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  1. Android - P2P Foundation

    Why Android will beat the iPHone Glyn Moody: "The openness of the Android platform means that developers will have a freedom those working with the iPhone can only dream of. In terms of hacking the G1, that may be of limited appeal, but ...

  2. Category:Open - P2P Foundation
    • Introduction
    • Characteristics of Openness
    • Visualization
    • Specialized Forms of Openness
    • Related Initiatives
    • Open Definitions
    • Short Citations
    • Long Citations
    • Open Movements
    • Categorisation
    Introduction to Openness
    Dorothea Salo's Guide to the Different Flavors of Openness, a consise guide to the precise meaning of: Open Source ; Open Standards ; Open Access ; Open Educational Resources ; Open Research Data ;...
    Transparency and Accessibilityas aspects of Openness
    What is Openness?: inquiry by the Open ICT for Developmentproject

    The following key article, Fifty Shades of Open, lists the following: 1. Open means rights 2. Open means access 3. Open means use 4. Open means transparent 5. Open means participatory 6. Open means enabling openness 7. Open means philosophically aligned with open principles Read more at: 1. Fifty shades of open. by Jeffrey Pomerantz and Robin Peek. First Monday, Volume 21, Number 5 - 2 May 2016

    Other Overview Graphics

    1. "Everything Open and Free Mindmeister Mindmap. Explanations here and here. Prezi version for TEDx Brussels See also 1. Graphic overview of the spread of openness and open standards 2. The meme-ing of open, by Seb Paquet, at open systems, society, space and source)


    1. Contrasting Firm Strategies for Open Standards, Open Source and Open Innovation. by Joel West. January 29, 2007 "While “open” normally has connotations of public goods, the idea of “open”-ness has been used for decades as a competitive strategy by firms in the computers and communications industries. Phrases like “open standard,” “open source” and more recently “open innovation” have been used to refer to these strategies.What do they have in common? Which ones really are “open”? What does...

    Culture, Education and Knowledge

    1. Defining Open Educational Resources‎. Stephen Downes. 2. Defining Open Content Licenses‎. Stephen Downes. 3. Editorial by George Siemens: Openness in Education should have firm principles 4. The three key aspects of Open Education are: 1) Open Content; 2) Open Instruction; 3) Open Assessment. Read Stephen Downes on The Necessary Threefold Opening of Education 5. Felix Stalder: On the Differences between Open Source and Open Culture Also: 1. Free Culture in Relation to Software Freedom: Mik...


    1. Transparency and Accessibilityas aspects of Openness 2. Five Principles of Openness and Transparency in Politics 3. From Open Space to Open Politics. From Jai Sen's article: On Open Space: Explorations Towards a Vocabulary of a More Open Politics. Jai Sen. Antipode. Volume 42, Issue 4, pages 994–1018, September 2010

    1. Dimensions of Openness The authors of the Open Collaboration Encyclopedia created a simple rating system composed of four dimensions each on a scale of four. Check it out here on page xiii: 1. openness vs. closed 1. non-hierarchical vs. hierarchical 1. emergent vs. planned 1. owned vs. non-owned. 2. Mark Surman discusses openness here at and has added a chart at 1. The Open Standards Definition. By Bruce Perens. 2. Open Standards Requirement for Software 3. Open Definition 4. The Open Software Service Definition, i.e. The Free/Open Service Definition(v1.0) 5. Open Source Media Definition 6. Open Source Definition 3.See also the following article: 1. Fifty shades of open. by Jeffrey Pomerantz and Robin Peek. First Monday, Volume 21, Number 5 - 2 May 2016

    The digital is the realm of the open: open source, open resources, open doors. Anything that attempts to close this space should be recognized for what it is: the enemy. - Digital Humanities Manifesto

    Open source is often presented as a methodology, not an ideology – i.e. open source is an approach of collaborative work, shared creation, continual iteration (insert your favorative Torvalds or Raymond quote of bugs, many eyes, cathedrals, bazaars, release early/often, etc.). But openness is not a methodology. Openness is an ideology along the lines of democracy. It is worthy of theoretical discussion. And various modes of implementation should be subject to debate and criticism. - George Siemens

    Sister organizations of the P2P Foundation: The following are most similar in intent: 1. Oekonux 2. Institute of Network Cultures 3. Open Knowledge Foundation 4. On The Commons

    This is by no means complete, but may make sense as a structure for the encyclopedic list below. Please help in updating it.

