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  1. Platform Cooperativism - P2P Foundation › Platform_Cooperativism

    2021/4/19 · 13.1 Replacing Uber with Cooperative Ridesharing and Taxi Platforms 13.2 Notes Introduction ... cross-platform of course — Android and iPhone. I’m suggesting the marriage of badge technology with the marketing of FairTrade coffee. Here, it would ...

  2. Category:Standards - P2P Foundation › Category:Standards
    • Introduction
    • Introductory Articles
    • Short Citations
    • Long Citations
    • Organizational Resources

    The aims of these pages is to define the technical requirements for human emancipation, and define the steps necessary to create Augmented Social Networks. This page will monitor the evolution, and setbacks, on the road to creating open standards for the world's communication infrastructure. Concepts of the P2P Encyclopedia are still in the process of being ported (first 7 columns done so far, until the letter 0). We are looking for a maintainer and volunteers to update and ameliorate this page. On the overall perspective of the P2P Foundation: What Digital Commoners Need To Do, a meditation on the strategic phases in the construction of a peer to peer world Watch this video for context: Eben Moglen on the Four Forces Arrayed Against Internet Freedom and How We Can Fight Them: Must watch video with the first part highlighting the dangers to internet rights in 2011, and the second part how we can overcome them. Important: 1. Thomas Lord on Why We Need Free Network Services, and not j...

    Contextual Citation

    "If we are to preserve the democratic and creative promise of the Internet, we must continuously diagnose control points as they emerge and devise mechanisms of recreating diversity of constraint and degrees of freedom in the network to work around these forms of reconcentrated power." - Yochai Benkler


    For starters, you may want to read the following: 1. Peter Bradwell: Towards a Declaration for Digital Rights 2. Kevin Marks: The Three Main Social Aspects of the Web 3. Mike Linksvayer: Free Culture in Relation to Software Freedom

    Status Reports

    1. European Governments are embracing open source and open standards]: 2007 overview 2. How open is your mobile phone?: Android compared to OpenMoko

    Human knowledge is stored in the distributed network of individual human minds, and a repository of human knowledge needs to be stored in a distributed fashion as well - Paul B. Hartzog on the need for a fully distributed Knowledge Commons

    On the need for an alternative internet

    "The internet’s failings as a truly decentralized network, however, merely point the way toward what a decentralized network might actually look like. Instead of being administrated by central servers, it would operate through computers that pinged one another, instead of corporate-owned server farms, and deliver web pages from anywhere, even our own computers. The FCC and other governing bodies may attempt to defang the threat of the original internet by ending net neutrality. But if they di...

    On the Advantages of Open Platforms

    In an articlecritical of the closure of the Apple iPhone, the following entry summarizes the arguments for open platforms. 1. "An open platform allows developers to implement functionalitythe platform provider hasn't gotten around to yet. 2. An open platform allows developers to reimplement and replace functionality the platform provider has gotten around to, but has failed to do well. 3. An open platform allows developers to meet needs that scare the platform provider, and allows consumers t...

    Ethical Guidelines for Networked Data

    An update to the freedoms required by free software licenses, as formulated by the Nailclipper blog: To cope with the networking of data on participatory platforms, the next wave of ethical software must address the following issues: 1. Individual ownership of data - Who owns personal information? 2. Individual’s privacy - How is information shared? How anonymous is broad analysis? 3. Redistribution of reprocessed data - Can I reuse the data in a new application? 4. Cross compatibility betwee...

    Activist Campaigns

    1. Bad Vista Campaign 2. Digital Majority 3. Dynamic Coalition on the Internet Bill of Rights 4. End Software Patents 5. Free the Airwaves: Google's Open Spectrumcampaign 6. No OOXML 7. Stop software patents

    Open Definitions

    Without broad access none of the below can be used by the average citizen, so check out the: 1. 12 Real Internet Access and Impact Criteria, developed by in South Africa 2. FC Forum: Characteristics of Free and Open Infrastructures Needed for Open Online Collaboration List of open definitions: 1. "The" Open Definition 2. The Open Standards Definition. By Bruce Perens. 3. Open Standards Requirement for Software 4. Free Content Definition 5. Declaration on Libre Knowledge 6. The Ope...

    Standards Bodies and Communities

    Interesting history of Internet Governance by Harry Halpin at General: 1. Web Standards Project 2. World Wide Web Consortium W3C 3. Digital Standards Organisation 4. Open Web Foundation 5. OASIS

  3. Next Billion Seconds - P2P Foundation › Next_Billion_Seconds

    2012/3/24 · If your iPhone app does something Apple doesn’t like – or considers a potential competitive threat – Apple has the power to deny you access to its centralized retail channel. Because the hyperconnectivity of Apple’s iOS devices would normally ...

