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  1. Digital Labor - P2P Foundation › Digital_Labor

    Concept Description 1. From the Wikipedia: "Digital labor or digital labour is a term for a schema of ideas focusing on exploring and understanding the high levels of cognitive and cultural labor associated with the replacement of jobs in ...

  2. Category:Manufacturing - P2P Foundation › Category:Manufacturing

    The P2P Foundation supports the aims of the Open Source Hardware and Design Alliance [3] , an initiative to foster sustainable sharing of open hardware and design. See the case study on the Glif iphone tripod for an example of integrated ...

  3. Next Billion Seconds - P2P Foundation › Next_Billion_Seconds

    If your iPhone app does something Apple doesn’t like – or considers a potential competitive threat – Apple has the power to deny you access to its centralized retail channel. Because the hyperconnectivity of Apple’s iOS devices would normally ...

  4. Platform Cooperativism - P2P Foundation › Platform_Cooperativism
    • Introduction
    • Contextual Quotes
    • Description
    • Typology
    • Citations of Examples
    • Tools For Commons-Based Platform Cooperatives
    • History
    • Interview
    • Discussion
    • The Las Indias / Nathan Schneider Controversy

    Concept and practice suggested by Trebor Scholz, in the article: "Platform Cooperativism vs. the Sharing Economy"; and Also an event: see ; and a book, the Platform Cooperativism Book

    1. " Worker–owned cooperatives could design their own apps-based platforms, fostering truly peer-to-peer ways of providing services and things " 2. "The solidarity economy is creative and energetic, spawning healthy attitudes toward work and more sustainable forms of financing. But this movement, perhaps because it prioritizes offline essentials like sustainable agriculture, local communities, and alternative energy, has yet to infiltrate the Internet as it should. Members of a food cooperative, for instance, may not notice the contradiction when they keep their files on Google Drive, process their payments with Square, and buy ads on Facebook. For now, these kinds of tools can seem unavoidable, though they need not be. The solidarity economy deserves a solidarity Internet." — NATHAN SCHNEIDER AND TREBOR SCHOLZ

    1. Menno van Ginkel: "The concept of platform cooperativism has been proposed by Scholz (2014), as a reaction to the dependence of digital tools and platforms in modern society. Since the arrival of the smartphone in the late 2000s, many interactions in both a professional setting and in private life are facilitated by online platforms and apps. This digital economy is mostly enabled by a range of platforms that are owned, governed, operated and regulated by profit-maximizing companies and data-collecting governments (Hill, 2016; Fonseca, 2016). The value that is generated through these fundamental digital environments flows towards a handful of firms and their shareholders, as well as governmental intelligence agencies, essentially exploiting the users that make the network possible. As a response to this form of digital capitalism, platform cooperativism “is about cloning the technological heart of online platforms and puts it to work with a cooperative model, one that puts worker...

    "Trebor offers a series of types of platform coops. Cooperative online labor brokerages & marketplacesIn Germany, Fairmondo started as a global marketplace owned by its users -- like a co-operative ebay. In SF, Loconomics is a freelance co-operative where freelancers have shares and have a voice in running the company.

    1. Nathan Schneider and Trebor Scholz: "Over the past few months, we have been preparing a showcase of actually-existing projects that have collective ownership at their core. We will hear, for instance, from the people behind Stocksy, an artist-owned stock-photography website, and Resonate, a cooperative music streaming platform. Backfeed, Swarm, and Consensys will show us the potential of the technology that made Bitcoin possible. We’ll learn about several new platforms that put labor markets under the control of workers themselves." ( 2. Neal Gorenflo: "Examples of platform coops abound. A wave is forming, but most examples are brave experiments at best. Shareable’s “Owning is the New Sharing,” lists many examples. There’s Loconomics, the cooperative version of task marketplace TaskRabbit. One of the most successful experiments is Enspiral Network, a New Zealand-based coworking community plus digital collective that a...