  3. Category:Manufacturing - P2P Foundation

    The P2P Foundation supports the aims of the Open Source Hardware and Design Alliance [3] , an initiative to foster sustainable sharing of open hardware and design. See the case study on the Glif iphone tripod for an example of integrated ...

  4. Next Billion Seconds - P2P Foundation

    If your iPhone app does something Apple doesn’t like – or considers a potential competitive threat – Apple has the power to deny you access to its centralized retail channel. Because the hyperconnectivity of Apple’s iOS devices would normally ...

  5. Bitcoin - P2P Foundation
    • Definition
    • Description
    • Details
    • Context
    • Characteristics
    • Governance
    • History
    • Status
    • Statistics
    • Bitcoin Alternatives

    1. From Wikipedia: "Bitcoin is an open source peer-to-peer electronic cash system developed by Satoshi Nakamoto. The system is decentralized with no central server or trusted parties. Bitcoin relies on cryptographic principles to create unique, unreproducible, and divisible tokens of value. Users hold the cryptographic keys to their own money and transact directly with each other, with the help of the network to check for double-spending."( 2. Springwise "Bitcoin bills itself as “the first digital currency that is completely distributed.” In essence, that means that it’s managed collectively by a global network of users, so no bank or payment processor is required between buyers and sellers in any transaction. Users begin with Bitcoin by downloading its client program for Linux, Mac or Windows, thereby creating a digital wallet and associated Bitcoin address for themselves. Next, very small quantities of Bitcoins are available for free from the B...

    1.Satoshi writes: "It’s completely decentralized, with no central server or trusted parties, because everything is based on crypto proof instead of trust. The root problem with conventional currency is all the trust that’s required to make it work. The central bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, but the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust. Banks must be trusted to hold our money and transfer it electronically, but they lend it out in waves of credit bubbles with barely a fraction in reserve. We have to trust them with our privacy, trust them not to let identity thieves drain our accounts. Their massive overhead costs make micropayments impossible. A generation ago, multi-user time-sharing computer systems had a similar problem. Before strong encryption, users had to rely on password protection to secure their files, placing trust in the system administrator to keep their information private. Privacy could always be overridden by the admin based...

    "The total number of bitcoins is programmed to approach 21 million over time. The money supply is programmed to grow as a geometric series every 210,000 blocks (roughly every 4 years); by 2013 half of the total supply will have been generated, and by 2017, 3/4 will have been generated. To ensure sufficient granularity of the money supply, bitcoins are divisible down to eight decimal places (a total of 2.1 × 10^15 or 2.1 quadrillion units)."( Note: the eight decimal places are only an artifact of the datatype used in current implementations. Should the need ever arise, this can be changed in the code.

    Rainey Reitman (EFF): "To understand digital currency, one must first note that money in the digital age has moved from a largely anonymous system to one increasingly laden with tracking, control and regulatory overhead. Our cold hard cash is now shepherded through a series of regulated financial institutions like banks, credit unions and lenders. Bitcoin, created in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto, is a peer-to-peer digital currency system that endeavors to re-establish both privacy and autonomy by avoiding the banking and government middlemen. The goal is to allow individuals and merchants to generate and exchange modern money directly. Once the Bitcoin software has been downloaded, a user can store Bitcoins and exchange them directly with other users or merchants — without the currency being verified by a third party such as a bank or government. It uses a unique system to prevent multiple-spending of each coin, which makes it an interesting development in the movement toward digital ca...

    Bitcoin's problematic deflationary design

    Dan Kervick: "The Bitcoin system has what appears to be a built-in deflationary architecture. When the Federal Reserve System was created, it was charged with providing the US with an “elastic currency”. That means that the quantity of Fed-issued dollars in circulation is supposed to vary in response to the changing dynamics and needs of the real economy. The Fed is expected to monitor economic activity, and conduct a monetary policy that provides us with a stable but flexible medium of excha...

    Bitcoin is not Anonymous

    Jeff Garzik notes: If you visit the bitcoin wiki page on anonymity ], the first sentence is - While the Bitcoin technology can support[link] strong anonymity, the current implementation is usually not very anonymous. With bitcoin, every transaction is written to a globally public log, and the lineage of each coin is fully traceable from transaction to transaction. Thus, /transaction flow/ is easily visible to well-known network analysis techniques, already employed in the field by FBI/NSA/CIA...