  4. Android - P2P Foundation › Android
    • Definition
    • Citations
    • Description
    • Characteristics
    • Discussion
    • More Information

    "Android is the first truly open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices. It includes an operating system, user-interface and applications -- all of the software to run a mobile phone, but without the proprietary obstacles that have hindered mobile innovation. We have developed Android in cooperation with the Open Handset Alliance, which consists of more than 30 technology and mobile leaders including Motorola, Qualcomm, HTC and T-Mobile."(

    1. Kevin Marks "Now we have a truly Open consumer OS, a world of possibilities open up." 2. Tim Carmody "Still, every single one of these companies gains a tremendous amount through their use of Android. Not only do they get a first-class mobile OS for free (or a licensing fee) without having to develop the whole thing from scratch, they get access to a gigantic user base that guarantees an active and engaged developer community. In short, they get the apps. Not every Android app will work or work perfectly on every Android device or OS flavor, but the vast majority will; others still can be easily tailored to work well or even better. This is why I say that we have a huge number of Android-compatible devices. We’ve never really had anything quite like this before in mobile. That compatibility is incredibly powerful."

    Summary from Engadget: "* At its core, Android forms the basis for Google's operating system and supporting software for phones. In Google's own words, it's a software stack. 1. Two separate but related entities form the basis for today's announcement: the Linux-based Android mobile platform (a result of Google's 2005 acquisition of a start-up of the same name) and the Open Handset Alliance, a 33-strong group of device manufacturers, component manufacturers, software companies, and carriers that have committed to working with Android. 1. There is no cut and dried "Gphone" and Google doesn't intend (or at least it hasn't indicated an intent) to enter the hardware business. Instead, it'll leave that to established players like HTC, LG, and Samsung -- and theoretically, anyone else that wants to have a go at it since the Android platform and its code base is wide open. 1. Unlike the platform itself, there's no guarantee that devices based on the Android platform will be open to third p...

    From Open Android was built from the ground-up to enable developers to create compelling mobile applications that take full advantage of all a handset has to offer. It is built to be truly open. For example, an application could call upon any of the phone's core functionality such as making calls, sending text messages, or using the camera, allowing developers to create richer and more cohesive experiences for users. Android is built on the open Linux Kernel. Furthermore, it utilizes a custom virtual machine that has been designed to optimize memory and hardware resources in a mobile environment. Android will be open source; it can be liberally extended to incorporate new cutting edge technologies as they emerge. The platform will continue to evolve as the developer community works together to build innovative mobile applications. All applications are created equal Android does not differentiate between the phone's core appli...

    Analysis of its importance

    Stephen Walli: "Google led the formation of the Open Handset Allianceto collaborate on developing a Linux-based royalty-free development platform (operating system and middleware) for mobile handsets. This culminated in the release of the Android mobile software platform as OSS in October 2008, and was shortly followed by the Android Market as a distribution mechanism for Android-based applications. Like Apple, Google is forming a developer community around Android and wants to set up the And...

    The Two Faces of Android

    Kevin Marks: "The most remarkable thing about Android is that it is the first widely adopted Open Source client operating system. It's long been clear that Open Source is the best way to preserve infrastructural code from the vicissitudes of corporate and governmental volatility, but using it for client applications has so far not taken off as well. There has often been a separation between an open source underlying layer and a proprietary user experience that is built atop it. Android does f...

    Criticism of the Openness of Android

    "Android is proprietary, despite being marketed as open source. Android has a compatibility pledge, signed and kept behind closed doors. Android has no governance model, nor any indication there will be one. Android has no spec, and the license prohibits alternative implementations, as that’s not a use licensed by Google in the SDK license. Android is completely controlled by Google, and Google reserves the right to kill off competitors applications if they hurt Google financially, etc. It’s...

  5. Bitcoin - P2P Foundation › Bitcoin
    • Definition
    • Description
    • Details
    • Context
    • Characteristics
    • Governance
    • History
    • Status
    • Statistics
    • Bitcoin Alternatives

    1. From Wikipedia: "Bitcoin is an open source peer-to-peer electronic cash system developed by Satoshi Nakamoto. The system is decentralized with no central server or trusted parties. Bitcoin relies on cryptographic principles to create unique, unreproducible, and divisible tokens of value. Users hold the cryptographic keys to their own money and transact directly with each other, with the help of the network to check for double-spending."( 2. Springwise "Bitcoin bills itself as “the first digital currency that is completely distributed.” In essence, that means that it’s managed collectively by a global network of users, so no bank or payment processor is required between buyers and sellers in any transaction. Users begin with Bitcoin by downloading its client program for Linux, Mac or Windows, thereby creating a digital wallet and associated Bitcoin address for themselves. Next, very small quantities of Bitcoins are available for free from the B...

