density(number of transceivers per given area) than the GBIC, which is why SFP is also known as mini-GBIC. However, as a practical matter, some networking equipment manufacturers engage in vendor lock-in practices whereby they deliberately break compatibility with "generic" SFPs by adding a check in the device's firmware that will enable only the vendor's own modules.Third-party SFP manufacturers have introduced SFPs with EEPROMs which may be programmed to match any vendor ID.
SFP transceivers are 'right-handed': From their perspective, they transmit on the right and receive on the left. When looking into the optical connectors, transmission comes from the left and reception is on the right. The SFP transceiver contains a printed circuit board with an edge connectorwith 20 pads that mate on the rear with the SFP electrical connector in the host system. The QSFP has 38 pads including 4 high-speed transmit data pairs and 4 high-speed receive data pairs.
The physical dimensions of the SFP transceiver (and its subsequent faster variants) are narrower than the later QSFP counterparts, which allows for SFP transceivers to be placed in QSFP ports via an inexpensive adapter. Both are smaller than the XFP transceiver.
The SFP MSA defines a 256-byte memory map into an EEPROM describing the transceiver's capabilities, standard interfaces, manufacturer, and other information, which is accessible over a serial I²Cinterface at the 8-bit address 1010000X (A0h).
Modern optical SFP transceivers support standard digital diagnostics monitoring (DDM) functions. This feature is also known as digital optical monitoring (DOM). This capability allows monitoring of the SFP operating parameters in real time. Parameters include optical output power, optical input power, temperature, laser bias current, and transceiver supply voltage. In network equipment, this information is typically made available via Simple Network Management Protocol(SNMP). A DDM interface allows end users to display diagnostics data and alarms for optical fiber transceivers and can be used to diagnose why a transceiver is not working.