    A 'Commons Aspect': Triple Accounting and the Verification by the whole network of peers

    Jaromil: "The most remarkable innovation brought by Bitcoin deals with the system of accounting that we use today. Double-entry bookkeeping is what we use today to make sure that earnings and expenditures match, basically authenticating the flow of money and making sure “nothing is duplicated”. From an historical perspective, the double-entry bookkeeping system is very ancient and barely actualisedthrough the ages: it was described by an Italian mathematician and Franciscan friar named Luca Pa...

    Bitcoin's Three-pronged Governance system: miners, businesses, developers

    Buck Perley: "How do you account for a system meant to take a diversity of opinions and priorities into account and how do you coordinate changes where if the network isn’t in unanimous agreement it suffers a split that can cause real financial harm? Just as the founders devised mechanisms to allow for change in a system absent an absolute ruler, so too did Satoshi take this problem into account: - The proof-of-work also solves the problem of determining representation in majority decision ma...

    Bitcoin is not decentralized

    0. Aleksi Grym, Bank of Finland: "For all intents and purposes, that ledger is a centralised ledger. The fact that there are multiple synchronised copies of it, distributed across a network, is irrelevant, as each one has the same data.”( 1. Arthur Brock: ""Why would I call a “decentralized” system like bitcoin centralized? Because it is taken out of the hands of participants and relegated to an elite, privileged class of algorithm designer...

    "A Call for Decentralized Governance": On the Lack of Democracy in Bitcoin

    Julian Feder: "Since Hearns post mid january, the Bitcoin price has more or less recovered and an avalanche of advocacies in defense of Bitcoin’s future has rained upon the blogosphere, sounding at least as convincing as Mike Hearn himself. Seems like Bitcoin isn’t dead yet, and as the saying goes: Those declared dead live the longest. However, one crucial point remains standing without a doubt – The Bitcoin community suffers from serious communication issues and lack of maneuverability to sa...

    See also the detailed historical review here at Benjamin Wallace: "Nakamoto himself mined the first 50 bitcoins—which came to be called the genesis block—on January 3, 2009. For a year or so, his creation remained the province of a tiny group of early adopters. But slowly, word of bitcoin spread beyond the insular world of cryptography. It has won accolades from some of digital currency’s greatest minds. Wei Dai, inventor of b-money, calls it “very significant”; Nick Szabo, who created bit gold, hails bitcoin as “a great contribution to the world”; and Hal Finney, the eminent cryptographer behind RPOW, says it’s “potentially world-changing.” The Electronic Frontier Foundation, an advocate for digital privacy, eventually started accepting donations in the alternative currency. The small band of early bitcoiners all shared the communitarian spirit of an open source software project. Gavin...

    Bitcoin functions as a reserve currency in the Cypriot crisis,

    "According to the MIT Technology Review, bitcoin was four times more volatile in 2013 than the average stock, and the dollar-bitcoin exchange rate was 10 times more volatile than the dollar rate wi...

    See in our entry on Bitcoin Alternatives, i.e. other currencies 1. 1 The second wave: Bitcoin forks 1. 2 Is Freicoin in competition with Bitcoin? 1. 3 Can Ripple be integrated with Bitcoin 1. 4 What is the difference between Coinbase and every other Bitcoin wallet service? 1. Ethereum: Cryptocurrency 2.0

    • The Territoriality Principle
    • The Complexity Principle
    • The Technology Principle
    • The Choice Principle

    Technology, greater mobility of society or capital—some may refer to it as globalization—facilitates blurring the formerly clear boundaries of territoriality. The Westphalian Order marked by the peace agreement in 1648 ending the 30 Years War in Europe, defined nation-states as entities with fixed territorial boundaries that defined the limits of their legal jurisdiction and the scope of their political authority. Today the fundamental principles and practices of liberal democracy—the nature of citizens, the definition of democratic citizenship, the ideas of self-governance, consent, representation, political spin, popular sovereignty—are almost exclusively associated with the institutions of the sovereign territorial nation-state. Consequently, modern democratic theory and democratic politics assume correspondence between the democratic political community and the modern nation-state: a self-contained, self-governing, territorially delimited national community. Yet world order and...