    1.Satoshi writes: "It’s completely decentralized, with no central server or trusted parties, because everything is based on crypto proof instead of trust. The root problem with conventional currency is all the trust that’s required to make it work. The central bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, but the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust. Banks must be trusted to hold our money and transfer it electronically, but they lend it out in waves of credit bubbles with barely a fraction in reserve. We have to trust them with our privacy, trust them not to let identity thieves drain our accounts. Their massive overhead costs make micropayments impossible. A generation ago, multi-user time-sharing computer systems had a similar problem. Before strong encryption, users had to rely on password protection to secure their files, placing trust in the system administrator to keep their information private. Privacy could always be overridden by the admin based...

    "The total number of bitcoins is programmed to approach 21 million over time. The money supply is programmed to grow as a geometric series every 210,000 blocks (roughly every 4 years); by 2013 half of the total supply will have been generated, and by 2017, 3/4 will have been generated. To ensure sufficient granularity of the money supply, bitcoins are divisible down to eight decimal places (a total of 2.1 × 10^15 or 2.1 quadrillion units)."( Note: the eight decimal places are only an artifact of the datatype used in current implementations. Should the need ever arise, this can be changed in the code.

    Rainey Reitman (EFF): "To understand digital currency, one must first note that money in the digital age has moved from a largely anonymous system to one increasingly laden with tracking, control and regulatory overhead. Our cold hard cash is now shepherded through a series of regulated financial institutions like banks, credit unions and lenders. Bitcoin, created in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto, is a peer-to-peer digital currency system that endeavors to re-establish both privacy and autonomy by avoiding the banking and government middlemen. The goal is to allow individuals and merchants to generate and exchange modern money directly. Once the Bitcoin software has been downloaded, a user can store Bitcoins and exchange them directly with other users or merchants — without the currency being verified by a third party such as a bank or government. It uses a unique system to prevent multiple-spending of each coin, which makes it an interesting development in the movement toward digital ca...

    Bitcoin's problematic deflationary design

    Dan Kervick: "The Bitcoin system has what appears to be a built-in deflationary architecture. When the Federal Reserve System was created, it was charged with providing the US with an “elastic currency”. That means that the quantity of Fed-issued dollars in circulation is supposed to vary in response to the changing dynamics and needs of the real economy. The Fed is expected to monitor economic activity, and conduct a monetary policy that provides us with a stable but flexible medium of excha...

    Bitcoin is not Anonymous

    Jeff Garzik notes: If you visit the bitcoin wiki page on anonymity ], the first sentence is - While the Bitcoin technology can support[link] strong anonymity, the current implementation is usually not very anonymous. With bitcoin, every transaction is written to a globally public log, and the lineage of each coin is fully traceable from transaction to transaction. Thus, /transaction flow/ is easily visible to well-known network analysis techniques, already employed in the field by FBI/NSA/CIA...

    A 'Commons Aspect': Triple Accounting and the Verification by the whole network of peers

    Jaromil: "The most remarkable innovation brought by Bitcoin deals with the system of accounting that we use today. Double-entry bookkeeping is what we use today to make sure that earnings and expenditures match, basically authenticating the flow of money and making sure “nothing is duplicated”. From an historical perspective, the double-entry bookkeeping system is very ancient and barely actualisedthrough the ages: it was described by an Italian mathematician and Franciscan friar named Luca Pa...

    Bitcoin's Three-pronged Governance system: miners, businesses, developers

    Buck Perley: "How do you account for a system meant to take a diversity of opinions and priorities into account and how do you coordinate changes where if the network isn’t in unanimous agreement it suffers a split that can cause real financial harm? Just as the founders devised mechanisms to allow for change in a system absent an absolute ruler, so too did Satoshi take this problem into account: - The proof-of-work also solves the problem of determining representation in majority decision ma...

    Bitcoin is not decentralized

    0. Aleksi Grym, Bank of Finland: "For all intents and purposes, that ledger is a centralised ledger. The fact that there are multiple synchronised copies of it, distributed across a network, is irrelevant, as each one has the same data.”( 1. Arthur Brock: ""Why would I call a “decentralized” system like bitcoin centralized? Because it is taken out of the hands of participants and relegated to an elite, privileged class of algorithm designer...

