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The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is an IQ test designed to measure intelligence and cognitive ability in adults and older adolescents. The original WAIS (Form I) was published in February 1955 by David Wechsler , as a revision of the Wechsler–Bellevue Intelligence Scale, released in 1939. 
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from a set of standardized tests or subtests designed to assess human intelligence.  The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests at University of Breslau he advocated in a 1912 book.
- Cultural and Age Differences
- Question Items
- Current Use
- See Also
Crystallized intelligence (Gc) refers to that aspect of cognitionin which initial intelligent judgments have become crystallized as habits. Fluid intelligence (Gf) is in several ways more fundamental and is particularly evident in tests requiring responses to novel situations. Before biological maturity individual differences between Gf and Gc will...
The Culture Fair tests consist of three scales with non-verbal visual puzzles. Scale I includes eight subtests of mazes, copying symbols, identifying similar drawings and other non-verbal tasks.Both Scales II and III consist of four subtests that include completing a sequence of drawings, a classification subtest where respondents pick a drawing th...
The Cattell Culture Fair Intelligence Test (like the Raven's Progressive Matrices) is not completely free from the influence of culture and learning. Some high-IQ societies, such as The Triple Nine Society, accept high scores on the CFIT-III as one of a variety of old and new tests for admission to the society. A combined minimum raw score of 85 on...
The most widely used individual tests of cognitive abilities, such as the current editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scale,report cognitive ability scores as "deviation IQs" with 15 IQ points corresponding to one standard deviation above or below the mean. 1. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales 2. W...Cattell, R. B. La theorie de l'intelligence fluide et cristallisee sa relation avec les tests "culture fair" et sa verification chez les enfants de 9 a 12 ans. Revue de Psychologie Appliquee, 1967,...Cattell, R. B. La teoria dell' intelligenza fluida e cristallizzata: Sua relazione con i tests "culture fair" e sue verifica in bambini dai 9 ai 12 anni. (The theory of fluid and crystallized intel...Cattell, R. B. Abilities: Their structure growth and action. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1971, p. 79.Cattell, R. B., Barton, K., & Dielman, T. E. Prediction of school achievement from motivation, personality and ability measures. Psychological Reports, 1972, 3O, 35-43.
- Test Format
- Psychometric Properties
- See Also
The original WISC (Wechsler, 1949), developed by the Romanian-American psychologist David Wechsler, Ph.D., was an adaptation of several of the subtests that made up the Wechsler–Bellevue Intelligence Scale(Wechsler, 1939), but also featured several subtests designed specifically for it. The subtests were organized into Verbal and Performance scales...
The WISC is one test in a suite of Wechsler intelligence scales. Subjects 16 and over are tested with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and children ages two years and six months to seven years and seven months are tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI). There is some overlap between tests: children...
The WISC–V normative sample consisted of 2,200 children between the ages of 6 and 16 years 11 months. In addition to the normative sample, a number of special group samples were collected, including the following: children identified as intellectually gifted, children with mild or moderate intellectual disability, children with specific learning di...
The WISC is used not only as an intelligence test, but as a clinical tool. Some practitioners use the WISC as part of an assessment to diagnose attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities, for example. This is usually done through a process called pattern analysis, in which the various subtests' scores are compared to ...
WISC has been translated or adapted to many languages, and norms have been established for a number of countries, including Spanish, Portuguese (Brazil and Portugal), Arabic, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Czech, Croatian, French (France and Canada), German (Germany, Austria and Switzerland), English (United States, Canada, United Kingdom,...Cohen, M. (1997). Children's memory scale. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Flynn, J. R. (1984). The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin, 95(1), 29–51.Flynn, J. R. (1987). Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological Bulletin, 101(2), 171–191.Flynn, J. R. (1999). Searching for justice: The discovery of IQ gains over time. American Psychologist, 54(1), 5–20.
- Fluid Versus Crystallized Intelligence
- Relationship to Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
- Development Across Life Span
- Fluid Intelligence and Working Memory
Fluid and crystallized intelligence are constructs originally conceptualized by Raymond Cattell. The concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence were further developed by Cattell and his former student John L. Horn.
Fluid intelligence (gf) refers to basic processes of reasoning and other mental activities that depend only minimally on prior learning (such as formal and informal education) and acculturation. Horn notes that it is formless and can "flow into" a wide variety of cognitive activities.Tasks measuring fluid reasoning require the ability to solve abst...
Researchers have linked the theory of fluid and crystallized abilities to Piaget's theory of cognitive development.Fluid ability and Piaget's operative intelligence both concern logical thinking and the "eduction of relations" (an expression Cattell used to refer to the inferring of relationships). Crystallized ability and Piaget's treatment of eve...
Fluid intelligence peaks at around age 20 and then gradually declines.This decline may be related to local atrophy of the brain in the right cerebellum, a lack of practice, or the result of age-related changes in the brain. Crystallized intelligence typically increases gradually, stays relatively stable across most of adulthood, and then begins to ...
Working memory capacity is closely related to fluid intelligence, and has been proposed to account for individual differences in gf. The linking of working memory and gfhas been suggested that it could help resolve mysteries that have puzzled researchers concerning the two concepts.
What are the IQ tests that measure intelligence?
What is the Culture Fair intelligence test?
What is IQ in psychology?
Is there a concrete measure of intelligence?
In most of the studies, intelligence quotient (IQ) tests were used to measure a subject's mental age, which was checked for possible correlation with height.   While the use of IQ tests are highly debated among scientists as an accurate measurement of intelligence, they provide a quantitative and normal distribution to compare cognitive abilities among people.
Further, explaining the similarity in IQ of closely related persons requires careful study because environmental factors may be correlated with genetic factors. Early twin studies of adult individuals have found a heritability of IQ between 57% and 73%,  with some recent studies showing heritability for IQ as high as 80%.