    The territoriality principle and the corollaries of the technology principle make the cornerstones of the complexity principle. In the network society, interdependence is increasing. Everything is and can potentially be connected. The recent financial crisis provides us with a case in point. Because of complexity and the capacity (institutional, organizational, and technological) of the nation-state being the strongest within its territory, government faces a crisis of efficiency and legitimacy.

    The technology principle includes the corollaries of path dependency, scale and networks effect, real-time, modularity and granularity. The network society is mediated through advances in technology. The Internet, especially, is continuing to play an important part in the change towards network society. The Path dependency corollary Path dependency makes it costly for us to exercise choice and leave any given network because of the network effect. Examples are the width of our high-speed railway tracks which conform to the track-width of the mule-trains in the coal mines of Newcastle or Brazilians mainly joining Orkut, Americans joining facebook, and Japanese joining Mixi. The Scale and Network Effects corollary Network effects are the glue of network society. In essence, the network effect describes the positive externalities (value) of a product, service, or activity as more people use it. An organization taking advantage of the principle may refer to the practice as “crowdsourcin...

    The choice principle includes the corollaries of consensus, forking, peer-production and transparency. According to the choice principle, any network participant chooses to participate or to leave at any given point in time. However, because of the complexity principle, entities that have chosen to opt-out of a network or a particular activity does not mean they can not be affected by it. Mass society tends unite and disrupt existing communities and traditions over time. The choice principle also accounts for the increasing number of decisions individuals must make on a day-to-day basis (choices include those relating to products, communication channels, information sources, setting. The Consensus corollary Decisions in choice-communities are made by consensus. David Clark explains that this does not mean unanimity and certainly not majority voting. It is the mechanism with which the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards. The Forking corolla...

  6. Group Thresholds - P2P Foundation

    Group of 13. Last Supper 13 — "The Judas Number ". A group size of 13 doesn't represent a threshold ideal value, but rather a threshold nadir. It is one of the points where groups can change behavior and risk becoming ...

  7. Sharing Economy - P2P Foundation
    • Concept Definition
    • Characteristics
    • Typology
    • Discussion 1
    • Discussion 2
    • The Book

    Particular definitions connect the sharing economy to open content, while other equate it with Collaborative Consumption or the Solidarity Economy. 1. Sharing platform definition: The Sharing Economy is used for business models whereby users are sharing creative content, but using a proprietary platform which sells their aggregated attention to advertizers, such as on Facebook. It can be contrasted with full commons-oriented Peer Production, and with Crowdsourcing

    Janelle Orsi : 1. Shared Control 2. Shared Responsibility for the Common Good 3. Shared Earnings 4. Shared Capitalization 5. Shared Information, and 6. Shared Efforts

    Commercialized Sharing vs. Communitarian Provisioning

    Maurie J. Cohen: "Present-day commercialized sharing falls mainly into two categories: mediated micro-entrepreneurship and serialized rental. 1) Mediated Micro-Entrepreneurshipentails the brokerage of individual assets and/or labor and irregular work opportunities for which the match-making platform receives a commission. Applied within the field of urban mobility, this is the strategy operationalized by Uber, which relies on iterant drivers to provide on-demand taxi services using their own...

    Transactional vs Transformational Sharing

    Sharon Ede: "Neal Gorenflo of Shareable expressed a useful distinction between sharing that is transactional and sharing that is transformational. While there are no absolutes, in general ‘transactional’ sharing is typically profit-driven, and more about the efficient operation of existing systems, resource efficiency and cost sharing. More efficiently using existing assets (be they physical, virtual, skills or time), whether or not monetary exchange is involved, contributes to a more effecti...

    The fourfold typology of Juliet Schorr

    Juliet Schorr: "Sharing economy activities fall into four broad categories: recirculation of goods, increased utilization of durable assets, exchange of services, and sharing of productive assets. The origins of the first date to 1995 with the founding of eBay and Craigslist, two marketplaces for recirculation of goods that are now firmly part of the mainstream consumer experience. These sites were propelled by nearly two decades of heavy acquisition of cheap imports that led to a proliferati...