    "A Call for Decentralized Governance": On the Lack of Democracy in Bitcoin

    Julian Feder: "Since Hearns post mid january, the Bitcoin price has more or less recovered and an avalanche of advocacies in defense of Bitcoin’s future has rained upon the blogosphere, sounding at least as convincing as Mike Hearn himself. Seems like Bitcoin isn’t dead yet, and as the saying goes: Those declared dead live the longest. However, one crucial point remains standing without a doubt – The Bitcoin community suffers from serious communication issues and lack of maneuverability to sa...

    See also the detailed historical review here at Benjamin Wallace: "Nakamoto himself mined the first 50 bitcoins—which came to be called the genesis block—on January 3, 2009. For a year or so, his creation remained the province of a tiny group of early adopters. But slowly, word of bitcoin spread beyond the insular world of cryptography. It has won accolades from some of digital currency’s greatest minds. Wei Dai, inventor of b-money, calls it “very significant”; Nick Szabo, who created bit gold, hails bitcoin as “a great contribution to the world”; and Hal Finney, the eminent cryptographer behind RPOW, says it’s “potentially world-changing.” The Electronic Frontier Foundation, an advocate for digital privacy, eventually started accepting donations in the alternative currency. The small band of early bitcoiners all shared the communitarian spirit of an open source software project. Gavin...

    Bitcoin functions as a reserve currency in the Cypriot crisis,

    "According to the MIT Technology Review, bitcoin was four times more volatile in 2013 than the average stock, and the dollar-bitcoin exchange rate was 10 times more volatile than the dollar rate wi...

    See in our entry on Bitcoin Alternatives, i.e. other currencies 1. 1 The second wave: Bitcoin forks 1. 2 Is Freicoin in competition with Bitcoin? 1. 3 Can Ripple be integrated with Bitcoin 1. 4 What is the difference between Coinbase and every other Bitcoin wallet service? 1. Ethereum: Cryptocurrency 2.0

  6. Group Thresholds - P2P Foundation › Group_Thresholds

    2011/12/27 · Group of 13 Last Supper 13 — "The Judas Number". A group size of 13 doesn't represent a threshold ideal value, but rather a threshold nadir. It is one of the points where groups can change behavior and risk becoming dysfunctional. ...

  7. Sharing Economy - P2P Foundation › Sharing_Economy
    • Concept Definition
    • Characteristics
    • Typology
    • Discussion 1
    • Discussion 2
    • The Book

    Particular definitions connect the sharing economy to open content, while other equate it with Collaborative Consumption or the Solidarity Economy. 1. Sharing platform definition: The Sharing Economy is used for business models whereby users are sharing creative content, but using a proprietary platform which sells their aggregated attention to advertizers, such as on Facebook. It can be contrasted with full commons-oriented Peer Production, and with Crowdsourcing

    Janelle Orsi : 1. Shared Control 2. Shared Responsibility for the Common Good 3. Shared Earnings 4. Shared Capitalization 5. Shared Information, and 6. Shared Efforts

    Commercialized Sharing vs. Communitarian Provisioning

    Maurie J. Cohen: "Present-day commercialized sharing falls mainly into two categories: mediated micro-entrepreneurship and serialized rental. 1) Mediated Micro-Entrepreneurshipentails the brokerage of individual assets and/or labor and irregular work opportunities for which the match-making platform receives a commission. Applied within the field of urban mobility, this is the strategy operationalized by Uber, which relies on iterant drivers to provide on-demand taxi services using their own...

    Transactional vs Transformational Sharing

    Sharon Ede: "Neal Gorenflo of Shareable expressed a useful distinction between sharing that is transactional and sharing that is transformational. While there are no absolutes, in general ‘transactional’ sharing is typically profit-driven, and more about the efficient operation of existing systems, resource efficiency and cost sharing. More efficiently using existing assets (be they physical, virtual, skills or time), whether or not monetary exchange is involved, contributes to a more effecti...

    The fourfold typology of Juliet Schorr

    Juliet Schorr: "Sharing economy activities fall into four broad categories: recirculation of goods, increased utilization of durable assets, exchange of services, and sharing of productive assets. The origins of the first date to 1995 with the founding of eBay and Craigslist, two marketplaces for recirculation of goods that are now firmly part of the mainstream consumer experience. These sites were propelled by nearly two decades of heavy acquisition of cheap imports that led to a proliferati...

