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  1. Line users exchange: texts, images, video and audio and conduct free VoIP conversations and video conferences. In addition, Line is a platform providing various services including: digital wallet as Line Pay, news stream as LINE Today, video on demand as .

  2. The Distant Early Warning Line, also known as the DEW Line or Early Warning Line, was a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic region of Canada, with additional stations along the North Coast and Aleutian Islands of Alaska, in addition to the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Iceland. It was set up to detect incoming Soviet bombers during ...

    • Introduction
    • Development and Construction
    • Radar System
    • Operations
    • Canadian Perception
    • Cultural Impact
    • Deactivation and Clean-Up
    • Atlantic and Pacific Barrier
    • See Also
    • External Links

    The shortest (great circle) route for a Russian air attack on North America is through the Arctic, across the area around the North Pole. The DEW Line was built during the Cold War to give early warning of a Soviet nuclear strike, to allow time for United States bombers to get off the ground and land-based intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBMs)...

    Improvements in Soviet technology rendered the Pinetree Line and Mid-Canada Line inadequate to provide enough early warning and on 15 February 1954, the Canadian and United States governments agreed to jointly build a third line of radar stations (Distant Early Warning), this time running across the high Arctic. The line would run roughly along the...

    The Point Lay, Alaska DEW line station has a typical suite of systems. The main AN/FPS-19 search radar is in the dome, flanked by two AN/FRC-45 lateral communications dishes (or AN/FRC-102, depending on the date). To the left are the much larger southbound AN/FRC-101 communications dishes. Not visible is the AN/FPS-23"gap filler" doppler antenna. T...

    There were three types of stations: small unmanned "gap filler stations" that were checked by ground crews only every few months during the summer; intermediate stations with only a station chief, a cook, and a mechanic; and larger stations that had a variable number of employees and may have had libraries, forms of entertainment, and other accommo...

    From the beginning of the development of the DEW Line idea, Canadian concerns over political perception grew enormously. Noted Canadian Arctic historian P. Whitney Lackenbauer argues that the Canadian Government saw little intrinsic value in the Arctic, but due to fear of Americanization and American penetration into the Canadian Arctic, brought si...

    The cultural impact of the DEW Line System is immense and significant to the heritage of Canada, as well as Alaska. In Canada, the DEW line increased connections between the populous south and the remote High Arctic, helping to bring Inuit more thoroughly into the Canadian polity.The construction and operating of the DEW Line provided some economic...

    A controversy also developed between the United States and Canada over the cleanup of deactivated Canadian DEW Line sites. The cleanup is now underway, site by site. In assessing the cleanup, new research suggests that off-road vehicles damaged vegetation and organic matter, resulting in the melting of the permafrost, a key component to the hydrolo...

    The DEW line was supplemented by two "barrier" forces in the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans which were operated by the United States Navy from 1956 to 1965. These barrier forces consisted of surface picket stations, dubbed "Texas Towers", a surface naval force of twelve radar picket destroyer escorts and sixteen Guardian-class radar picket ships, ...

  3. Live for Today (song) " Live for Today " is a song by the American rock band Toto. It was released on their 1981 album Turn Back, and was released in Japan as the final single from that album. This was the first song that Steve Lukather wrote for the band. [2] [3] It reached number 40 on the Mainstream Rock Charts . References [ edit]

    • Name
    • History
    • Westwall Construction Programmes
    • Elements
    • Working Conditions
    • Armour and Arms Shortage
    • in Propaganda
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The official name for the German defensive line construction program before and during the Second World Warthat collectively came to be known as the "Westwall" (and "Siegfried Line" in English) changed several times during the late 1930s reflecting areas of progress. 1. Border Watch programme (pioneering programme) for the most advanced positions (...

    Minor early role

    The Siegfried Line at the start of the Second World War had serious weaknesses. German General Alfred Jodl said after the war that it was "little better than a building site in 1939", and when Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt inspected the line, the weak construction and insufficient weapons caused him to laugh. Despite France's declaration of war on Germany at the beginning of the Second World War, there was no major combat at the Siegfried Line at the start of the campaign in the west, exce...

    Reactivation in 1944

    With the D-Day landings in Normandy on 6 June 1944, war in the west broke out once more. On 24 August 1944, Hitler gave a directive for renewed construction on the Siegfried Line. 20,000 forced labourers and members of the Reichsarbeitsdienst (ReichLabour Service), most of whom were 14–16-year-old boys, attempted to re-equip the line for defence purposes. Local people were also called in to carry out this kind of work, mostly building anti-tank ditches. Even during construction, it was becomi...