    Maryknoll Encounters newsletter: "As Arthur de Grave writing on Ouishare, a website focused on the collaborative economy, explains, “Two main groups of criticism have emerged: one on ownership structures and the other on employment.” Other concerns around questions of insurance, regulations and tax avoidance also hound the sharing economy."(

    The Exploitative Business Logics Behind the Sharing Economy

    Andrew Leonard: "Here are eight prime reasons why the sharing economy is just a cover for Silicon Valley greed. 1. When sharing becomes gouging Uber made plenty of headlines during a huge winter storm in New York in December, when riders found themselves paying three times the normal price to hail a car in the middle of the snow and frozen rain. Uber founder Travis Kalanick defended the “surge pricing” as a way to provide an incentive to drivers to stay out on the streets; but to many riders,...

    The so-called sharing economy should really be called Platform Capitalism

    By sebastian olma: "Sascha Lobo, a German technology blogger for Der Spiegel, has recently suggested to drop the obscure notion of “sharing” altogether. “What is called sharing economy,” he argues, “is merely one aspect of a more general development, i.e., a new quality of the the digital economy: platform capitalism.” As Lobo emphasizes, platforms like Uber and AirBnB are more than just internet marketplaces. While marketplaces connect supply and demand between customers and companies, digit...

    The Sharing Economy is using your assets

    Trebor Scholz: "I am all there with Arun Sundararajan, professor at Stern School of Business at NYU, who describes walking down the street in New York City, musing on all the parked cars that remain unused ninety-two percent of the time. He gets it right; it seems awfully inefficient, even wasteful. Why couldn’t he just pick up one of those vehicles, run an errand, return the car to that same spot thirty minutes later, clip a twenty dollar bill under the sunshade, and be done? But then he cla...

    Book: The sharing economy: Solidarity Networks Transforming Globalisation. By Lorna Gold. Ashgate, 2004

  8. Digital Labor - P2P Foundation
    • Description
    • Book
    • Discussion

    1. From the Wikipedia: "Digital labor or digital labour is a term for a schema of ideas focusing on exploring and understanding the high levels of cognitive and cultural labor associated with the replacement of jobs in the increasingly automated industrial sector, into globalized production systems embedded in high-technology, and into a knowledge economy. Digital labor also describes a series of affective and social activities within capitalist modes of production not typically viewed as work, including the increasing participation on social media websites, and the effect of social media on social patterns and communication and the collapse of work and play. The notion of digital labor has evolved from the traditions of workerist/Operaismo, Autonomism, and Post-Fordist theory that grew during the workers' struggles in Italy, which included a substantial feminist movement in the Wages for housework campaign. Digital labor as a field also includes consideration of the affect and the...

    * Book: Digital Labor: The Internet as Playground and Factory. Edited by Trebor Scholz. Routledge, 2012. URL = "Digital Labor asks whether life on the internet is mostly work, orplay. We tweet, we tag photos, we link, we review books, we comment onblogs, we remix media, and we upload video to create much of thecontent that makes up the web. And large corporations profit on ouronline activity by tracking our interests, affiliations, andhabitsâand then collecting and selling the data. What is the nature ofthis interactive âlaborâ and the new forms of digital sociality thatit brings into being? The international, interdisciplinary contributors to Digital Laborsuggest that there is no longer a clear divide between the personaland work, as every aspect of life drives the digital economy: sexualdesire, boredom, friendship and all become fodder for speculativeprofit. They argue that we are living in a total labor society and theway in w...

    1. Trebor Scholz: “Digital labor, I suggest, is the shiny, sharp tip of a gargantuan neoliberal spear that is made up of de-regulation, increasing inequality, the shift from employment to low-wage temporary contracts, and union busting. Along with exploding financial products and the construct of student loans, digital labor companies like Uber and Mechanical Turk are among America’s most harmful exports. Many researchers have focused on optimizing this little spaceship, these platform ecosystems: trying to make them run more efficiently, more frictionless and with a better understanding of the motivations of the workers. I’d add the building of alternatives, outrage, conflict, and worker organization to the list of options. We can’t leave society to platform owners and developers: to Microsoft, CrowdFlower, or Google, and most definitely not to Amazon. But before we are talking about alternatives, let’s take one step back. Since the late 1970s, the productivity of American workers...

  9. PostCapitalism - P2P Foundation

    If we look at it in this way, then perhaps capitalism has not, as Mason (xiii) claims, ‘reached the limits of its capacity to adapt’. If capitalism is embedded so deeply within the structure of these networks, then I wonder how easy it will be ...

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