    Maryknoll Encounters newsletter: "As Arthur de Grave writing on Ouishare, a website focused on the collaborative economy, explains, “Two main groups of criticism have emerged: one on ownership structures and the other on employment.” Other concerns around questions of insurance, regulations and tax avoidance also hound the sharing economy."(

    The Exploitative Business Logics Behind the Sharing Economy

    Andrew Leonard: "Here are eight prime reasons why the sharing economy is just a cover for Silicon Valley greed. 1. When sharing becomes gouging Uber made plenty of headlines during a huge winter storm in New York in December, when riders found themselves paying three times the normal price to hail a car in the middle of the snow and frozen rain. Uber founder Travis Kalanick defended the “surge pricing” as a way to provide an incentive to drivers to stay out on the streets; but to many riders,...

    The so-called sharing economy should really be called Platform Capitalism

    By sebastian olma: "Sascha Lobo, a German technology blogger for Der Spiegel, has recently suggested to drop the obscure notion of “sharing” altogether. “What is called sharing economy,” he argues, “is merely one aspect of a more general development, i.e., a new quality of the the digital economy: platform capitalism.” As Lobo emphasizes, platforms like Uber and AirBnB are more than just internet marketplaces. While marketplaces connect supply and demand between customers and companies, digit...

    The Sharing Economy is using your assets

    Trebor Scholz: "I am all there with Arun Sundararajan, professor at Stern School of Business at NYU, who describes walking down the street in New York City, musing on all the parked cars that remain unused ninety-two percent of the time. He gets it right; it seems awfully inefficient, even wasteful. Why couldn’t he just pick up one of those vehicles, run an errand, return the car to that same spot thirty minutes later, clip a twenty dollar bill under the sunshade, and be done? But then he cla...

    Book: The sharing economy: Solidarity Networks Transforming Globalisation. By Lorna Gold. Ashgate, 2004

  8. Digital Labor - P2P Foundation › Digital_Labor
    • Description
    • Book
    • Discussion

    1. From the Wikipedia: "Digital labor or digital labour is a term for a schema of ideas focusing on exploring and understanding the high levels of cognitive and cultural labor associated with the replacement of jobs in the increasingly automated industrial sector, into globalized production systems embedded in high-technology, and into a knowledge economy. Digital labor also describes a series of affective and social activities within capitalist modes of production not typically viewed as work, including the increasing participation on social media websites, and the effect of social media on social patterns and communication and the collapse of work and play. The notion of digital labor has evolved from the traditions of workerist/Operaismo, Autonomism, and Post-Fordist theory that grew during the workers' struggles in Italy, which included a substantial feminist movement in the Wages for housework campaign. Digital labor as a field also includes consideration of the affect and the...

    * Book: Digital Labor: The Internet as Playground and Factory. Edited by Trebor Scholz. Routledge, 2012. URL = "Digital Labor asks whether life on the internet is mostly work, orplay. We tweet, we tag photos, we link, we review books, we comment onblogs, we remix media, and we upload video to create much of thecontent that makes up the web. And large corporations profit on ouronline activity by tracking our interests, affiliations, andhabitsâand then collecting and selling the data. What is the nature ofthis interactive âlaborâ and the new forms of digital sociality thatit brings into being? The international, interdisciplinary contributors to Digital Laborsuggest that there is no longer a clear divide between the personaland work, as every aspect of life drives the digital economy: sexualdesire, boredom, friendship and all become fodder for speculativeprofit. They argue that we are living in a total labor society and theway in w...

    1. Trebor Scholz: “Digital labor, I suggest, is the shiny, sharp tip of a gargantuan neoliberal spear that is made up of de-regulation, increasing inequality, the shift from employment to low-wage temporary contracts, and union busting. Along with exploding financial products and the construct of student loans, digital labor companies like Uber and Mechanical Turk are among America’s most harmful exports. Many researchers have focused on optimizing this little spaceship, these platform ecosystems: trying to make them run more efficiently, more frictionless and with a better understanding of the motivations of the workers. I’d add the building of alternatives, outrage, conflict, and worker organization to the list of options. We can’t leave society to platform owners and developers: to Microsoft, CrowdFlower, or Google, and most definitely not to Amazon. But before we are talking about alternatives, let’s take one step back. Since the late 1970s, the productivity of American workers...

  9. Category:Manufacturing - P2P Foundation › Category:Manufacturing

    5.13 Policies 5.14 Tools 5.14.1 Open Source Production Machines 5.14.2 Shared Design Shops 5.15 Webcasts 6 Material on Specialized Industries 6.1 The special case of the fashion industry 7 Open Manufacturing Encyclopedia

  10. Four Principles and Corollaries of Network Society and the New International Governance - P2P Foundation › Four_Principles_and_Corollaries_of_Network

    An organization taking advantage of the principle may refer to the practice as “crowdsourcing” (e.g. Wikipedia, Dell’s Ideastorm, iPhone Apps) taking advantage of the “wisdom of the crowds”.

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