    = « We need to pioneer technical, organizational and financial forms that enable users to mutualize the benefits of their own online sharing ». David Bollier: "Our imaginations and aspirations must begin to shift their focus from open platforms to digital commons. Self-organized commoners must be able to control the terms of their interactions and governance, and to reap the fruits of their own collaboration and sharing.

    Nathan Schneider responds to Imperica: 1. You have been influential in developing the term and concept of platform co-operatives. Why did you feel like it was the right moment to do this? NS: "My colleague Trebor Scholz first coined the term in December 2014. That same month, I published a report with Shareable about entrepreneurs around the world who were already trying to build platforms based on shared ownership and governance. There was already something in the air. By that point, many people who had been excited about the prospects of the so-called "sharing economy" were starting to realize that there wasn't much actual sharing going on, and that in many cases workers were expected to work without the basic protections—stability, benefits, a living wage—that their predecessors had won through centuries of struggle. The striking Uber drivers; the protests against Google buses in San Francisco; the Snowden revelations — these are all signs, I think, that we need a new social cont...

    Nathan Schneider on Platform Cooperativism and its Prospects

    From an interview with Imperica: 1. Internet marketplaces often tend towards monopolies. Is the future of platform co-operatives in opening up new sectors for operation, or in displacing established players from existing sectors? NS: I'm starting to think that we need a new generation of law and custom for dealing with these rising online monopolies. The old trust-busting logic doesn't really make sense; Facebook and Google, for instance, are so useful to us because they're so ubiquitous. Rat...

    Multi-Stakeholder Cooperatives as the key structure for Platform Cooperatives

    Maurie J. Cohen: "In moving toward platform cooperativism, the availability of open-source software like Sharetribe, which enables social entrepreneurs to easily create new sharing networks is likely to be an important new development. While this idea is unquestionably laudable, there is opportunity to push it a little further. Why limit cooperation only to producers while implicitly treating consumers as little more than a mass of aggregate demand? Why elevate workers over their customers wh...

    What might a driver-owned Uber look like?

    Excerpted from Nic Wistreich: “There’s at least three options… 1. Like Uber/Lyft/etc, but a giant Coop. A logical starting point would be simply to recreate Uber/Lyft/etc, with their global network of offices, drivers, marketing and technical infrastructure, as a driver-owned coop, operating either non-profit or with its profits distributed amongst drivers. It would need to be a large, well financed (Uber has raised $7bn over 12 rounds, dynamic or...

    George Dafermos

    George Dafermos: "In contrast to proprietary platforms like YouTube and Airbnb, platform cooperatives areowned and governed by their users. The crucial difference lies in their cooperative legalform, which renders them the collective property of their user-members. ‘The centralpremise,’ as Gorenflo (2015) writes, ‘is that those who create the most value for theplatforms -[for example, the] drivers and hosts [of Uber and Airbnb, respectively]-should own and control the platforms.’ According to...

    Michel Bauwens: Las Indias, a collective of cooperators in Spain, has written a critique of platform coops as a weak response to current challenges. We republished the text in our blog and you can find the original post in Las Indias’ website here. At the P2P Foundation, we rejoice and support the platform cooperativist movement, as a movement that commonifies the proprietary platforms that are exploiting commoners in their exchanges, though we call more explicitly for open cooperatives, that more actively and consciously produce shareable resources. But Nathan Schneider makes the argument that many platform coops have dynamics that already incorporate a commons and community direction. The summary of Nathan’s counter-arguments are the following: "The line between consumer and productive cooperation need not be so stark, either in the modern offline co-op movement or (especially) on online platforms that blur the lines between producer and consumer.While it’s true that consumer co-o...