    In August 1944, the first clashes took place on the Siegfried Line; the section of the line where most fighting took place was the Hürtgenwald (Hürtgen Forest) area in the Eifel, 20 km (12 mi) southeast of Aachen. The Aachen Gapwas the logical route into Germany's Rhineland and a main industrial area, and was therefore where the Germans concentrated their defence. The Americans committed an estimated 120,000 troops plus reinforcements to the Battle of Hürtgen Forest. The battle in this heavil...

    Border Watch

    Small bunkers with 50 cm (20 in) thick walls were set up with three embrasures towards the front. Sleeping accommodations were hammocks. In exposed positions, similar small bunkers were erected with small round armoured "lookout" sections on the roofs. The programme was carried out by the Border Watch (Grenzwacht), a small military troop activated in the Rhineland immediately after the region was re-militarised by Germany after having been de-militarised following the First World War.


    The Limes Programme began in 1938 following an order by Hitler to strengthen fortifications on the western German border. Limes refers to the former borders of the Roman Empire; the cover story for the programme was that it was an archaeological study. Its Type 10 bunkers were more strongly constructed than the earlier border fortifications. These had 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) thick ceilings and walls. A total of 3,471 were built along the entire length of the Siegfried Line. They featured a central...


    The Aachen-Saar programme bunkers were similar to those of the Limes programme: Type 107 double MG casemates with concrete walls up to 3.5 m (11 ft) thick. One difference was that there were no embrasures at the front, only at the sides of the bunkers. Embrasures were only built at the front in special cases and were then protected with heavy metal doors. This construction phase included the towns of Aachen and Saarbrücken, which were initially west of the Limes Programme defence line.

    Standard construction elements such as large Regelbau bunkers, smaller concrete "pillboxes", and "dragon's teeth" anti-tank obstacles were built as part of each construction phase, sometimes by the thousands. Frequently vertical steel rods would be interspersed between the teeth. This standardisation was the most effective use of scarce raw materia...

    The early fortifications were mostly built by private firms, but the private sector was unable to provide the number of workers needed for the programmes that followed; this gap was filled by the Todt Organisation. With this organisation's help, huge numbers of forced labourers – up to 500,000 at a time – worked on the Siegfried Line. Transport of ...

    German industry could not deliver as many steel armour plates as were needed for the mounting of weapons in the bunkers. The armour-plated sections were designed to include the embrasures and their shutters, as well as armoured cupolas for 360° defence. Germany depended on other countries to provide the alloys required to produce armoured plating (...

    German propaganda, both at home and abroad, repeatedly portrayed the Westwall during its construction as an unbreachable bulwark. At the start of the war, the opposing troops remained behind their own defence lines. As a morale booster for British troops marching off to France, the Siegfried Line was the subject of a popular song: "We're Going to H...

    Similar border fortifications

    1. Atlantic Wall 2. Linea P (Spain) 3. Maginot line 4. Międzyrzecz Fortified Region 5. Czechoslovak border fortifications 6. Alpine Wall 7. National Redoubt (Switzerland) 8. Mannerheim Line

    Surviving elements

    1. List of surviving elements of the Siegfried Line 2. Besseringen B-Werk, museum in a preserved bunker complex 3. Orscholz Switch(aka Siegfried Switch), part of Siegfried Line and scene of heavy fighting between German and US troops 4. Regelbau, standard bunker construction 5. Siegfried Line Museum, Pirmasens

    Andrews, Ernest A.; Hurt, David B. (2022). A Machine Gunner's War: From Normandy to Victory with the 1st Infantry Division in World War II. Philadelphia & Oxford: Casemate. ISBN 978-1636241043.
    Kauffmann, J.E. and Jurga, Robert M. Fortress Europe: European Fortifications of World War II, Da Capo Press, 2002. ISBN 0-306-81174-X
    MacDonald, Charles B. (1963) [1990]. The Siegfried Line Campaign. United States Army in World War II. Washington, D.C: United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 7-7-1.– full text
    Makos, Adam (2019). Spearhead (1st ed.). New York: Ballantine Books. pp. 7, 48, 49–50, 54, 62, 225, 236. ISBN 9780804176729. LCCN 2018039460. OL 27342118M.
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  5. North Rhine-Westphalia. Tank ditch (remains) in the forest opposite the Tüschenbroich Mill, Wegberg. Bunker ruins near Dahlheim-Rödgen. Bunker ruins at the Burgberg, Wassenberg Castle. Defended concrete garage/barn in Wassenberg, Rosenthal. Three water-filled tank ditches in the Wurm valley near Geilenkirchen.

  6. Singles On a Day Like Today" was the first single released.It reached number thirteen in the UK and number one on the Canadian Singles Chart.Follow-up single "When You're Gone", featuring Melanie C, reached number three in the UK, and was in the top-ten for ten weeks, while peaking at number eleven in Canada.

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