  5. Sharing Economy - P2P Foundation › Sharing_Economy
    • Concept Definition
    • Characteristics
    • Typology
    • Discussion 1
    • Discussion 2
    • The Book

    Particular definitions connect the sharing economy to open content, while other equate it with Collaborative Consumption or the Solidarity Economy. 1. Sharing platform definition: The Sharing Economy is used for business models whereby users are sharing creative content, but using a proprietary platform which sells their aggregated attention to advertizers, such as on Facebook. It can be contrasted with full commons-oriented Peer Production, and with Crowdsourcing

    Janelle Orsi : 1. Shared Control 2. Shared Responsibility for the Common Good 3. Shared Earnings 4. Shared Capitalization 5. Shared Information, and 6. Shared Efforts

    Commercialized Sharing vs. Communitarian Provisioning

    Maurie J. Cohen: "Present-day commercialized sharing falls mainly into two categories: mediated micro-entrepreneurship and serialized rental. 1) Mediated Micro-Entrepreneurshipentails the brokerage of individual assets and/or labor and irregular work opportunities for which the match-making platform receives a commission. Applied within the field of urban mobility, this is the strategy operationalized by Uber, which relies on iterant drivers to provide on-demand taxi services using their own...

    Transactional vs Transformational Sharing

    Sharon Ede: "Neal Gorenflo of Shareable expressed a useful distinction between sharing that is transactional and sharing that is transformational. While there are no absolutes, in general ‘transactional’ sharing is typically profit-driven, and more about the efficient operation of existing systems, resource efficiency and cost sharing. More efficiently using existing assets (be they physical, virtual, skills or time), whether or not monetary exchange is involved, contributes to a more effecti...

    The fourfold typology of Juliet Schorr

    Juliet Schorr: "Sharing economy activities fall into four broad categories: recirculation of goods, increased utilization of durable assets, exchange of services, and sharing of productive assets. The origins of the first date to 1995 with the founding of eBay and Craigslist, two marketplaces for recirculation of goods that are now firmly part of the mainstream consumer experience. These sites were propelled by nearly two decades of heavy acquisition of cheap imports that led to a proliferati...

    Maryknoll Encounters newsletter: "As Arthur de Grave writing on Ouishare, a website focused on the collaborative economy, explains, “Two main groups of criticism have emerged: one on ownership structures and the other on employment.” Other concerns around questions of insurance, regulations and tax avoidance also hound the sharing economy."(

    The Exploitative Business Logics Behind the Sharing Economy

    Andrew Leonard: "Here are eight prime reasons why the sharing economy is just a cover for Silicon Valley greed. 1. When sharing becomes gouging Uber made plenty of headlines during a huge winter storm in New York in December, when riders found themselves paying three times the normal price to hail a car in the middle of the snow and frozen rain. Uber founder Travis Kalanick defended the “surge pricing” as a way to provide an incentive to drivers to stay out on the streets; but to many riders,...

    The so-called sharing economy should really be called Platform Capitalism

    By sebastian olma: "Sascha Lobo, a German technology blogger for Der Spiegel, has recently suggested to drop the obscure notion of “sharing” altogether. “What is called sharing economy,” he argues, “is merely one aspect of a more general development, i.e., a new quality of the the digital economy: platform capitalism.” As Lobo emphasizes, platforms like Uber and AirBnB are more than just internet marketplaces. While marketplaces connect supply and demand between customers and companies, digit...

    The Sharing Economy is using your assets

    Trebor Scholz: "I am all there with Arun Sundararajan, professor at Stern School of Business at NYU, who describes walking down the street in New York City, musing on all the parked cars that remain unused ninety-two percent of the time. He gets it right; it seems awfully inefficient, even wasteful. Why couldn’t he just pick up one of those vehicles, run an errand, return the car to that same spot thirty minutes later, clip a twenty dollar bill under the sunshade, and be done? But then he cla...

    Book: The sharing economy: Solidarity Networks Transforming Globalisation. By Lorna Gold. Ashgate, 2004

  6. Collaborative Economy in France - P2P Foundation › Collaborative_Economy_in_France

    1.13 Musique 1.14 Recyclage 1.15 Partage de gestes et idées écologiques 1.16 Bénévolat 1.17 Partage événements 1.18 Partage de sons 1.19 Political/Governance Directory Alimentation Achat groupé direct au producteur ...

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